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Summary Kant's major work in aesthetics is the Critique of the Aesthetic Power of Judgment, which comprises roughly the first half of the Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790; also known as "the third Critique", after the Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787) and Critique of Practical Reason (1788)).  The main task of this work is to provide an analysis of aesthetic judgment concerning the beautiful and the sublime, and an account of its epistemic and moral significance.  Kant indicates that his analysis of the "judgment of taste" -- which specifically refers to our enjoyment of beauty -- is the "most important" part of the work, apparently because he thinks it promises to reveal something about our cognitive capacities that his previous work in epistemology and philosophy of mind lacked the resources to reveal (see Critique of the Power of Judgment 5:169 and 5:213).    Despite considerable interpretive controversy over the systematic ambitions of the analysis of taste, Kant was evidently interested in aesthetics for its own sake as well.  At any rate, he made major contributions to what was then a burgeoning area of philosophical inquiry.  He had clearly studied closely the developments in aesthetics from Britain from earlier in the 18th century.  Kant's Critique of the Aesthetic Power of Judgment contains a principled account of the difference between the sublime and beautiful that marks a clear conceptual alternative to that of his predecessors.  He also takes on some of the distinctive issues about beauty and sublimity in art (as opposed to nature), which bear less directly on the systematic ambitions of critical philosophy -- e.g., the role of genius, and the distinct expressive resources of various media.     Kant's earlier work in aesthetics, Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime (1764) has somewhat more limited ambitions.  It is not a systematic work at all, and does not make bold claims about the epistemic and moral significance of aesthetic pleasure.  Rather it aims to provide a putatively descriptive catalogue of the "beautiful" and "sublime" qualities of human beings according to sex, nationality, and race; hence it perhaps belongs more to Kant's efforts in anthropology, rather than aesthetics per se.  
Key works In addition to Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790) and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime (1764), readers can find some discussion of aesthetics -- mostly as regards the sublime -- in Kant's works in moral philosophy.   Kant's work in aesthetics follows on several decades of keen work on the topic in Britain from earlier in the the 18th century.  Key works from the British tradition include: Joseph Addison, "The Pleasures of the Imagination" (published in The Spectator, 1712); Francis Hutcheson, Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725); Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful (1757); and David Hume, "Of the Standard of Taste" (1757).  He was also influenced by aesthetics as it developed in the German tradition, especially Alexander Baumgarten's Aesthetica (1750/1758) which Kant employed as a textbook in his lectures.  
Introductions For an examination of Kant's aesthetics in historical context, see Guyer 1993.  For a collection of articles on the significance of Kant's analysis of taste for epistemology and philosophy of mind, see Kukla 2006.
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Kant: Beauty
  1. Henry E. Allison (1997). Beauty and Duty in Kant's Critique of Judgement. Kantian Review 1:53-81.
  2. Karl Ameriks (1994). Review: Guyer, Kant and the Experience of Freedom: Essays on Aesthetics and Morality. [REVIEW] Ethics 105 (1):207-.
  3. Karl Ameriks (1982). How to Save Kant's Deduction of Taste. Journal of Value Inquiry 16 (4):295-302.
  4. Karl Ameriks (1980). Kant and the Claims of Taste. [REVIEW] New Scholasticism 54 (2):241-249.
  5. Dorit Barchana-Lorand (2002). The Kantian Beautiful, or, the Utterly Useless: Prolegomena to Any Future Aesthetics. Kant-Studien 93 (3):309–323.
  6. Anne Margaret Baxley (2005). The Practical Significance of Taste in Kant's Critique of Judgment: Love of Natural Beauty as a Mark of Moral Character. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (1):33–45.
  7. David Berger (2009). Kant's Aesthetic Theory: The Beautiful and Agreeable. Continuum.
    The twofold conception of taste -- The beautiful and the agreeable -- Sensations and interests -- Some varieties of normativity.
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  8. J. M. Bernstein (2000). Judging Life: From Beauty to Experience. From Kant to Chaim Soutine. Constellations 7 (2):157-177.
  9. Bernard Bourgeois (1993). The Beautiful and the Good According to Kant (Translated by Charles Wolfe). Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 16 (2):359-373.
  10. Malcolm Budd (1998). Delight in the Natural World: Kant on the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature. Part I: Natural Beauty. British Journal of Aesthetics 38 (1):1-18.
  11. Malcolm Budd (1998). Delight in the Natural World: Kant on the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature. Part II: Natural Beauty and Morality. British Journal of Aesthetics 38 (2):117-126.
  12. Joseph Cannon (2011). The Moral Value of Artistic Beauty in Kant. Kantian Review 16 (1):113-126.
    In the third Critique, Kant argues that it is to take an immediate interest in natural beauty, because it indicates an interest in harmony between nature and moral freedom. He, however, denies that there can be a similarly significant interest in artistic beauty. I argue that Kant ought not to deny this value to artistic beauty because his account of fine art as the joint product of the of genius and the discipline of taste commits him to the claim that (...)
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  13. E. F. Carritt (1925). The Sources and Effects in England of Kant's Philosophy of Beauty. The Monist 35 (2):315-328.
