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Summary There are three fundamental questions guiding Kant's ethics: (1) What is the supreme principle of morality? (2) What makes this principle binding? and (3) What duties arise from it? In answering the first question, Kant seeks to derive a principle of morality from the universal form we are capable of giving our maxims, whereby we exercise our power of self-legislation or what Kant calls ‘autonomy’. In answering the second question, Kant seeks to justify the principle of autonomy as a presupposition of rational agency and as a ‘fact’ illustrated in common moral thought, judgment, and feeling. In answering the third question, Kant offers a system of duties, both self-regarding and other-regarding. While commentators disagree over its ultimate success, Kant’s ethics presents us with one of the most systematic accounts of morality, autonomy, and agency in the history of moral thought, and it continues to have a lasting influence on contemporary ethics.
Key works The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant 2011) is Kant’s first book devoted to ethics, although he worked on similar issues much earlier. Other key works include the Critique of Practical Reason (Kant 1997) and the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant 1996). Kant’s Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (Kant 1996), while guided by historical and theological questions, also contains insights relevant for his ethics.
Introductions For comprehensive studies, see Allison 1990Korsgaard 1996, Wood 1999Guyer 2000Reath 2006, and the collection of essays in Hill Jr 2009. For contemporary versions of Kantian ethics, see Herman 2007Korsgaard 2009, and Hill 2012.
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  1. V. ?erník (2000). An Analysis of Theoretical Reason. Filozofia 55:820-824.
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  2. P. D. M. A. (1962). Reason and Morals. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 15 (4):681-681.
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  3. H. B. Acton (1939). JOAD, C. E. M. -Guide to the Philosophy of Morals and Politics. [REVIEW] Mind 48:249.
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  4. George P. Adams (1915). Iller's Kant's Doctrine of Freedom. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 12 (22):613.
  5. Reshef Agam-Segal (2013). A Splitting “Mind-Ache”. Journal of Philosophical Research 38:43-68.
    I problematize the notion of self-legislation. I follow in Elizabeth Anscombe’s footsteps and suggest that on a plausible reading of Kant, he does not so much misidentify the sources of moral normativity, as fail to identify any such sources in the first place: The set of terms with which the Kantian is attempting to do so is confused. Interpreters today take Kant’s legal language to be merely metaphorical. The language of ‘self-legislation,’ in particular, is replaced by such interpreters with a (...)
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  6. U. Agnew (1976). Originality-Art of Being Oneself. Humanitas 12 (1):49-58.
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  7. Esref Aksu (2008). Early Notions of Global Governance: Selected Eighteenth-Century Proposals for 'Perpetual Peace' with Rousseau, Bentham, and Kant - Unabridged. University of Wales Press.
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  8. Michael Albrecht (2009). Kant's Justification of the Role of Maxims in Ethics. In Karl Ameriks, Otfried Höffe & Nicolas Walker (eds.), Kant's Moral and Legal Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
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  9. Mary Wood- Allen & Sylvanus Stall (1897). What a Young Girl Ought to Know, by M. Wood-Allen and S. Stall.
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  10. Mark Alznauer (2014). Understanding Moral Obligation: Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, by Robert Stern. Mind 123 (492):1246-1249.
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  11. Sharon Rae Anderson-Gold (1980). Teleology and Radical Evil: An Interpretation of the Concept of Species Character in Kant's Philosophy of History. Dissertation, New School for Social Research
    This dissertation focuses on the relation between Kant's philosophy of history and his ethics. It has been claimed that Kant's writings on history contradict his ethics and have no systematic value for his philosophy. Therefore, Kant's writings on history cannot be taken seriously. This objection can be summarized as follows. Kant's philosophy of history implies a notion of moral progress. Earlier generations stand in a means-ends relation to later generations. This contradicts the concept of the absolute value of the individual (...)
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  12. Josie Appleton (2006). Recentring Humanity. In Dolan Cummings (ed.), Debating Humanism. Imprint Academic. 26--93.
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  13. Leslie Armour & Chhatrapati Singh (1986). The Kingdom of Ends in Morals and Law. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 13 (1):13.
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  14. Robert Arp (1999). Hegel and the Prospect of Perpetual Peace. Dialogos 34 (74):71-100.
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  15. Robert Arp (1999). Hegel's Prospect of Perpetual Peace. Dialogos 34 (74):71-100.
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  16. R. F. Atkinson, C. H. Whiteley & Winifred M. Whiteley (1968). Sex and Morals. Philosophical Quarterly 18 (71):181.
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  17. John Atwell (1988). P.C. Lo, Treating Persons As Ends: An Essay On Kant's Moral Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 8:173-175.
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  18. John E. Atwell (1995). Fallacies in Two Objections to Kant's First Defense of the Duty of Beneficence in the Grundlegung. Argumentation 9 (4):633-643.
    The two best known objections to Kant's first defense of the duty of beneficence are examined and found to be fallacious. The first objection relies on the possibility of imagining an individual who would be willing for the maxim of nonbeneficence to be a universal law (but it fails to recognize that such an individual is not a rational person and thus not subject to morality at all); and the second objection, while granting the nonuniversalizability of the maxim of nonbeneficence, (...)
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  19. John E. Atwell (1988). PC Lo, Treating Persons as Ends: An Essay on Kant's Moral Philosophy Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 8 (5):173-175.
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  20. Sidney Axinn (2004). Idealism and Freedom: Essays on Kant’s Theoretical and Practical PhiIosophy. [REVIEW] International Studies in Philosophy 36 (4):104-105.
  21. R. J. B. (1965). Laws of Freedom. Review of Metaphysics 19 (1):152-153.
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  22. Jovan Babić (1994). One Classic Critique of Ethical Formalism. Theoria 37 (1):23-40.
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  23. Jovan Babić (1991). Kant's Conception of Duty. Theoria 34 (2):47-68.
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  24. Stefano Bacin (2013). Kant on the Relation Between Duties of Love and Duties of Respect. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. 15-28.
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  25. Carla Bagnoli (2011). On Stephen Engstrom, The Form of Practical Knowledge. Iris 3 (6):191-203.
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  26. Carla Bagnoli (2011). Emotions and the Categorical Authority of Moral Reason. In Morality and the Emotions. Oxford University Press. 62.
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  27. Sorin Baiasu (2007). Kantian Metaphysics and the Normative Force of Practical Principles. Politics and Ethics Review 3 (1):37-56.
    The aim of this paper is threefold. First, I critically examine two dominant Kantian views of practical justification and argue that they cannot provide an appropriate account of the normative force of moral and political principles. Secondly, as the main reason for these unsuccessful attempts, I identify a certain interpretation of Kant's account of practical judgement. Finally, I point to some of the differences between this interpretation and Kant's own claims on practical judgement, in order to suggest an alternative approach; (...)
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  28. Annette C. Baier (1996). Barbara Herman., The Practice of Moral Judgments. International Studies in Philosophy 28 (2):139-140.
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  29. Tom Bailey (2013). Kant’s Perpetual Peace: Against Moralising Readings. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. 577-588.
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  30. John Baillie (1925). The Meaning of Duty: A Plea for a Reconsideration of the Kantian Ethic. Hibbert Journal 24:719.
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  31. Joyce Lazier Baldwin (2004). An Examination of Kant's Duties of Right and Their Moral Basis. Dissertation, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln
    I argue that Kant's duties of Right have a moral basis, and must therefore be towards some end. Furthermore, this moral nature means there can be no heteronomy of law. Moreover, the end for duties of Right must also conform to the other constraints that are special to duties of Right that differentiate them from duties of Virtue. Namely, the end must also be a limiting condition on action that is externally constrained and begets narrow obligation. I propose that the (...)
