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Summary 'Interpretations' of quantum mechanics are traditionally characterized by their responses to the measurement problem: how can the deterministic unitary quantum dynamics, expressed in the Schrodinger equation, give rise to particular sequences of measurement outcomes with probabilities given by the Born rule? But the main competing responses to the measurement problem are not interpretations of some agreed core theory; rather, they are logically incompatible theories which generally posit some additional dynamical structure over and above the unitary dynamics. For example, Bohmian mechanics adds 'hidden variables', such as particles with precise locations, which are guided by a field with the same structure as the unitary quantum state; and dynamical collapse theories posit a new stochastic dynamical process of state collapse. An important exception is Everettian quantum mechanics, or the 'many worlds interpretation', which adds no new structure and instead attempts to recover determinate measurement outcomes perspectivally.
Key works Bell 2004 set the scene for almost all contemporary discussions, and was an eloquent advocate of Bohmian mechanics. Saunders et al 2010 contains in-depth discussion of the pros and cons of the Everett interpretation.
Introductions Albert 1992 is a vivid and entertaining introduction to the measurement problem. Goldstein 2008 gives a thorough account of Bohmian mechanics. Vaidman 2008 does the same for Everettian quantum mechanics.
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  1. Constantin Antonopoulos (2005). Making the Quantum of Relevance. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 36 (2):223 - 241.
    The two Heisenberg Uncertainties (UR) entail an incompatibility between the two pairs of conjugated variables E, t and p, q. But incompatibility comes in two kinds, exclusive of one another. There is incompatibility defineable as: (p → -q) & (q → -p) or defineable as [(p → -q) & (q → -p)] ↔ r. The former kind is unconditional, the latter conditional. The former, in accordance, is fact independent, and thus a matter of logic, the latter fact dependent, and thus (...)
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  2. A. Arensburg & L. P. Horwitz (1992). A First-Order Equation for Spin in a Manifestly Relativistically Covariant Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 22 (8):1025-1039.
    Relativistic quantum mechanics has been formulated as a theory of the evolution ofevents in spacetime; the wave functions are square-integrable functions on the four-dimensional spacetime, parametrized by a universal invariant world time τ. The representation of states with spin is induced with a little group that is the subgroup of O(3, 1) leaving invariant a timelike vector nμ; a positive definite invariant scalar product, for which matrix elements of tensor operators are covariant, emerges from this construction. In a previous study (...)
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  3. J. C. Aron (1981). Stochastic Foundation for Microphysics. A Critical Analysis. Foundations of Physics 11 (9-10):699-720.
    The stochastic scheme proposed in a previous paper as subjacent to quantum mechanics is analyzed in the light of the difficulties and criticisms encountered by similar attempts. It is shown that the limitation of the domain where the theory is valid gives a reply to the criticisms, but restricts its practical usefulness to the description of basic features. A stochastic approach of the hadron mass spectrum, allowing the scheme to emerge in the domain of experimental verification (to be worked out (...)
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  4. Richard T. W. Arthur (1981). Book Review:Quantum Mechanics, a Half Century Later J.L. Lopes, M. Paty. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 48 (1):156-.
  5. Ramez Aziz Atiya (1979). Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, and Measurement. Dissertation, The University of Utah
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  6. Harald Atmanspacher, Complementarity in Bistable Perception.
    The idea of complementarity already appears in William James’ (1890a, p. 206) Principles of Psychology in the chapter on “the relations of minds to other things”. Later, in 1927, Niels Bohr introduced complementarity as a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. It refers to properties (observables) that a system cannot have simultaneously, and which cannot be simultaneously measured with arbitrarily high accuracy. Yet, in the context of classical physics they would both be needed for an exhaustive description of the system.
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  7. Michael Audi (1977). The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Philosophical Review 86 (3):394-396.
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  8. Michael N. Audi (1973). Book Review:Perspectives in Quantum Theory: Essays in Honor of Alfred Lande Wolfgang Yourgrau, Alwyn Van Der Merwe. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 40 (2):323-.
  9. Jürgen Audretsch (ed.) (2002). Verschränkte Welt. Faszination der Quanten. Wiley.
  10. Jürgen Audretsch & Klaus Mainzer (eds.) (1990). Wieviele Leben Hat Schrödingers Katze? Bibliographisches Institut.
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  11. Iep Author, Quantum Mechanics, Interpretations Of.
    Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics Quantum mechanics is a physical theory developed in the 1920s to account for the behavior of matter on the atomic scale. It has subsequently been developed into arguably the most empirically successful theory in the history of physics. However, it is hard to understand quantum mechanics as a description of the … Continue reading Quantum Mechanics, Interpretations of →.
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  12. Arnon Avron (1984). On Modal Systems Having Arithmetical Interpretations. Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (3):935-942.
  13. Guido Bacciagaluppi & Meir Hemmo (1994). Making Sense of Approximate Decoherence. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:345 - 354.
    In realistic situations where a macroscopic system interacts with an external environment, decoherence of the quantum state, as derived in the decoherence approach, is only approximate. We argue that this can still give rise to facts, provided that during the decoherence process states that are, respectively, always close to eigenvectors of pointer position and record observable are correlated. We show in a model that this is always the case.
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  14. Alexander Bach (1988). The Concept of Indistinguishable Particles in Classical and Quantum Physics. Foundations of Physics 18 (6):639-649.
    The consequences of the following definition of indistinguishability are analyzed. Indistinguishable classical or quantum particles are identical classical or quantum particles in a state characterized by a probability measure, a statistical operator respectively, which is invariant under any permutation of the particles. According to this definition the particles of classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are indistinguishable.
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  15. J. E. Baggott (2011). The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments. Oxford University Press.
    Prologue: Stormclouds : London, April 1900 -- Quantum of action: The most strenuous work of my life : Berlin, December 1900 ; Annus Mirabilis : Bern, March 1905 ; A little bit of reality : Manchester, April 1913 ; la Comédie Française : Paris, September 1923 ; A strangely beautiful interior : Helgoland, June 1925 ; The self-rotating electron : Leiden, November 1925 ; A late erotic outburst : Swiss Alps, Christmas 1925 -- Quantum interpretation: Ghost field : Oxford, August (...)
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  16. M. Bahrami & A. Shafiee (2010). Postponing the Past: An Operational Analysis of Delayed-Choice Experiments. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 40 (1):55-92.
    The prominent characteristic of a delayed-choice effect is to make the choice between complementary types of phenomena after the relevant interaction between the system and measuring instrument has already come to an end. In this paper, we first represent a detailed comparative analysis of some early delayed-choice propositions and also most of the experimentally performed delayed-choice proposals in a coherent and unified quantum mechanical formulation. Taking into the account the represented quantum mechanical descriptions and also the rules of probability theory, (...)
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  17. W. Balzer (1981). Piron's Foundation of Quantum Mechanics (Comment on His Paper). Erkenntnis 16 (3):403 - 406.
  18. Gergely Bana & Thomas Durt (1997). Proof of Kolmogorovian Censorship. Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1355-1373.
  19. William Band & James L. Park (1970). The Empirical Determination of Quantum States. Foundations of Physics 1 (2):133-144.
    A common approach to quantum physics is enshrouded in a jargon which treats state vectors as attributes of physical systems and the concept of state preparation as a filtration scheme wherein a process involving measurement selects from a primordial assembly of systems those bearing some prescribed vector of interest. By contrast, the empirical experiences with which quantum theory is actually concerned relate measurement and preparation in quite an opposite manner. Reproducible preparation schemes are logically and temporally anterior to measurement acts. (...)
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  20. R. L. Barnette (1978). Does Quantum Mechanics Disprove the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles? Philosophy of Science 45 (3):466-470.
  21. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2001). The Strange World of Quantum Mechanics Daniel F. Styer. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (2):393-396.
  22. Jeffrey A. Barrett, On the Nature of Measurement Records in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory.
    A resolution of the quantum measurement problem would require one to explain how it is that we end up with determinate records at the end of our measurements. Metaphysical commitments typically do real work in such an explanation. Indeed, one should not be satisfied with one's metaphysical commitments unless one can provide some account of determinate measurement records. I will explain some of the problems in getting determinate records in relativistic quantum field theory and pay particular attention to the relationship (...)
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  23. S. Bartalucci, S. Bertolucci, M. Bragadireanu, M. Cargnelli, C. Curceanu, S. Di Matteo, J.-P. Egger, C. Guaraldo, M. Iliescu, T. Ishiwatari, M. Laubenstein, J. Marton, E. Milotti, D. Pietreanu, T. Ponta, A. Romero Vidal, D. L. Sirghi, F. Sirghi, L. Sperandio, O. Vazquez Doce, E. Widmann & J. Zmeskal (2010). The VIP Experimental Limit on the Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation by Electrons. Foundations of Physics 40 (7):765-775.
    In this paper we describe an experimental test of the validity of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (for electrons) which is based on a straightforward idea put forward a few years ago by Ramberg and Snow (Phys. Lett. B 238:438, 1990). We perform a very accurate search of X-rays from the Pauli-forbidden atomic transitions of electrons in the already filled 1S shells of copper atoms. Although the experiment has a very simple structure, it poses deep conceptual and interpretational problems. Here we (...)
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  24. A. O. Barut (1992). How to Avoid “Quantum Paradoxes”. Foundations of Physics 22 (1):137-142.
    The “theorems” showing the impossibility of ascribing to individual quantum systems a definite value of a set of observables, not necessarily commuting,1–4 are based on the tacit assumption that eachindividual spin component has a discrete dichotomic value. We show explicitly that it is possible to introduce continuous hidden variables for individual spins which avoid these quantum paradoxes without changing any of the observed quantum mechanical results.
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  25. A. O. Barut (1988). Combining Relativity and Quantum Mechanics: Schrödinger's Interpretation of Ψ. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 18 (1):95-105.
    The incongruence between quantum theory and relativity theory is traced to the probability interpretation of the former. The classical continium interpretation of ψ removes the difficulty. How quantum properties of matter and light, and in particular the radiative problems, like spontaneous emission and Lamb shift, may be accounted in a first quantized Maxwell-Dirac system is discussed.
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  26. Angelo Bassi (ed.) (2006). Quantum Mechanics: Are There Quantum Jumps? Trieste, Italy, 5 Spetember -2005 and on the Present Status of Quantum Mechanics Lošinj, Croatia 7-9 September 2005. [REVIEW] American Institute of Physics.
    This conference brought together experts in different fields related to the foundations of quantum mechanics, ranging from mathematical physics to experimental physics, as well as the philosophy of science. The major topics discussed are: collapse models, Bohemian mechanics and their relativistic extensions, other alternative formulation of quantum mechanics, properties of entanglement, statistical physics and probability theory, new experimental results, as well as philosophical and epistemological issues.
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  27. James D. Bastable (1978). Mechanics of the Mind. Philosophical Studies 26:232-234.
  28. J. Batouli & M. El Baz (2014). Classical Interpretation of a Deformed Quantum Oscillator. Foundations of Physics 44 (2):105-113.
    Following the same procedure that allowed Shcrödinger to construct the (canonical) coherent states in the first place, we investigate on a possible classical interpretation of the deformed harmonic oscillator. We find that, these oscillator, also called q-oscillators, can be interpreted as quantum versions of classical forced oscillators with a modified q-dependant frequency.
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  29. D. Bedford & D. Wang (1983). Comments on “On the Quantum Mechanical Superposition of Macroscopically Distinguishable States”. Foundations of Physics 13 (10):987-988.
    The substance of the authors' disagreement with the views of D. Gutkowski and M. V. Valdes Franco is presented.