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  14. Andrew Chignell (2013). Ogilby, Milton, Canary Wine, and the Red Scorpion: Another Look at Kant's Deduction of Taste. In Dina Emundts (ed.), Self, World, and Art. Walter De Gruyter. 261-282.
    An effort to expand and defend aspects of my earlier reading of the Deduction of Taste. The Red Scorpion is just for fun. -/- .
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  15. Andrew Chignell (2006). Beauty as a Symbol of Natural Systematicity. British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (4):406-415.
    I examine Kant's claim that a relation of symbolization links judgments of beauty and judgments of ‘systematicity’ in nature (that is, judgments concerning the ordering of natural forms under hierarchies of laws). My aim is to show that the symbolic relation between the two is, for Kant, much closer than many commentators think: it is not only the form but also the objects of some of our judgments of taste that symbolize the systematicity of nature. -/- .
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  16. Andrew Chignell (1999). The Problem of Particularity in Kant's Aesthetic Theory. In Kevin A. Stoehr (ed.), The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy. 197-208.
    An early version of "Kant on the Normativity of Taste" above. -/- .
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  17. Ted Cohen (2002). Three Problems in Kant's Aesthetics. British Journal of Aesthetics 42 (1):1-12.
    What does the faculty of Understanding do during the execution of a judgement of taste? How are singular judgements of beauty related to general judgements of beauty? For what reason is beauty the symbol of morality? The first question has a tentative answer, although one not obviously congenial to Kant. The second two questions have no compelling answers.
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  18. Diarmuid Costello (2007). Greenberg's Kant and the Fate of Aesthetics in Contemporary Art Theory. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (2):217–228.
  19. Paul Crowther (1985). Fundamental Ontology and Transcendent Beauty: An Approach to Kant's Aesthetics. Kant-Studien 76 (1-4):55-71.
  20. Maria Del Rosario Acosta Lopez (2007). Beauty as an Encounter Between Freedom and Nature: A Romantic Interpretation of Kant's Critique of Judgment. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 12 (1):63-92.
    This essay presents a possible interpretation of the concept of beauty in Kant’s Critique of Judgment, which was itself suggested by Kant in the two introductionsto the text and gained force among the Early German Romantics and Idealists, introducing an alternative point of view into the concept of beauty and the role it plays in the relationship between reason and sensibility, man and world. Through the analysis of the four moments of the Analytic of the Beautiful, beauty will manifest itself (...)
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  21. George Dickie (1989). Kant, Mothersill and Principles of Taste. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 47 (4):375-376.
  22. Robert J. Dostal (1980). Kantian Aesthetics and the Literary Criticism of E. D. Hirsch. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 38 (3):299-305.
  23. Denis Dutton, The Experience of Art is Paradise Regained: Kant on Free and Dependent Beauty.
    In the Critique of Judgment , Kant presents what is possibly the most powerful aesthetic theory ever devised. It is not the clearest, and even when it comes clear, it is only after much toil. But its contradictions and complexities — apparent or real — reflect and disclose to great depth the very complexities and paradoxes that infect our artistic and aesthetic lives. Later aestheticians have with greater sophistication directed attention to the social and historical aspects of institutionalised fine (...)
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  24. Denis Dutton (1994). Kant and the Conditions of Artistic Beauty. British Journal of Aesthetics 34 (3):226-239.
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  25. Corey W. Dyck (2009). Review: Guyer, Knowledge, Reason, and Taste: Kant's Response to Hume. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (5):613-619.
  26. Mihaela C. Fistioc (2002). The Beautiful Shape of the Good: Platonic and Pythagorean Themes in Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment. Routledge.
    This book investigates the link Kant discerned between our experience of beauty and our experience of the moral law. By examining Kant's relation to Greek philosophy, to Plato and Pythagoras, as found in Kant's own writings, the author sheds new light on one the most intriguing and mysterious doctrines of Kant's third Critique.
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  27. Werner Flach (1979). Objectivity and Existential Meaning of the Beautiful. Investigations of Kant's 'Critique of Aesthetic Judgment'. Philosophy and History 12 (1):37-38.
  28. Martin Gammon (1999). Parerga and Pulchritudo Adhaerens: A Reading of the Third Moment of the “Analytic of the Beautiful”. Kant-Studien 90 (2):148-167.
  29. Rodolphe Gasché (2002). The Theory of Natural Beauty and its Evil Star: Kant, Hegel, Adorno. Research in Phenomenology 32 (1):103-122.
    In the aftermath of Kant, that is, with Schelling and Hegel, the natural beautiful is no longer a major concern of aesthetic theory. According to Adorno, an evil star hangs over the theory of natural beauty. The essay examines the reasons for this neglect of the beautiful of nature by confronting Kant's account of natural beauty with Hegel's theory about the fundamental deficiencies of beauty in nature and locates them in the essential indeterminacy of everything that belongs to nature. Inquiring (...)
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  30. Hannah Ginsborg (2003). Aesthetic Judging and the Intentionality of Pleasure. Inquiry 46 (2):164 – 181.
