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  1. Robert Merrihew Adams (1998). Self-Love and the Vices of Self-Preference. Faith and Philosophy 15 (4):500-513.
    The paper explores the extent to which self-love, as understood by Bishop Butler, may be in harmony with altruistic virtue. Whereas Butler was primarily concerned to rebut suspicions directed against altruism, the suspicions principally addressed by the present writer are directed against self-love. It is argued that the main vices of self-preference---particularly selfishness, self-centeredness, and arrogance---are not essentially excesses of self-love and, indeed, do not necessarily involve self-love. lt is argued further that self-love is something one is typically taught as (...)
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  2. Sahar Akhtar 1 (2006). Restoring Joseph Butler's Conscience. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (4):581-600.
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  3. Sahar Akhtar 1 (2006). Restoring Joseph Butler's Conscience. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (4):581-600.
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  4. Sahar Akhtar (2006). Restoring Joseph Butler's Conscience. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (4):581 – 600.
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  5. Robin Attfield (2004). Rousseau, Clarke, Butler and Critiques of Deism. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 12 (3):429 – 443.
    Rousseau’s stance on natural religion, revealed religion and their relation are outlined (section 1), and then his agreements and disagreements with Samuel Clarke (section 2). After a survey of Joseph Butler's critique of deism (section 3), Rousseau’s arguments emerge as capable of supplying a counter-critique sufficient to show that deism could claim to have survived the eighteenth-century undefeated (section 4). If the attempted refutation of theistic arguments on the parts of David Hume and of Immanuel Kant was inconclusive (section 5), (...)
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  6. A. Babolin (1985). The Ethical and Religious Thought of Butler, Joseph in Contemporary Criticism. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 77 (2):333-359.
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  7. Albino Babolin (1994). Dai platonici di Cambridge a Joseph Butler. Ricerche sul pensiero religioso inglese nei secoli XVII e XVIII. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 86 (3):591.
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  8. John R. Bowlin (2000). Sieges, Shipwrecks, and Sensible Knaves: Justice and Utility in Butler and Hume. Journal of Religious Ethics 28 (2):253 - 280.
    By examining the theories of justice developed by Joseph Butler and David Hume, the author discloses the conceptual limits of their moral naturalism. Butler was unable to accommodate the possibility that justice is, at least to some extent, a social convention. Hume, who more presciently tried to spell out the conventional character of justice, was unable to carry through that project within the framework of his moral naturalism. These limits have gone unnoticed, largely because Butler and Hume have been misinterpreted, (...)
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  9. Alan Brinton (1993). The Homiletical Context of Butler's Moral Philosophy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 1 (2):83 – 107.
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  10. Alan Brinton (1991). `Following Nature' in Butler's Sermons. Philosophical Quarterly 41 (164):325-332.
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  11. P. F. Brownsey (1995). Butler's Argument for the Natural Authority of Conscience. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 3 (1):57 – 87.
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  12. Joseph Butler, Human Nature and Other Sermons.
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  13. Joseph Butler (1751). A Charge Delivered to the Clergy. In Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel.
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  14. Joseph Butler (1736). The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed. Kessinger Publishing.
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  15. L. Carrau (1886). La Philosophie de Butler: I. — la Morale. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 21:144 - 158.
  16. L. Carrau (1886). La philosophie de Butler l'analogie. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 21:265 - 280.
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  17. Hugh S. Chandler (1969). Butler on Bodies. American Philosophical Quarterly 6 (1):84 - 87.
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  18. C. M. Cherry (1965). Butler's Ethics. By P. Allan Carlsson. (The Hague: Mouton & Co. 1963. Pp. 196. Philosophy 40 (153):255-.
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  19. Stephen L. Darwall (1995). The British Moralists and the Internal "Ought", 1640-1740. Cambridge University Press.
    This book is a major work in the history of ethics, and provides the first study of early modern British philosophy in several decades. Professor Darwall discerns two distinct traditions feeding into the moral philosophy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On the one hand, there is the empirical, naturalist tradition, comprising Hobbes, Locke, Cumberland, Hutcheson, and Hume, which argues that obligation is the practical force that empirical discoveries acquire in the process of deliberation. On the other hand, there is (...)
  20. Laurence Dickey (1990). Pride, Hypocrisy and Civility in Mandeville's Social and Historical Theory. Critical Review 4 (3):387-431.
    This paper seeks to show that Bernard Mandeville's primary purpose in The Fable of the Bees was to historicize the concept of self?love (amour?propre) articulated by seventeenth?century French Jansenists and moralistes; that in doing so Mandeville constructed a theory designed to explain the inter?subjective constraints and forces of social discipline which characterize commercial societies; and that a full understanding of Mandeville's achievement depends upon an appreciation of the way in which pride in his theory becomes socialized into hypocrisy at a (...)
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  21. Arthur J. Dyck & Carlos Padilla (2009). The Empathic Emotions and Self-Love in Bishop Joseph Butler and the Neurosciences. Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (4):577-612.
    In Joseph Butler, we have an account of human beings as moral beings that is, as this essay demonstrates, being supported by the recently emerging findings of the neurosciences. This applies particularly to Butler's portrayal of our empathic emotions. Butler discovered their moral significance for motivating and guiding moral decisions and actions before the neurosciences did. Butler has, in essence, added a sixth sense to our five senses: this is the moral sense by means of which we perceive what we (...)
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  22. T. Y. Edgeworth (1876). Mr. Matthew Arnold on Bishop Butler's Doctrine of Self-Love. Mind 1 (4):570-571.
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  23. M. Fletcher (1899). Book Review:A Critical Examination of Butler's "Analogy". Henry Hughes. [REVIEW] Ethics 9 (4):533-.
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  24. Antony Flew (1966). Anders Jeffner. Butler and Hume on Religion. Pp. 266. 48 Skr. Religious Studies 2 (1):142.
  25. R. G. Frey (1992). Butler on Self-Love and Benevolence. In Christopher Cunliffe (ed.), Joseph Butler's Moral and Religious Thought: Tercentenary Essays. Oxford University Press 243--67.
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  26. Peter Fuss (1968). Sense and Reason in Butler's Ethics. Dialogue 7 (02):180-193.
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  27. Ernesto V. Garcia (2011). Bishop Butler on Forgiveness and Resentment. Philosophers' Imprint 11 (10).
    On the traditional view, Butler maintains that forgiveness involves a kind of “conversion experience” in which we must forswear or let go of our resentment against wrongdoers. Against this reading, I argue that Butler never demands that we forswear resentment but only that we be resentful in the right kind of way. That is, he insists that we should be virtuously resentful, avoiding both too much resentment exhibited by the vices of malice and revenge and too little resentment where we (...)
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  28. Jane Garnett (1992). Bishop Butler and the Zeitgeist: Butler and the Development of Christian Moral Philosophy in Victorian Britain. In Christopher Cunliffe (ed.), Joseph Butler's Moral and Religious Thought: Tercentenary Essays. Oxford University Press 63--96.
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  29. S. A. Grave (1952). The Foundation of Butler's Ethics. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):73 – 89.
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  30. Brian Hebblethwaite (1992). Butler on Conscience and Virtue. In Christopher Cunliffe (ed.), Joseph Butler's Moral and Religious Thought: Tercentenary Essays. Oxford University Press 197--207.
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  31. Richard G. Henson (1988). Butler on Selfishness and Self-Love. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 49 (1):31-57.
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  32. W. D. Hudson (1967). Butler and Hume on Religion. Philosophical Books 8 (2):17-18.
  33. Terence Irwin (2003). Stoic Naturalism in Butler.”. In Jon Miller & Brad Inwood (eds.), Hellenistic and Early Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press 274--300.
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  34. Reginald Jackson (1943). Bishop Butler's Refutation of Psychological Hedonism. Philosophy 18 (70):114 - 139.
    To the question ‘Why do you try to realize this?’ your answer may be ‘Because I desire that and I think that the realization of this would involve the realization of that.’ Or your answer may be ‘Because I desire this.’ If ‘Why?’ is interpreted as ‘Desiring what?’ the question ‘Why do you desire this?’ is improper. The word ‘desire’ is, however, frequently used in such a way as to countenance the impropriety. It is so used not only when what (...)
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  35. Edward W. James (1981). Butler, Fanaticism and Conscience. Philosophy 56 (218):517 - 532.
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  36. Christopher D. Jones (2011). The Works of Bishop Butler. Faith and Philosophy 28 (3):365-368.
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  37. John Kleinig (1969). Butler in a Cool Hour. Journal of the History of Philosophy 7 (4):399-411.
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  38. W. M. Kyle (1929). British Ethical Theories: The Place and Importance of Bishop Butler. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 7 (4):252 – 262.
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  39. Jonathan Lavery (2005). Reflection and Exhortation in Butler's Sermons: Practical Deliberation, Psychological Health and the Philosophical Sermon. The European Legacy 10 (4):329-348.
    I begin by noting the disparate legacies of Thomas Hobbes (1588?1679) and Bishop Joseph Butler (1692?1752). I suggest that part of the reason Butler's arguments in Fifteen Sermons Preached at Rolls Chapel (2nd ed. 1729) have been comparatively neglected by contemporary philosophers is due to the genre in which they are presented, i.e. the sermon. Like other non-standard genres of philosophical writing (dialogue, disputatio, meditation, etc.) both the genre and the purpose towards which Butler puts it have become unfashionable in (...)
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  40. Albert Lefevre (1900). III. Conscience and Obligation in Butler's Ethical System. Philosophical Review 9 (4):395-410.
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  41. Albert Lefevre (1900). Self-Love and Benevolence in Butler's Ethical System. Philosophical Review 9 (2):167-187.
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  42. Albert Lefevre (1899). The Significance of Butler's View of Human Nature. Philosophical Review 8 (2):128-145.
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  43. Edmund Leites (1975). A Problem in Joseph Butler's Ethics. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 6 (2):43-57.
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  44. Alfred Lent (2009). What's in It for Me? Butler's Complaint Against Collins. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (2):333-349.
  45. Wayne A. R. Leys (1953). Book Review:Butler's Moral Philosophy Austin Duncan-Jones. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 20 (3):243-.
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  46. Donald W. Livingston (1988). Butler. Journal of the History of Philosophy 26 (3):490-492.
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  47. Robert B. Louden (1995). Butler's Divine Utilitarianism. History of Philosophy Quarterly 12 (3):265 - 280.
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  48. J. R. Lucas (1978). Butler's Philosophy of Religion Vindicated (Durham Cathedral Lecture). Dean & Chapter.
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  49. Mike W. Martin (1986). Terence Penelhum, Butler (The Arguments of the Philosophers) Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 6 (10):521-524.
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  50. Christian Maurer (2013). Self-Interest and Sociability. In James A. Harris (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. Oxford University Press 291-314.
    The chapter analyses the debates on the relation between self-interest and sociability in eighteenth-century British moral philosophy. It focuses on the selfish hypothesis, i.e. on the egoistic theory that we are only motivated by self-interest or self-love, and that our sociability is not based on disinterested affections, such as benevolence. The selfish hypothesis is much debated especially in the early eighteenth century (Mandeville, Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, Butler, Clarke, Campbell, Gay), and then rather tacitly accepted (Hartley, Tucker, Paley) or rejected (Hume, Smith, (...)
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