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  30. Donald Bedford & Derek Wang (1976). Environment, Consciousness, and Quantum Measurement. Foundations of Physics 6 (5):599-605.
    It is shown that (a) the conscious observer plays no essential part in the measurement process, and (b) environmental perturbations of whatever kind fail to account for the evolution of systems into “mixtures” or “dynamically decoupled” systems.
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  31. V. P. Belavkin (1994). Nondemolition Principle of Quantum Measurement Theory. Foundations of Physics 24 (5):685-714.
    We give an explicit axiomatic formulation of the quantum measurement theory which is free of the projection postulate. It is based on the generalized nondemolition principle applicable also to the unsharp, continuous-spectrum and continuous-in-time observations. The “collapsed state-vector” after the “objectification” is simply treated as a random vector of the a posterioristate given by the quantum filtering, i.e., the conditioning of the a prioriinduced state on the corresponding reduced algebra. The nonlinear phenomenological equation of “continuous spontaneous localization” has been derived (...)
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  32. Mara Beller (1996). The Rhetoric of Antirealism and the Copenhagen Spirit. Philosophy of Science 63 (2):183-204.
    This paper argues against the possibility of presenting a consistent version of the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Physics, characterizing its founders' philosophical pronouncements including those on the realism-antirealism issue, as a contingent collection of local, often contradictory, moves in changing theoretical and sociopolitical circumstances. The paper analyzes the fundamental differences of opinion between Bohr and the mathematical physicists, Heisenberg and Born, concerning the foundational doctrine of the "indispensability of classical concepts", and their related disagreements on "quantum reality." The paper concludes (...)
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  33. Darrin W. Belousek (2003). Non‐Seperability, Non‐Supervenience, and Quantum Ontology. Philosophy of Science 70 (4):791-811.
    An argument to the effect that quantum mechanics commits us to the existence of non-supervenient relations, and therefore that we should admit such relations into our quantum ontology as fundamental entities, has been given by Teller and reformulated by French. This paper aims, first, to explicate and evaluate that argument; second, to extend its premises in order to assess its relevance for other interpretations of quantum mechanics; and, third, to clarify its implications for holism and individuation in quantum ontology.
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  34. Darrin W. Belousek (2000). Statistics, Symmetry, and (In)Distinguishability in Bohmian Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 30 (1):153-164.
    This paper continues an earlier work by considering in what sense and to what extent identical Bohmian-mechanical particles in many-particle systems can be considered indistinguishable. We conclude that while whether identical Bohmian-mechanical particles ace considered to be “statistically (in)distinguishable” is a matter of theory choice underdetermined by logic and experiment, such particles are in any case “physically distinguishable.”.
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  35. Darrin W. Belousek (2000). Statistics, Symmetry, and the Conventionality of Indistinguishability in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 30 (1):1-34.
    The question to be addressed is, In what sense and to what extent do quantum statistics for, and the standard formal quantum-mechanical description of, systems of many identical particles entail that identical quantum particles are indistinguishable? This paper argues that whether or not we consider identical quantum particles as indistinguishable is a matter of theory choice underdetermined by logic and experiment.
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  36. Darrin W. Belousek (1997). Perspectives on Quantum Reality: A Critical Survey. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 28 (3):415-420.
  37. Darrin Windsor Belousek (1998). Ontological Commitments and Theory Appraisal in the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    The central question addressed in this work is, 'What ontological commitments are entailed by accepting the standard quantum-mechanical formalism as a theoretical framework within which to construct a descriptively adequate physical world picture?' Arguments in recent literature concerning the ontology of quantum mechanics have made claims regarding the indistinguishability and individuality of quantum particles--viz., that quantum particles are indistinguishable in principle and lack any individual identity--as well as the non-separability of quantum systems--viz., that quantum systems cannot be spatially individuated and (...)
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  38. E. G. Beltrametti & S. Bugajski (2002). Quantum Mechanics and Operational Probability Theory. Foundations of Science 7 (1-2):197-212.
