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  1. Tom P. S. Angier (ed.) (2012). Ethics: The Key Thinkers. Continuum International Pub. Group.
    Plato Tom Angier -- Aristotle Timothy Chappell -- Stoics Jacob Klein -- Aquinas Vivian Boland O.P -- Hume Peter Millican -- Kant Ralph Walker -- Hegel Kenneth Westphal -- Marx Sean Sayers -- Mill Krister Bykvist -- Nietzsche Ken Gemes and Christoph Schuringa -- Macintyre David Solomon.
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  2. Christopher Arroyo (2011). Freedom and the Source of Value: Korsgaard and Wood on Kant's Formula of Humanity. Metaphilosophy 42 (4):353-359.
    Abstract: This essay examines two interpretations of Kant's argument for the formula of humanity. Christine M. Korsgaard defends a constructivist reading of Kant's argument, maintaining that humans must view themselves as having absolute value because their power for rational choice confers value on their ends. Allen Wood, however, defends a realist interpretation of Kant's argument, maintaining that humans actually are absolutely valuable and that their choices do not confer value but rather reflect their understanding of how the objects of their (...)
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  3. H. Barker (1948). PATON, H. J. - The Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant's Moral Philosophy. [REVIEW] Mind 57:93.
  4. E. J. Bond (1968). The Supreme Principle of Morality. Dialogue 7 (02):167-179.
  5. Marilea Bramer (2010). The Importance of Personal Relationships in Kantian Moral Theory: A Reply to Care Ethics. Hypatia 25 (1):121-139.
    Care ethicists have long insisted that Kantian moral theory fails to capture the partiality that ought to be present in our personal relationships. In her most recent book, Virginia Held claims that, unlike impartial moral theories, care ethics guides us in how we should act toward friends and family. Because these actions are performed out of care, they have moral value for a care ethicist. The same actions, Held claims, would not have moral worth for a Kantian because of the (...)
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  6. Samuel V. Bruton (2000). Establishing Kant's Formula of Humanity. Southwest Philosophy Review 16 (1):41-49.
  7. Aaron Bunch (2014). Throwing Oneself Away: Kant on the Forfeiture of Respect. Kantian Review 19 (1):71-91.
    Surprisingly often Kant asserts that it is possible to behave in such a degrading way that one ‘throws oneself away’ and turns oneself ‘into a thing’, as a result of which others may treat one ‘as they please’. Rather than dismiss these claims out of hand, I argue that they force us to reconsider what is meant and required by ‘respect for humanity’. I argue that to ‘throw away’ humanity is not to lose or extinguish it, but rather to refuse (...)
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  8. Steven M. Cahn (2009). A Supreme Moral Principle? In Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press
  9. Andrew Chignell (2006). Review: Moore, Noble in Reason, Infinite in Faculty: Themes and Varitation in Kant's Moral and Religious Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 115 (1):118-121.
  10. Mary Clayton Coleman (2006). Korsgaard on Kant on the Value of Humanity. Journal of Value Inquiry 40 (4):475-478.
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  11. Adam Cureton (2013). A Contractualist Reading of Kant's Proof of the Formula of Humanity. Kantian Review 18 (3):363-386.
    Kant offers the following argument for the formula of humanity (FH): Each rational agent necessarily conceives of her own rational nature as an end in itself and does so on the same grounds as every other rational agent, so all rational agents must conceive of one another's rational nature as an end in itself. As it stands, the argument appears to be question-begging and fallacious. Drawing on resources from the formula of universal law (FUL) and Kant's claims about the primacy (...)
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  12. Adam Cureton (2013). From Self-Respect to Respect for Others. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 94 (2):166-187.
    The leading accounts of respect for others usually assume that persons have a rational nature, which is a marvelous thing, so they should be respected like other objects of ‘awesome’ value. Kant's views about the ‘value’ of humanity, which have inspired contemporary discussions of respect, have been interpreted in this way. I propose an alternative interpretation in which Kant proceeds from our own rational self-regard, through our willingness to reciprocate with others, to duties of respect for others. This strategy, which (...)
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  13. Richard Dean (2013). Humanity as an Idea, as an Ideal, and as an End in Itself. Kantian Review 18 (2):171-195.
    Kant emphasizes that moral philosophy must be divided into two parts, a metaphysics of morals, and an empirical application to individuals, which Kant calls 'moral anthropology'. But Kant gives humanity (die Menschheit) a prominent role even in the purely rational part of ethics – for example, one formulation of the categorical imperative is a demand to treat humanity as an end in itself. This paper argues that the only concepts of humanity suited to play such a role are the rational (...)
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  14. Richard Dean (2009). The Formula of Humanity as an End in Itself. In Thomas E. Hill (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Kant's Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell
  15. Richard Dean (2006). The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory. