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Summary There are three fundamental questions guiding Kant's ethics: (1) What is the supreme principle of morality? (2) What makes this principle binding? and (3) What duties arise from it? In answering the first question, Kant seeks to derive a principle of morality from the universal form we are capable of giving our maxims, whereby we exercise our power of self-legislation or what Kant calls ‘autonomy’. In answering the second question, Kant seeks to justify the principle of autonomy as a presupposition of rational agency and as a ‘fact’ illustrated in common moral thought, judgment, and feeling. In answering the third question, Kant offers a system of duties, both self-regarding and other-regarding. While commentators disagree over its ultimate success, Kant’s ethics presents us with one of the most systematic accounts of morality, autonomy, and agency in the history of moral thought, and it continues to have a lasting influence on contemporary ethics.
Key works The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant 2011) is Kant’s first book devoted to ethics, although he worked on similar issues much earlier. Other key works include the Critique of Practical Reason (Kant 1997) and the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant 1996). Kant’s Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (Kant 1996), while guided by historical and theological questions, also contains insights relevant for his ethics.
Introductions For comprehensive studies, see Allison 1990Korsgaard 1996, Wood 1999Guyer 2000Reath 2006, and the collection of essays in Hill Jr 2009. For contemporary versions of Kantian ethics, see Herman 2007Korsgaard 2009, and Hill 2012.
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  1. Annette Disselkamp (2004). Georg Simmel, une interprétation critique de la notion kantienne du bonheur. Methodos 4.
    Dans un texte relativement peu connu, intitulé Kant, Georg Simmel développe des réflexions critiques à propos de la notion kantienne du bonheur. En comparant celles-ci avec son analyse de la société moderne, telle qu’il la propose dans la Philosophie de l’argent, on s’aperçoit qu’il existe, entre les concepts philosophiques qui y sont mis en œuvre, une relation de correspondance parfaite. La conclusion s’impose que, pour Simmel, la notion kantienne du bonheur trouve comme son incarnation historique dans la culture monétaire. La (...)
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  2. Juliano Fellini (2008). O desenvolvimento crítico da vontade em Kant. Veritas 53 (1).
    According to Kant, the possibility that pure practical reason may effectively determine the will depends, initially, upon an in-depth investigation of the faculty of desire within the perspective of his transcendental philosophy. In order to demonstrate this, we will present in this paper the critical development of this faculty and with it the bases upon which the concepts of a good will and of a pure practical reason relate themselves to the constitution of morality.
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  3. Roe Fremstedal (2012). Kierkegaard's Double Movement of Faith and Kant's Moral Faith. Religious Studies 48 (2):199 - 220.
    The present article deals with religious faith by comparing the so-called double movement of faith in Kierkegaard to Kant's moral faith. Kierkegaard's double movement of faith and Kant's moral faith can be seen as providing different accounts of religious faith, as well as involving different solutions to the problem of realizing the highest good. The double movement of faith in Fear and Trembling provides an account of the structure of faith that helps us make sense of what Kierkegaard means by (...)
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Kant: Normative Ethics
  1. Don Paul Abbott (2007). Kant, Theremin, and the Morality of Rhetoric. Philosophy and Rhetoric 40 (3):274-292.
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  2. H. B. Acton (1970). Kant's Moral Philosophy. New York,St. Martin's Press.
  3. Robert Merrihew Adams (2004). Voluntarism and the Shape of a History. Utilitas 16 (2):124-132.
    This article is concerned with the shape of the story of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century moral philosophy as told by J. B. Schneewind in The Invention of Autonomy. After discussion of alternative possible shapes for such a story, the focus falls on the question to what extent, in Schneewind's account, strands of empiricist voluntarism and rationalist intellectualism are interwoven in Kant. This in turn leads to consideration of different types of voluntarism and their roles in early modern ethical theory. Correspondence:c1 robert.adams@mansfield.oxford.ac.uk.
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  4. Henry E. Allison (1990). Kant's Theory of Freedom. Cambridge University Press.
    In his new book the eminent Kant scholar Henry Allison provides an innovative and comprehensive interpretation of Kant's concept of freedom. The author analyzes the concept and discusses the role it plays in Kant's moral philosophy and psychology. He also considers in full detail the critical literature on the subject from Kant's own time to the present day. In the first part Professor Allison argues that at the center of the Critique of Pure Reason there is the foundation for a (...)
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  5. Lilian Alweiss (2003). On Moral Dilemmas: Winch, Kant and Billy Budd. Philosophy 78 (2):205-218.
    This article queries Winch's view that moral issues are particular, subjective, context-dependent and not open to generalizations. Drawing on examples from film and literature, Winch believes he can prove first, that the universalisability principle is idle and second, that morality is wrongly conceived as a guide to moral conduct. Yet, neither example proves his point. Quite the contrary, they show that we face moral dilemmas only when moral theory fails to provide an answer to moral problems. Therfore, it is not (...)
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  6. Karl Ameriks (1994). Book Review:Kant and the Experience of Freedom: Essays on Aesthetics and Morality. Paul Guyer. [REVIEW] Ethics 105 (1):207-.