    We discuss a generalization of the standard notion of probability space and show that the emerging framework, to be called operational probability theory, can be considered as underlying quantal theories. The proposed framework makes special reference to the convex structure of states and to a family of observables which is wider than the familiar set of random variables: it appears as an alternative to the known algebraic approach to quantum probability.
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  39. Filita P. Bharucha (1993). Role of Space-Time in Jaina's Syādvada & Quantum Theory. Sri Satguru Publications.
  40. Dick Bierman (2003). Does Consciousness Collapse the Wave-Packet? Mind and Matter 1 (1):45-57.
    The 'subjective reduction' interpretation of measurement in quantum physics proposes that the collapse of the wave-packet, associated with measurement, is due to the consciousness of human observers. A refined conceptual replication of an earlier experiment, designed and carried out to test this interpretation in the 1970s, is reported. Two improvements are introduced. First, the delay between pre-observation and final observation of the same quantum event is increased from a few microseconds in the original experiment to one second in this replication. (...)
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  41. Fernando Birman (2009). Quantum Mechanics and the Plight of Physicalism. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):207-225.
    The literature on physicalism often fails to elucidate, I think, what the word physical in physical ism precisely means. Philosophers speak at times of an ideal set of fundamental physical facts, or they stipulate that physical means non-mental , such that all fundamental physical facts are fundamental facts pertaining to the non-mental. In this article, I will probe physicalism in the very much tangible framework of quantum mechanics. Although this theory, unlike “ideal physics” or some “final theory of non-mentality”, is (...)
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  42. Michel Bitbol (1998). Some Steps Towards a Transcendental Deduction of Quantum Mechanics. Philosophia Naturalis 35:253-280.
    The two major options on which the current debate on the interpretation of quantum mechanics relies, namely realism and empiricism, are far from being exhaustive. There is at least one more position available, which is metaphysically as agnostic as empiricism, but which shares with realism a committment to considering the structure of theories as highly significant. The latter position has been named transcendentalism after Kant. In this paper, a generalized version of Kant's method is used. This yields a reasoning that (...)
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  43. Øistein Bjørnestad (1974). A Note on the so-Called Yes-No Experiments and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Synthese 29 (1-4):243 - 253.
  44. Stephen Blaha, A Classical Probabilistic Computer Model of Consciousness.
    We show that human consciousness can be modeled as a classical (not quantum) probabilistic computer. A quantum computer representation does not appear to be indicated because no known feature of consciousness depends on Planck's constant h, the telltale sign of quantum phenomena. It is argued that the facets of consciousness are describable by an object-oriented design with dynamically defined classes and objects. A comparison to economic theory is also made. We argue consciousness may also have redundant, protective mechanisms.
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  45. Robin Blume-Kohout & Wojciech H. Zurek (2005). A Simple Example of “Quantum Darwinism”: Redundant Information Storage in Many-Spin Environments. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1857-1876.
  46. George Boas (1952). Katharine Everett Gilbert (1886-1952). Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 11 (1):75.
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  47. David Bohm (1987). Unfolding Meaning a Weekend Dialogue with David Bohm.
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  48. David Joseph Bohm, Detlef D¨ Urr,1 Sheldon Goldstein,2 and Nino Zangh´I.
    David Bohm, Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Birkbeck College of the University of London and Fellow of the Royal Society, died of a heart attack on October 29, 1992 at the age of 74. Professor Bohm had been one of the world’s leading authorities on quantum theory and its interpretation for more than four decades. His contributions have been critical to all aspects of the field. He also made seminal contributions to plasma physics. His name appears prominently in the (...)
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  49. Aage Bohr, Ben R. Mottelson & Ole Ulfbeck (2004). The Principle Underlying Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 34 (3):405-417.
  50. H. -Hv Borzeszkowski (2000). Book Review: Quantum Measurements and Decoherence. Models and Phenomenology. By Michael B. Mensky. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 30 (11):1991-1994.
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