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  1. Jair Minoro Abe (1992). A obra de Newton C.A. Da Costa em Logica. Theoria 7 (1/2/3):347-386.
    In this paper we present an overview of Professor Newton C. A. da Costa’s work in logic, emphasizing the main results obtained by him in the several areas of his research activity. The text furnish a detailed bibliographic reference of his works, which are listed in the last section.
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  2. Vicente Aboites (2002). Some Remarks About Newton's Demonstrations in Optics: Newton's Missing Experiment. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (3):455-458.
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  3. A. D' Abro (1950). The Evolution of Scientific Thought From Newton to Einstein. [New York]Dover Publications.
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  4. Peter Achinstein (2013). Evidence and Method: Scientific Strategies of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell. Oup Usa.
    In this book, Peter Achinstein proposes and defends several objective concepts of evidence. He then explores the question of whether a scientific method, such as that represented in the four "Rules for the Study of Natural Philosophy" that Isaac Newton invoked in proving his law of gravity, can be employed in demonstrating how the proposed definitions of evidence are to be applied to real scientific cases.
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  5. John Aidun (1982). Aristotelian Force as Newtonian Power. Philosophy of Science 49 (2):228-235.
    Aristotle's rule of proportions of the factors of motion, presented in VII 5 of the Physics, characterizes Aristotelian force. Observing that the locomotion to which Aristotle applied the Rule is the motion produced by manual labor, I develop an interpretation of the factors of motion that reveals that Aristotelian force is Newtonian power. An alternate interpretation of the Rule by Toulmin and Goodfield implicitly identifies Aristotelian force with Newtonian force. In order to account for the absence of an acceleration in (...)
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  6. Timo Airaksinen (2010). Berkeley and Newton on Gravity in Siris. In Silvia Parigi (ed.), George Berkeley: Religion and Science in the Age of Enlightenment. Springer.
  7. E. J. Aiton (1975). Book Review: The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, Vol. Vi Edited by DT Whiteside. [REVIEW] History of Science 13:301.
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  8. E. J. Aiton (1973). Introduction to Newton's' Principia'edited by I. Bernard Cohen; Isaac Newton's' Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica'edited by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen with the Assistance of Anne Whitman. [REVIEW] History of Science 11:217-230.
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  9. E. J. Aiton (1955). The Contributions of Newton, Bernoulli and Euler to the Theory of the Tides. Annals of Science 11 (3):206-223.
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  10. James L. Anderson (1990). Newton's First Two Laws Are Not Definitions. American Journal of Physics 58 (12):1192--5.
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  11. Peter R. Anstey (2004). The Methodological Origins of Newton's Queries. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (2):247-269.
    This paper analyses the different ways in which Isaac Newton employed queries in his writings on natural philosophy. It is argued that queries were used in three different ways by Newton and that each of these uses is best understood against the background of the role that queries played in the Baconian method that was adopted by the leading experimenters of the early Royal Society. After a discussion of the role of queries in Francis Bacon’s natural historical method, Newton’s queries (...)
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  12. Peter R. Anstey & Alberto Vanzo (forthcoming). Early Modern Experimental Philosophy. In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell.
    In the mid-seventeenth century a movement of self-styled experimental philosophers emerged in Britain. Originating in the discipline of natural philosophy amongst Fellows of the fledgling Royal Society of London, it soon spread to medicine and by the eighteenth century had impacted moral and political philosophy and even aesthetics. Early modern experimental philosophers gave epistemic priority to observation and experiment over theorising and speculation. They decried the use of hypotheses and system-building without recourse to experiment and, in some quarters, developed a (...)
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  13. Leo Apostel (1989). Wat We van Newton Hebben Geleerd. de Uil Van Minerva 5.
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  14. A. J. Apt (1984). WHITESIDE, D. T. : "The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, Volume VIII: 1697 - 1722". [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35:303.
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  15. G. W. R. Ardley (1971). The Methodological Heritage of Newton. Philosophical Studies 20:284-287.
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  16. G. W. R. Ardley (1971). The Methodological Heritage of Newton. Philosophical Studies 20:284-287.
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  17. Richard Arthur, Leery Bedfellows: Newton and Leibniz on the Status of Infinitesimals.
    Newton and Leibniz had profound disagreements concerning metaphysics and the relationship of mathematics to natural philosophy, as well as deeply opposed attitudes towards analysis. Nevertheless, or so I shall argue, despite these deeply held and distracting differences in their background assumptions and metaphysical views, there was a considerable consilience in their positions on the status of infinitesimals. In this paper I compare the foundation Newton provides in his Method Of First and Ultimate Ratios (sketched at some time between 1671 and (...)
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  18. Richard Arthur, On Newton's Fluxional Proof of the Vector Addition of Motive Forces.
    This paper consists in an exposition of a proof Newton gave in 1666 of the parallelogram law for compounding velocities, and an examination of its implications for understanding his treatment of motion resulting from a continuously acting force in the Principia. I argue that the “moments” invoked in the fluxional proof of the vector resolution and composition of velocities are “virtual times”, a device allowing Newton to represent motions by the linear displacements produced in such a time; the ratio of (...)
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  19. Richard Arthur (2011). Isaac Newton on Mathematical Certainty and Method. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 44 (1):122-124.
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  20. Richard Arthur (2009). Review of Andrew Janiak, Newton as Philosopher. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (1).
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  21. Richard Arthur (1994). Space and Relativity in Newton and Leibniz. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):219-240.
    In this paper I challenge the usual interpretations of Newton's and Leibniz's views on the nature of space and the relativity of motion. Newton's ‘relative space’ is not a reference frame; and Leibniz did not regard space as defined with respect to actual enduring bodies. Newton did not subscribe to the relativity of intertial motions; whereas Leibniz believed no body to be at rest, and Newton's absolute motion to be a useful fiction. A more accurate rendering of the opposition between (...)
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  22. Richard Arthur (1990). Foils for Newton: Comments on Howard Stein. In Phillip Bricker & R. I. G. Hughes (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science. Mit Press. 49--56.
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  23. Richard T. W. Arthur (1995). Newton's Fluxions and Equably Flowing Time. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 26 (2):323-351.
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  24. N. Aylott (2000). The Politics of the New Europe: Atlantic to Urals. By Ian Budge, Kenneth Newton Et Al. The European Legacy 5 (2):265-265.
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  25. A. Babolin (1988). The Religious Thought of Newton, Isaac. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 80 (2):216-222.
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  26. Brian S. Baigrie (1987). Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion, Before and After Newton's Principia: An Essay on the Transformation of Scientific Problems. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 18 (2):177-208.
  27. Jean François Baillon (2007). Teología newtoniana y teoría de la visión: ¿Qué contextos para las ediciones de la "Óptica" de Newton de 1704 a 1722? Estudios de Filosofía 35:55-66.
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  28. Eduardo Salles de Oliveira Barra (2010). A primazia das relações sobre as essências: as forças como entidades matemáticas nos Principia de Newton. Scientiae Studia 8 (4):547-569.
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  29. Tomás Barrero (2006). Granés, J.: Isaac Newton. Work and Context. Ideas Y Valores 55 (130):85-89.
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  30. Georges Barthelemy (2004). Newton as Discoverer of the Weight of All Things. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 57 (1):135-160.
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  31. William M. Baum & Suzanne H. Mitchell (2000). Newton and Darwin: Can This Marriage Be Saved? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):91-92.
    The insights described by Nevin & Grace may be summarized without reference to the Newtonian concepts they suggest. The metaphor to Newtonian mechanics seems dubious in three ways: (1) extensions seem to lead to paradoxes; (2) many well-known phenomena are ignored; (3) the Newtonian concepts seem difficult to reconcile with the larger framework of evolutionary theory.
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  32. Zev Bechler (1975). ‘A Less Agreeable Matter’: The Disagreeable Case of Newton and Achromatic Refraction. British Journal for the History of Science 8 (2):101-126.
    There is no evidence to suggest that even as late as January 1672, when Newton was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, anyone had any inkling of his new theory of colours. His name exploded on the scientific scene as the inventor and constructor of a new kind of telescope—what later became known as the reflector . Had the erudition of the London virtuosi been a little broader, they would have known that in fact he was not the inventor (...)
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  33. Zev Bechler (1974). Newton's 1672 Optical Controversies: A Study in the Grammar of Scientific Dissent. In Yehuda Elkana & Samuel Sambursky (eds.), The Interaction Between Science and Philosophy. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.,Humanities Press. 115--142.