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  32. Paul Vincent Bamford (1974). The Kantian Metaphysics of Morals. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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  33. Gary Banham (2004). Kant's Practical Philosophy. From Critique to Doctrine. New York 2003. R: O. Sensen. Mind 113:727-729.
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  34. Jurate Baranova (2005). The Categorical Imperative and the Face of the Other: Immanuel Kant and Emmanuel Levinas. In Contemporary Philosophical Discourse in Lithuania. Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. 4--41.
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  35. Heike Baranzke (2004). Does Beast Suffering Count for Kant: A Contextual Examination of § 17 in The Doctrine of Virtue. Essays in Philosophy 5 (2):4.
    Ever since Schopenhauer ́s accusation, it has been disputed whether Kant ́s few remarks concerning the ethical human-animal-relationship in the Lectures and in the Doctrine of Virtue fail to support ethical arguments on behalf of animals. One critique that plays a central role is whether Kant would have forbidden cruelty to brutes for educational purposes. In addition to these old objections, Kant ́s ethics is charged to be speciesistic by animal ethicists and animal rights philosophers at present.The following article examines (...)
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  36. Jld Barcocollazos (1986). The Kantian Basis for a-Priori Synthetical and Practical Propositions (Meta-Ethical Considerations on Kantian Ethics). Pensamiento 42 (166):193-224.
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  37. H. Barker (1928). PATON, H. J. - The Good Will. [REVIEW] Mind 37:489.
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  38. H. Barker (1925). SCOTT, J. W. -Kant on the Moral Life. [REVIEW] Mind 34:375.
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  39. D. C. Barrett (1994). Metaphysics as a Guide to Morals. International Philosophical Quarterly 34 (1):111-114.
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  40. W. Bartuschat (1987). Practical Philosophy and Legal Philosophy in Kant. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 94 (1):24-41.
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  41. Tora Basu (1989). Kant's Conception of Rational Action. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 16 (4):393.
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  42. Anne Margaret Baxley (2007). Themes in Kant's Metaphysics and Ethics. Philosophical Review 116 (1):142-144.
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  43. Christian Beck (2006). The Duty to Love in Immanuel Kant: A Short Comment From the Perspective of Theological Ethics. Disputatio Philosophica 8 (1):121-128.
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  44. Lewis White Beck (1951). Immanuel Kant, Critique of Practical Reason and Other Writings in Moral Philosophy. Philosophy 26 (97):176-178.
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  45. D. Becker (1997). Rosen, Allen D., Kant's Theory of Justice. International Studies in Philosophy 29:140-140.
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  46. S. Behera (2007). Kant on the Ground of Obligation: From Pure to Practical. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 34 (1):83.
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  47. ? Belás (2005). Social Consequences of Kant’s Ethic. Filozofia 60:254-268.
    The paper focuses on that part of Kant’s philosophical legacy, which is represented by his ethical reflections and their ethical consequences. The main objective of the paper is a polemic against some value positions connected with Kant’s ethic. The paper examines mainly the following problems: the principle of the autonomy of will, imperatives and the phenomenon of human nature. Judging the social application of Kant’s ethic the author considers first its historical-dynamic form, which is presented mainly by means of the (...)
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  48. ? Belás (2001). The Problem of Peace in Kant's Philosophy of History. Filozofia 56:75-81.
    The paper deals with Kant's peace project seen in a broader philosophical-theoretical context of the 18th century. The author focuses not only on Kant's essay Towards an Eternal Peace, but he examnines also his other works confirming his deep interest in this issue. He argues, that the problem of peace is a constitutive part of Kant's philosophy of history and it might be seen in a sense as its culmination point. Following the contemporary philosophical interpretations of the issue he refuses (...)
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  49. L. Belas (1995). Kant Ethics and Historicity. Filozofia 50 (5):266-273.
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  50. John Beversluis (1972). The Connection Between Duty and Happiness in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Dissertation, Indiana University
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