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  1. Susan Ariel Aaronson (2005). “Minding Our Business”: What the United States Government has Done and Can Do to Ensure That U.S. Multinationals Act Responsibly in Foreign Markets. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):175 - 198.
    The United States Government does not mandate that US based firms follow US social and environmental law in foreign markets. However, because many developing countries do not have strong human rights, labor, and environmental laws, many multinationals have adopted voluntary corporate responsibility initiatives to self-regulate their overseas social and environmental practices. This article argues that voluntary actions, while important, are insufficient to address the magnitude of problems companies confront as they operate in developing countries where governance is often inadequate. The (...)
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  2. Henry Adobor (2012). Ethical Issues in Outsourcing: The Case of Contract Medical Research and the Global Pharmaceutical Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):239-255.
    The outsourcing of medical research has become a strategic imperative in the global pharmaceutical industry. Spurred by the challenges of competition, the need for speed in drug development, and increasing domestic costs, pharmaceutical companies across the globe continue to outsource critical parts of their value chain activities, namely contract clinical research and drug testing, to sponsors across the globe, typically into emerging markets. While it is clear that important ethical issues arise with this practice, unraveling moral responsibility and the allocation (...)
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  3. J. Lawrence French (2010). Children's Labor Market Involvement, Household Work, and Welfare: A Brazilian Case Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):63 - 78.
    The large numbers of children working in developing countries continue to provoke calls for an end to such employment. However, many reformers argue that efforts should focus on ending the exploitation of children rather than depriving them of all opportunities to work. This posture reflects recognition of the multiplicity of needs children have and the diversity of situations in which they work. Unfortunately, research typically neglects these complexities and fails to distinguish between types of labor market jobs, dismisses household chores (...)
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  4. Javier Hidalgo (2013). Do Employers Have Obligations to Pay Their Workers a Living Wage? Business Ethics Journal Review:69-75.
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  5. M. Holub (2003). Questioning Organizational Legitimacy: The Case of U.S. Expatriates. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 47 (3):269 - 293.
    It has been estimated that U.S. companies with global business operations can reduce their U.S. tax bill by up to 10 percentage points if they reincorporate in a zero or low tax offshore jurisdiction. But this activity, at a time of national crisis following the September 11 terrorists' attacks and recent spate of corporate scandals, has received a less than sympathetic response from the U.S. media, ordinary taxpayers, shareholders and politicians as concerns are raised about the reduction of the tax (...)
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  6. Judith Kimerling (2001). Corporate Ethics in the Era of Globalization: The Promise and Peril of International Environmental Standards. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (4):425-455.
    The growing assumption thattransnational corporations (TNCs) will apply``best practice'''' and ``international standards''''in their operations in developing countries hasseldom been checked against close observationof corporate behavior. In this article, Ipresent a case study, based on field research,of one voluntary initiative to useinternational standards and best practice forenvironmental protection in the AmazonRainforest, by a US-based oil company,Occidental Petroleum (Oxy) in Ecuador. The moststriking finding is that the company refuses todisclose the precise standards that apply toits operations. This, and the refusal todisclose other (...)
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  7. Josep F. Mària & Daniel Arenas (2009). Societal Ethos and Economic Development Organizations in Nicaragua. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):231 - 244.
    This article analyzes efforts in Nicaragua to create ethical organizations and an ethical economy. Three societal ethea found in contemporary Nicaragua are examined: the ethos of revolution, the ethos of corruption, and the ethos of human development. The emerging ethos of human development provides the most hope for the nation's social and economic evolution. The practices of three successful economic development organizations explicitly aligned with the ethos of human development are described and evaluated: (1) a microfinance foundation (FDL), (2) a (...)
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  8. Francesc Prior & Antonio Argandoña (2009). Credit Accessibility and Corporate Social Responsibility in Financial Institutions: The Case of Microfinance. Business Ethics 18 (4):349-363.
    What are financial institutions' social responsibilities in developing countries? On the one hand, these institutions share the generic responsibilities of all human organizations and business enterprises. However, their specific social responsibility is the performance of the social function of financial intermediaries, which, in the case of emerging countries, consists mainly of contributing to economic growth and solving the problem of poverty. This paper describes a number of technical-economic and moral problems that take us to a consideration of the performance of (...)
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  9. Ravinder Rena (2008). Women's Enterprise Development in Eritrea Through Microfinance. ICFAI University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Development 5 (3):41-58.
    Women play a key role in economic growth and development, yet they are still discriminated against in economic life. Eritrea has extreme poverty and more than 66 percent of people live below poverty line. Eventually, the number of poor households in the country is high. Many are women-headed households, whose husbands died during the conflicts or who are now serving in the National Service. Women-headed households are particularly vulnerable. The Savings and Micro Credit Program (SMCP) provides major microfinance to women (...)
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  10. Christian Voegtlin, Moritz Patzer & Andreas Georg Scherer (2012). Responsible Leadership in Global Business: A New Approach to Leadership and Its Multi-Level Outcomes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 105 (1):1-16.
    The article advances an understanding of responsible leadership in global business and offers an agenda for future research in this field. Our conceptualization of responsible leadership draws on deliberative practices and discursive conflict resolution, combining the macro-view of the business firm as a political actor with the micro-view of leadership. We discuss the concept in relation to existing research in leadership. Further, we propose a new model of responsible leadership that shows how such an understanding of leadership can address the (...)
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