    I point out some unclarities in Allison's interpretation of Kant's aesthetic theory, specifically in his account of the free play of the faculties. I argue that there is a tension between Allison's commitment to the intentionality of the pleasure involved in a judgment of beauty, and his view that the pleasure is distinct from the judgment, and I claim that the tension should be resolved by rejecting the latter view. I conclude by addressing Allison's objection that my own view fails (...)
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  31. P. Giordanetti (1998). Recensione: Tomasi, Il salvataggio kantiano della bellezza. Kant-Studien 89:99-100.
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  32. Keren Gorodeisky (2010). A New Look at Kant's View of Aesthetic Testimony. British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (1):53-70.
    In this paper I explore the following threefold question: first, is there a genuine problem of grounding aesthetic judgement in testimony? Second, if there is such a problem, what exactly is its nature? And lastly, can Kant help us get clearer on the problem? Following Kant, I argue that the problem with aesthetic testimony is explained by norms that govern what it takes to judge a beautiful object aesthetically, rather than theoretically or practically, not by norms that govern what it (...)
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  33. K. Gorodeisky (2011). A Tale of Two Faculties. British Journal of Aesthetics 51 (4):415-436.
    The notion of the ‘free harmony of the faculties’ has baffled many of Kant's readers and also attracted much criticism. In this paper I attempt to shed light on this puzzling notion. By doing so, I aim to challenge some of the criticisms that this notion has attracted, and to point to its relevance to contemporary debates in aesthetics. While most of the literature on the free harmony is characterized by what I regard as an ‘extra-aesthetic approach’, I propose ‘an (...)
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  34. K. Gorodeisky (2010). Kant's Aesthetic Theory: The Beautiful and Agreeable. British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (3):317-320.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  35. Paul Guyer (2011). Genius and Taste: A Response to Joseph Cannon,'The Moral Value of Artistic Beauty in Kant'. Kantian Review 16 (1):127-134.
  36. Paul Guyer (2009). The Harmony of the Faculties in Recent Books on the Critique of the Power of Judgment. [REVIEW] Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 67 (2):201-221.
  37. Paul Guyer, 18th Century German Aesthetics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  38. Paul Guyer (2007). Free Play and True Well-Being: Herder's Critique of Kant's Aesthetics. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (4):353–368.
  39. Paul Guyer (2006). The Harmony of the Faculties Revisited. In Rebecca Kukla (ed.), Aesthetics and Cognition in Kant's Critical Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
  40. Paul Guyer (2003). Beauty, Systematicity, and the Highest Good: Eckart Förster's Kant's Final Synthesis. Inquiry 46 (2):195 – 214.
    Contrary to Eckart Förster, I argue that the Opus postumum represents more of an evolution than a revolution in Kant's thought. Among other points, I argue that Kant's Selbstsetzungslehre, or theory of self-positing, according to which we cannot have knowledge of the spatio-temporal world except through recognition of the changes we initiate in it by our own bodies, does not constitute a radicalization of Kant's transcendental idealism, but is a development of the realist line of argument introduced by the "Refutation (...)
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  41. Paul Guyer (2002). Free and Adherent Beauty: A Modest Proposal. British Journal of Aesthetics 42 (4):357-366.
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  42. Paul Guyer (1999). Dependent Beauty Revisited: A Reply to Wicks. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 57 (3):357-361.
  43. Paul Guyer (1997). Kant and the Claims of Taste. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant and the Claims of Taste, published here for the first time in paperback in a revised version, has become, since its initial publication in 1979, the standard commentary on Kant's aesthetic theory. The book offers a detailed account of Kant's views on judgments of taste, aesthetic pleasure, imagination and many other topics. For this new edition, Paul Guyer has provided a new foreword and has added a chapter on Kant's conception of fine art. This re-issue will complement the author's (...)
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  44. Paul Guyer (1995). Beauty, Sublimity, and Expression: Reply to Wicks and Cantrick. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 53 (2):194-195.
  45. Paul Guyer (1994). Kant's Conception of Fine Art. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 52 (3):275-285.
  46. Paul Guyer (1993). Kant and the Experience of Freedom: Essays on Aesthetics and Morality. Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of essays by one of the preeminent Kant scholars of our time transforms our understanding of both Kant's aesthetics and his ethics. Guyer shows that at the very core of Kant's aesthetic theory, disinterestedness of taste becomes an experience of freedom and thus an essential accompaniment to morality itself. At the same time he reveals how Kant's moral theory includes a distinctive place for the cultivation of both general moral sentiments and particular attachments on the basis of the (...)
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  47. Paul Guyer (1986). Mary Mothersill's Beauty Restored. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 44 (3):245-255.
  48. Paul Guyer (1982). Kant's Distinction Between the Sublime and the Beautiful. Review of Metaphysics 35 (4):753 - 783.
  49. Paul Guyer (1978). Disinterestedness and Desire in Kant's Aesthetics. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 36 (4):449-460.
  50. Paul Guyer (1978). Interest, Nature, and Art: A Problem in Kant's Aesthetics. Review of Metaphysics 31 (4):580 - 603.
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