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Summary The question for which Kant is best known -- how are synthetic a priori cognitions possible? -- is an epistemological one, as is his most famous doctrine, that we cannot cognize 'things in themselves' [Dinge an sich selbst].  Consequently, Kant and Kantian ideas have figured prominently in discussion in epistemology, in particular about a priori knowledge.  However, more recently scholars have widened their attention to consider aspects of Kant's epistemology that reflect the wide range of epistemic attitudes studied by contemporary epistemologists: belief, assent, opinion, knowledge by testimony, etc.  The contemporary separation between metaphysics and epistemology as distinct philosophical domains is somewhat alien to Kant; he typically discusses simultaneously what we would now call 'metaphysics' and 'epistemology,' making it difficult to discern how a particular claim is to be taken.  Consequently, Kant's epistemology has traditionally been discussed alongside his views in metaphysics (and philosophy of mind).  Many of the most influential works on Kant's epistemology also treat broader themes in his philosophy, although some more recent scholars have tried to isolate distinctively epistemic issues.
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  1. C. Adair-Toteff (1998). Kant on Platonic Scepticism. Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 9.
  2. Laywine Alison (2003). Kant on Sensibility and Understanding in the 1770s. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33 (4).
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  3. Maurice Bitran (2012). Philological Remarks on the Term "Class" in §11 of Critique of Pure Reason. Kant-Studien 103 (2).
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  4. Daniel Dahlstrom (2010). The Critique of Pure Reason and Continental Philosophy: Heidegger's Interpretation of Transcendental Imagination. In Paul Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press
  5. H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (2010). Kant, Hegel, and Habermas. Review of Metaphysics 63 (4):871-903.
  6. Sacha Golob (2013). Heidegger on Kant, Time and the 'Form' of Intentionality. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (2):345 - 367.
    Between 1927 and 1936, Martin Heidegger devoted almost one thousand pages of close textual commentary to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. This article aims to shed new light on the relationship between Kant and Heidegger by providing a fresh analysis of two central texts: Heidegger’s 1927/8 lecture course Phenomenological Interpretation of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason and his 1929 monograph Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics. I argue that to make sense of Heidegger’s reading of Kant, one must resolve two (...)
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  7. Arata Hamawaki (2009). Review of Fiona Hughes, Kant's Aesthetic Epistemology: Form and World. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (8).
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  8. Jure Simoniti (1998). Pojem Izkustva Kot Sintetična Sodba a Posteriori Pri Kantu. Problemi 7.
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Kant: Assent
  1. Leonardo Antonio Cisneiros Arrais (2008). Kant on Assertion and Content. In Valerio Hrsg V. Rohden, Ricardo Terra & Guido Almeida (eds.), Recht Und Frieden in der Philosophie Kants. 127-138.
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  2. Wilhelm Beimer (1919). Der phänomenologische Evidenzbegriff. Kant-Studien 23 (1-3):269-301.
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  3. Andrew Chignell (2011). Real Repugnance and Our Ignorance of Things-in-Themselves: A Lockean Problem in Kant and Hegel. Internationales Jahrbuch des Deutschen Idealismus 7:135-159.
    Kant holds that in order to have knowledge of an object, a subject must be able to “prove” that the object is really possible—i.e., prove that there is neither logical inconsistency nor “real repugnance” between its properties. This is (usually) easy to do with respect to empirical objects, but (usually) impossible to do with respect to particular things-in-themselves. In the first section of the paper I argue that an important predecessor of Kant’s account of our ignorance of real possibility can (...)
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  4. Andrew Chignell (2010). Real Repugnance and Belief About Things-in-Themselves: A Problem and Kant's Three Solutions. In James Krueger & Benjamin Bruxvoort Lipscomb (eds.), Kant's Moral Metaphysics. Walter DeGruyter
    Kant says that it can be rational to accept propositions on the basis of non-epistemic or broadly practical considerations, even if those propositions include “transcendental ideas” of supersensible objects. He also worries, however, about how such ideas (of freedom, the soul, noumenal grounds, God, the kingdom of ends, and things-in-themselves generally) acquire genuine positive content in the absence of an appropriate connection to intuitional experience. How can we be sure that the ideas are not empty “thought-entities (Gedankendinge)”—that is, speculative fancies (...)
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  5. Andrew Chignell (2007). Belief in Kant. Philosophical Review 116 (3):323-360.
    Most work in Kant’s epistemology focuses on what happens “upstream” from experience, prior to the formation of conscious propositional attitudes. By contrast, this essay focuses on what happens "downstream": the formation of assent (Fuerwahrhalten) in its various modes. The mode of assent that Kant calls "Belief" (Glaube) is the main topic: not only moral Belief but also "pragmatic" and "doctrinal" Belief as well. I argue that Kant’s discussion shows that we should reject standard accounts of the extent to which theoretical (...)
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  6. Andrew Chignell (2007). Kant's Concepts of Justification. Noûs 41 (1):33–63.
    An essay on Kant's theory of justification, where by “justification” is meant the evaluative concept that specifies conditions under which a propositional attitude is rationally acceptable with a moderate-to-high degree of confidence. Kant employs both epistemic and non-epistemic concepts of justification: an epistemic concept of justification sets out conditions under which a propositional attitude is rationally acceptable with a moderate-to-high degree of confidence and a candidate (if true and Gettier-immune) for knowledge. A non-epistemic concept of justification, by contrast, sets out (...)
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  7. Alix Cohen (2013). Kant on Doxastic Voluntarism and its Implications for Epistemic Responsibility. Kant Yearbook 5 (1):33-50.
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  8. John Hawthorne & Daniel Howard-Snyder (1996). Are Beliefs About God Theoretical Beliefs? Reflections on Aquinas and Kant. Religious Studies 32 (2):233 - 258.
    The need to address our question arises from two sources, one in Kant and the other in a certain type of response to so-called Reformed epistemology. The first source consists in a tendency to distinguish theoretical beliefs from practical beliefs (commitments to the world's being a certain way versus commitments to certain pictures to live by), and to treat theistic belief as mere practical belief. We trace this tendency in Kant's corpus, and compare and contrast it with Aquinas's view and (...)
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  9. Doris Vera Hofmann (2000). Gewissheit des Fürwahrhaltens: Zur Bedeutung der Wahrheit Im Fluss des Lebens Nach Kant Und Wittgenstein. De Gruyter.
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  10. Markus Kohl (2015). Kant on Freedom of Empirical Thought. Journal of the History of Philosophy 23 (2):301-26.
    It is standardly assumed that, in Kant, “free agency” is identical to moral agency and requires the will or practical reason. Likewise, it is often held that the concept of “spontaneity” that Kant uses in his theoretical philosophy is very different from, and much thinner than, his idea of practical spontaneity. In this paper I argue for the contrary view: Kant has a rich theory of doxastic free agency, and the spontaneity in empirical thought (which culminates in judgments of experience) (...)
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  11. G. J. Mattey (1986). Kant's Theory of Propositional Attitudes. Kant-Studien 77 (1-4):423-440.
    Kant was among the first philosophers to recognize that modalities come in many varieties, and that there are systematic connections among them--an insight which has since been confirmed by the multitude of applications of the basic techniques of formalized modal logic. In particular, He recognized an affinity among what are now called doxastic and epistemic logics, As well as with a logic of judging which has not exact counterpart in contemporary thought. This paper will be concerned with the explication of (...)
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  12. Lawrence Pasternack (2014). Kant on Opinion: Assent, Hypothesis, and the Norms of General Applied Logic. Kant-Studien 105 (1):41-82.