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  34. Ori Belkind (2013). Leibniz and Newton on Space. Foundations of Science 18 (3):467-497.
    This paper reexamines the historical debate between Leibniz and Newton on the nature of space. According to the traditional reading, Leibniz (in his correspondence with Clarke) produced metaphysical arguments (relying on the Principle of Sufficient Reason and the Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles) in favor of a relational account of space. Newton, according to the traditional account, refuted the metaphysical arguments with the help of an empirical argument based on the bucket experiment. The paper claims that Leibniz’s and Newton’s arguments (...)
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  35. Ori Belkind (2012). Newton's Scientific Method and the Universal Law of Gravitation. In Andrew Janiak & Eric Schliesser (eds.), Interpreting Newton: Critical Essays. Cambridge University Press. 138--168.
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  36. Ori Belkind (2007). Newton's Conceptual Argument for Absolute Space. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):271 – 293.
    While many take Newton's argument for absolute space to be an inference to the best explanation, some argue that Newton is primarily concerned with the proper definition of true motion, rather than with independent existence of spatial points. To an extent the latter interpretation is correct. However, all prior interpretations are mistaken in thinking that 'absolute motion' is defined as motion with respect to absolute space. Newton is also using this notion to refer to the quantity of motion (momentum). This (...)
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  37. Martin Bell (1997). Hume and Causal Power: The Influences of Malebranche and Newton. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 5 (1):67 – 86.
  38. Delphine Bellis (2013). Review of Carlo Borghero Les Cartésiens Face À Newton. [REVIEW] Hopos 3 (2).
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  39. Michael Ben-Chaim (2001). The Discovery of Natural Goods: Newton's Vocation as an ‘Experimental Philosopher’. British Journal for the History of Science 34 (4):395-416.
    While the study of Newton's religious views has been continuously expanding, it has not been brought to bear directly on Newton's career as an ‘experimental philosopher’. Historical perspectives on his optical experiments in particular affirm the historiographic separation between the religious and scientific aspects of his work. In this paper I examine the practical implication of Newton's theology of dominion on his early experiments on light and colours. While his predecessors had made experiments to collect evidence, I show that Newton (...)
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  40. Michael Ben-Chaim (1998). Doctrine And Use:Newton's "Gift Of Teaching". History of Science 36 (3):269-298.
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  41. Michael Ben-Chaim (1998). Doctrine and USE: NEWTON'S. History of Science 36:269-298.
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  42. Laura Benítez (2006). Newton's Notion of Matter in the 'De Aere Et Aethere'. Lumen: Selected Proceedings From the Canadian Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies 25:17.
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  43. Benjamin Benjamin (1947). Nicolson's Newton Demands the Muse. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 8:297.
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  44. Jonathan Bennett & Peter Remnant (1978). How Matter Might First Be Made. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 4:1.
    In the fourth book of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Locke hints that he could explain how God may have created matter ex nihilo, but refrains from doing so. Leibniz, when he came upon this passage, pricked up his ears. There ensued a sequence of personal events which are not without charm and piquancy, and a sequence of philosophical events which are of some interest. In this paper we tell the tale.
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  45. D. Bertoloni Meli (1991). Public Claims, Private Worries: Newton's Principia and Leibniz's Theory of Planetary Motion. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22 (3):415-449.
  46. A. E. Best (1968). Theories of Light From Descartes to Newton. By A. I. Sabra. (Oldbourne, 1967. Pp. 363. Price 70s.). Philosophy 43 (165):291-.
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  47. Zvi Biener & Eric Schliesser (eds.) (2014). Newton and Empiricism. Oxford UP.
    This is the first volume of original commissioned papers on the subject of Newton and empiricism. The chapters, contributed by a leading team of both established and younger international scholars, explore the nature and extent of Newton's relationship to a variety of empiricisms and empiricists.
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  48. Zvi Biener & Chris Smeenk (2004). Pendulums, Pedagogy, and Matter: Lessons From the Editing of Newton's Principia. Science and Education 13 (4-5):309-320.
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  49. Akeel Bilgrami (2010). Gandhi, Newton, and the Enlightenment. In Aakash Singh & Silika Mohapatra (eds.), Indian Political Thought: A Reader. Routledge.
  50. Michael Bishop (1999). Semantic Flexibility in Scientific Practice: A Study of Newton's Optics. Philosophy and Rhetoric 32 (3):210 - 232.
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