  7. Karl Ameriks (1992). Book Review:Kant's Theory of Freedom. Henry Allison. [REVIEW] Ethics 102 (3):655-.
  8. Margaret C. Amig (1926). Kant's "Empty" Moral Law. International Journal of Ethics 37 (1):94-100.
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  9. Georg Anderson (1921). Die „Materie“ in Kants Tugendlehre und der Formalismus der kritischen Ethik. Kant-Studien 26 (1-2):289-311.
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  10. Sharon Anderson-Gold (2011). Privacy, Respect and the Virtues of Reticence in Kant. Kantian Review 15 (2):28-42.
  11. Sharon Anderson-Gold & Pablo Muchnik (eds.) (2010). Kant's Anatomy of Evil. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant infamously claimed that all human beings, without exception, are evil by nature. This collection of essays critically examines and elucidates what he must have meant by this indictment.
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  12. Richard E. Aquila (1984). Duty and Inclination: The Fundamentals of Morality Discussed and Redefined with Special Regard to Kant and Schiller. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 1 (1):307-330.
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  13. Sven Arntzen (1996). Kant on Duty to Oneself and Resistance to Political Authority. Journal of the History of Philosophy 34 (3):409-424.
  14. Robert Arp (2007). Vindicating Kant's Morality. International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (1):5-22.
    Among others, four significant criticisms have been leveled against Kant’s morality. These criticisms are that Kant’s morality lacks a motivational component, thatit ignores the spiritual dimensions of morality espoused by a virtue-based ethics, that it overemphasizes the principle of autonomy in neglecting the communal context of morality, and that it lacks a theological foundation in being detached from God. In this paper I attempt to show that, when understood in the broader context of his religious doctrines and the overall philosophical (...)
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  15. Christopher Arroyo (2011). Freedom and the Source of Value: Korsgaard and Wood on Kant's Formula of Humanity. Metaphilosophy 42 (4):353-359.
    Abstract: This essay examines two interpretations of Kant's argument for the formula of humanity. Christine M. Korsgaard defends a constructivist reading of Kant's argument, maintaining that humans must view themselves as having absolute value because their power for rational choice confers value on their ends. Allen Wood, however, defends a realist interpretation of Kant's argument, maintaining that humans actually are absolutely valuable and that their choices do not confer value but rather reflect their understanding of how the objects of their (...)
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  16. Camille Atkinson (2007). Kant on Human Nature and Radical Evil. Philosophy and Theology 19 (1/2):215-224.
    Are human beings essentially good or evil? Immanuel Kant responds, “[H]e [man] is as much the one as the other, partly good, partly bad.” Given this, I’d like to explore the following: What does Kant mean by human nature and how is it possible to be both good and evil? What is “original sin” and does it place limits on free will? In what respect might Kant’s views be significant for non-believers? More specifically, is Kant saying that human beings need (...)
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  17. John E. Atwell (1988). Book Review: Kant, Respect and Injustice: The Limits of Liberal Moral Theory. Victor J. Seidler. [REVIEW] Ethics 98 (4):838-.
  18. John E. Atwell (1986). Ends and Principles in Kant's Moral Thought. Kluwer Academic Publishers [Distributor].
    As a work of a scholarship it seems to me to compare favourably with the best books on the subject, including those by Marcus Singer and Onora Nell.' Prof.
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  19. John E. Atwell (1982). Kant's Notion of Respect for Persons. Tulane Studies in Philosophy 31:17-30.
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  20. John E. Atwell (1969). Are Kant's First Two Moral Principles Equivalent? Journal of the History of Philosophy 7 (3):273-284.
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  21. Robert Audi (2001). A Kantian Intuitionism. Mind 110 (439):601-635.
    Kant famously said that one could not do morality a worse disservice than to derive it from examples, and this pronouncement, taken together with his formulations and explanations of the categorical imperative, has led some critics to regard him as too abstract. Ross, by contrast, has been widely viewed as taking individual cases of duty to have a kind of epistemic priority over principles of duty, and some of his critics have thus considered him insufficiently systematic, or even dogmatically limited (...)
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  22. Thomas Auxter (1983). Kant on Moral Practice. Journal of the History of Philosophy 21 (4):573-575.
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  23. Thomas Auxter (1979). The Unimportance of Kant's Highest Good. Journal of the History of Philosophy 17 (2):121-134.
  24. Christos Axelos (1955). Heroische haltung und moralische handlung. Kant-Studien 46 (1-4):97-128.
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  25. Sidney Axinn (1958). Kant, Logic, and the Concept of Mankind. Ethics 68 (4):286-291.
  26. Stefano Bacin & Dieter Schönecker (2011). Gründlich zerstört oder gründlich gelesen? Eine Replik auf Brandts alternative Lesart des § 9 der Tugendlehre. Kant-Studien 102 (1):113-119.
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  27. Annette C. Baier (1993). Moralism and Cruelty: Reflections on Hume and Kant. Ethics 103 (3):436-457.