    Kant identifies knowledge [Wissen], belief [Glaube], and opinion [Meinung] as our three primary modes of “holding-to-be-true” [Fürwahrhalten]. He also identifies opinion as making up the greatest part of our cognition. After a preliminary sketch of Kant’s system of propositional attitudes, this paper will explore what he says about the norms governing opinion and empirical hypotheses. The final section will turn to what, in the Critique of Pure Reason and elsewhere, Kant refers to as “General Applied Logic”. It concerns the “contingent (...)
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  13. Lawrence Pasternack (2014). Kant’s Touchstone of Communication and the Public Use of Reason. Society and Politics 8 (1):78-91.
    Nearly all of the work that has been done on Kant’s conception of public reason has focused on its socio-political significance. John Rawls, Onora O’Neill and others have explored its relevance to a well ordered democracy, to pluralism, to toleration, and so on. However, the relevance of public reason for Kant is not limited to the socio-political. Kant repeatedly appeals to the “touchstone of communication” in relation to the normative side of his epistemology. The purpose of this paper is to (...)
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  14. Leslie Stevenson (2004). Freedom of Judgement in Descartes, Hume, Spinoza and Kant. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 12 (2):223 – 246.
    Is our judgement of the truth-value of propositions subject to the will? Do we have any voluntary control over the formation of our beliefs – and if so, how does it compare with the control we have over our actions? These questions lead into interestingly unclear philosophical and psychological territory which remains a focus of debate today. I will first examine the classic early modern discussions in Descartes, Spinoza and Hume. Then I will review some relevant themes in Kant, including (...)
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Kant: Justification
  1. Michael Albrecht (2009). Kant's Justification of the Role of Maxims in Ethics. In Karl Ameriks, Otfried Höffe & Nicolas Walker (eds.), Kant's Moral and Legal Philosophy. Cambridge University Press
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  2. Nikolaos Avgelis (1991). Die Duhem-Quine-These unter dem Geltungsaspekt der erkenntnistheoretischen Fragestellung Kants. Kant-Studien 82 (3):285-302.
  3. Sorin Baiasu (2014). Kant's Justification of Welfare. Diametros 39:1-28.
    For several decades, theorists interested in Kant’s discussion of welfare have puzzled over Kant’s position on the issue of the redistribution of goods in society. They have done this both in order to clarify his position and as a source of inspiration for current conceptual problems faced by contemporary political philosophers who attempt to reconcile the ideal of equal freedom with the asymmetric interference necessary for redistribution and social provision. In this paper, I start with Kant’s brief discussion of welfare (...)
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  4. Nathan Bauer (2010). Kant's Subjective Deduction. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (3):433-460.
    In the transcendental deduction, the central argument of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant seeks to secure the objective validity of our basic categories of thought. He distinguishes objective and subjective sides of this argument. The latter side, the subjective deduction, is normally understood as an investigation of our cognitive faculties. It is identified with Kant’s account of a threefold synthesis involved in our cognition of objects of experience, and it is said to precede and ground Kant’s proof of the (...)
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  5. Wilhelm Beimer (1919). Der phänomenologische Evidenzbegriff. Kant-Studien 23 (1-3):269-301.
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  6. Günter Bleickert (1977). Proofs of God's Existence in German Idealism. The Justification of the Absolute by Means of Modal Theory in Kant, Hegel and Weisse. Philosophy and History 10 (1):24-27.
  7. Christian Bonnet (2002). La théorie friesienne de la justification. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3 (3):325-339.
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  8. Rudolf Brajčić (2004). Justification of Metaphysics in View of Kant. Disputatio Philosophica 6 (1):96-71.
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  9. Jochen Briesen (2013). Is Kant (W)Right? – On Kant’s Regulative Ideas and Wright’s Entitlements. Kant-Yearbook 5 (1):1-32.
    This paper discusses a structural analogy between Kant’s theory of regulative ideas, as he develops it in the Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic, and Crispin Wright’s theory of epistemic entitlements. First, I argue that certain exegetical difficulties with respect to the Appendix rest on serious systematic problems, which – given other assumptions of the Critique of Pure Reason – Kant is unable to solve. Second, I argue that because of the identified structural analogy between Kant’s and Wright’s views the project (...)
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  10. Andrew Chignell (2007). Kant's Concepts of Justification. Noûs 41 (1):33–63.
    An essay on Kant's theory of justification, where by “justification” is meant the evaluative concept that specifies conditions under which a propositional attitude is rationally acceptable with a moderate-to-high degree of confidence. Kant employs both epistemic and non-epistemic concepts of justification: an epistemic concept of justification sets out conditions under which a propositional attitude is rationally acceptable with a moderate-to-high degree of confidence and a candidate (if true and Gettier-immune) for knowledge. A non-epistemic concept of justification, by contrast, sets out (...)
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  11. Andrew Chignell (2004). Kant's Ethics of Assent: Knowledge and Belief in the Critical Philosophy. Dissertation, Yale University
    Most accounts of Kant's epistemology focus narrowly on cognition and knowledge . Kant himself, however, thought that there are many other important species of assent : opinion, persuasion, conviction, belief, acceptance, and assent to the deliverances of common sense. ;My goal in this dissertation is to isolate and motivate the principles of rational acceptability which, for Kant, govern each of these kinds of assent, instead of focusing merely on cognition and knowledge. Some of the principles apply in the context of (...)
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  12. Philip Dwyer (2010). Necessity and Possibility: The Logical Strategy of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (3):402-403.
    This book is a foray into the thorny interpretive issue of what to make of Kant's so-called "Metaphysical Deduction" of the categories. As with many of the arguments in the first Critique, the claim of the Metaphysical Deduction is easier to make out than its argument. The claim is that by some or other reference to "general logic," one may obtain a "transcendental logic," i.e., a justification (or "deduction") of the categories (of the understanding) necessary to the (very) possibility of (...)
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  13. W. Enderlein (1985). The Justification of Punishment in Kant. Kant-Studien 76 (3):303-327.
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  14. Svein Eng (2014). Why Reflective Equilibrium? I: Reflexivity of Justification. Ratio Juris 27 (1):138-154.
    In A Theory of Justice (1971), John Rawls introduces the concept of “reflective equilibrium.” Although there are innumerable references to and discussions of this concept in the literature, there is, to the present author's knowledge, no discussion of the most important question: Why reflective equilibrium? In particular, the question arises: Is the method of reflective equilibrium applicable to the choice of this method itself? Rawls's drawing of parallels between Kant's moral theory and his own suggests that his concept of “reflective (...)
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  15. James R. Flynn (1979). Kant and the Price of a Justification. Kant-Studien 70 (1-4):279-311.
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  16. Axel Gelfert (2010). Kant and the Enlightenment's Contribution to Social Epistemology. Episteme 7 (1):79-99.
    The present paper argues for the relevance of Immanuel Kant and the German Enlightenment to contemporary social epistemology. Rather than distancing themselves from the alleged ‘individualism’ of Enlightenment philosophers, social epistemologists would be well-advised to look at the substantive discussion of social-epistemological questions in the works of Kant and other Enlightenment figures. After a brief rebuttal of the received view of the Enlightenment as an intrinsically individualist enterprise, this paper charts the historical trajectory of philosophical discussions of testimony as a (...)
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  17. Axel Gelfert (2006). Kant on Testimony. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (4):627 – 652.
    Immanuel Kant is often regarded as an exponent of the ‘individualist’ tradition in epistemology, according to which testimony is not a fundamental source of knowledge. The present paper argues that this view is far from accurate. Kant devotes ample space to discussions of testimony and, in his lectures on logic, arrives at a distinct and stable philosophical position regarding testimony. Important elements of this position consist in (a) acknowledging the ineliminability of testimony; (b) realizing that testimony can establish empirical knowledge (...)
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  18. Paul Gorner (2000). The Place of Punishment in Kant's Rechtslehre. Kantian Review 4 (1):121-130.