    Both a morality, like Kant's, which relies on wrongdoers' guilt feelings and expectation of punishment, as enforcement for its requirements, and one which, like Hume's, relies on the feelings of shame and expectation of their fellows' contempt which will be felt by those showing lack of the moral virtues, seem to merit the charge that morality is an intrinsically cruel institution. The prospects for a gentle non-punitive morality are explored, and Hume's views found more promising, for this purpose, than Kant's.
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  28. Tom Bailey (2004). Common Sense, Right, and Moral Judgement: Two Recent Additions to the Kant Literature. Res Publica 10 (3):285-300.
  29. Judith Baker (1988). Counting Categorical Imperatives. Kant-Studien 79 (1-4):389-406.
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  30. Gary Banham (2007). Kant's Moral Theory. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (3):581 – 593.
    Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in British Journal for the History of Philosophy, published by and copyright Routledge.
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  31. J. Barnes (1998). Making a Necessity of Virtue: Aristotle and Kant on Virtue. N Sherman. The Classical Review 48 (2):353-354.
  32. Marcia Baron (1993). Henry Allison on Kant's Theory of Freedom. Dialogue 32 (04):775-.
  33. Anne Barron (2012). Kant, Copyright and Communicative Freedom. Law and Philosophy 31 (1):1-48.
    The rapid recent expansion of copyright law worldwide has sparked efforts to defend the ‘public domain’ of non-propertized information, often on the ground that an expansive public domain is a condition of a ‘free culture’. Yet questions remain about why the public domain is worth defending, what exactly a free culture is, and what role (if any) authors’ rights might play in relation to it. From the standard liberal perspective shared by many critics of copyright expansionism, the protection of individual (...)
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  34. Peter Baumanns (1983). The Virtues of Kant. New Studies in the History and Interpretation of Kant's Philosophy. Philosophy and History 16 (1):27-28.
  35. Bernard H. Baumrin (1976). Autonomy in Rawls and Kant. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 1 (1):55-57.
  36. A. M. Baxley (2007). Themes in Kant's Metaphysics and Ethics. Philosophical Review 116 (1):142-144.
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  37. Anne Margaret Baxley (2010). Kant's Theory of Virtue: The Value of Autocracy. Cambridge University Press.
    Anne Margaret Baxley offers a systematic interpretation of Kant's theory of virtue, whose most distinctive features have not been properly understood. She explores the rich moral psychology in Kant's later and less widely read works on ethics, and argues that the key to understanding his account of virtue is the concept of autocracy, a form of moral self-government in which reason rules over sensibility. Although certain aspects of Kant's theory bear comparison to more familiar Aristotelian claims about virtue, Baxley contends (...)
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  38. Anne Margaret Baxley (2003). Autocracy and Autonomy. Kant-Studien 94 (1):1-23.
  39. Anthony F. Beavers (2000). Kant and the Problem of Ethical Metaphysics. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 7 (2/3):11-20.
    The ethical philosophies of Kant and Levinas would seem, on the surface, to be incompatible. In this essay. I attempt to reconcile them by situating Levinas’s philosophy “beneath” Kant’s as its existential condition thereby addressing two shortcomings in each of their works, for Kant. the apparent difficulty of making ethics apply to real concrete cases, and, for Levinas, the apparent difficulty of establishing a normative ethics that can offer prescriptions for moral behavior. My general thesis is that the existential ethical (...)
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  40. Lawrence C. Becker (1999). Stephen Engstrom and Jennifer Whiting, Eds., Aristotle, Kant, and the Stoics: Rethinking Happiness and Duty. [REVIEW] Ethics 109 (2):439-442.
  41. Lisa Bellantoni (1996). Kant on the Paradox of Self-Love. Southwest Philosophy Review 12 (2):123-131.
  42. Ermanno Bencivenga (2007). Ethics Vindicated: Kant's Transcendental Legitimation of Moral Discourse. Oxford University Press.
    Can we regard ourselves as having free will? What is the place of values in a world of facts? What grounds the authority of moral injunctions, and why should we care about them? Unless we provide satisfactory answers to these questions, ethics has no credible status and is likely to be subsumed by psychology, history, or rational decision theory. According to Ermanno Bencivenga, this outcome is both common and regrettable. Bencivenga points to Immanuel Kant for the solution. Kant's philosophy is (...)
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  43. Ermanno Bencivenga (1991). The Metaphysical Structure of Kant's Moral Philosophy. Philosophical Topics 19 (1):17-29.
  44. Jonathan Bennett (1984). Kant's Theory of Freedom. In Allen W. Wood (ed.), Self and Nature in Kant's Philosophy. Cornell University Press.
  45. Rudolf Bernet (1991). Loi et éthique chez Kant et Lacan. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 89 (3):450-468.
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  46. Monika Betzler (ed.) (2008). Kant's Ethics of Virtues. Walter De Gruyter.
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  47. John Beversluis (1974). Kant on Moral Striving. Kant-Studien 65 (1-4):67-77.
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