    If Kant had never written the section of the Rechtslehre on punishment we would still have known from the Critique of Practical Reason that he held a strongly retributive view of punishment. But it is not a view which we could have inferred from the rest of the Rechtslehre. Despite its intuitive appeal, Kant's justification of judicial punishment simply does not fit the account of right he gives in the Rechtslehre. According to this account the only justification for coercion is (...)
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  19. Moltke S. Gram (1979). Transcendental Arguments: A Meta-Critique. Kant-Studien 70 (1-4):508-513.
  20. Robert Hanna (2011). The Myth of the Given and the Grip of the Given. Diametros 27:25-46.
    In this paper I argue that the Sellarsian Myth of the Given does not apply to all forms of Non-Conceptualism; that Kant is in fact a non-conceptualist of the right-thinking kind and not a Conceptualist, as most Kant-interpreters think; and that an intelligible and defensible Kantian Non-Conceptualism can be developed which supports the thesis that true perceptual beliefs are non-inferentially justified and also normatively funded by direct, embodied, intentional interactions with the manifest world (a.k.a. the Grip of the Given).
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  21. Alison Hills (2007). The Principle of Right: Practical Reason and Justification in Kant's Ethical and Political Philosophy. Politics and Ethics Review 3 (1):24-36.
    The principle of right is Kant's main formulation of the rules of politics, and it has obvious affinities with the moral law. Do we have moral reasons to obey the principle? I argue that we may have moral reasons to obey the principle ourselves, but not coercively to enforce it. Do we have prudential reasons to obey the principle? I argue that we do not have reasons based on happiness, but that we may have prudential reasons of a wholly different, (...)
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  22. Jane Johnson (2008). Revisiting Kantian Retributivism to Construct a Justification of Punishment. Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (3):291-307.
    The standard view of Kant’s retributivism, as well as its more recent reworking in the ‘limited’ or ‘partial’ retributivist reading are, it is argued here, inadequate accounts of Kant on punishment. In the case of the former, the view is too limited and superficial, and in the latter it is simply inaccurate as an interpretation of Kant. Instead, this paper argues that a more sophisticated and accurate rendering of Kant on punishment can be obtained by looking to his construction of (...)
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  23. Immanuel Kant (1998). Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason and Other Writings. Cambridge University Press.
    Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason is a key element of the system of philosophy which Kant introduced with his Critique of Pure Reason, and a work of major importance in the history of Western religious thought. It represents a great philosopher's attempt to spell out the form and content of a type of religion that would be grounded in moral reason and would meet the needs of ethical life. It includes sharply critical and boldly constructive discussions on topics (...)
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  24. Halla Kim (1997). The Possibility of Practical Reason: An Essay on Kant's Justification of Ethics. Dissertation, The University of Iowa
    The thesis is a critical and comprehensive examination of Immanuel Kant's theory of practical reason. I argue that considerable light is thrown upon Kant's view when it is considered in light of the British naturalist ethics stretching from Hobbes to Hutcheson, and especially Hume. Consideration of the naturalist ethics is important because of that tradition's radical skepticism about the power of pure practical reason. While not many scholars emhasize this point, Kant's ethics is not so much a response to amoralism (...)
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  25. Markus Kohl (2014). Kant on Practical Justification: Interpretive Essays. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 19 (2):332-338.
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  26. Markus Kohl (2014). Review: Timmons & Baiasu Sorin (Eds), Kant on Practical Justification: Interpretive Essays. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 19 (2):332-338.
  27. Armin Richard Konrad (1968). The Justification of a Moral Argument: The Anti-Naturalists and Kant. Dissertation, Emory University
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  28. Erich H. Loewy (1995). Kant, Health Care and Justification. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (2).
    An argument based on Kant for access to health-care for all is a most helpful addition to prior discussions. My paper argues that while such a point of view is helpful it fails to be persuasive. What is needed, in addition to a notion of the legislative will, is a viewpoint of community which sees justice as originating not merely from considerations of reason alone but from a notion of community and from a framework of common human experiences and capabilities.
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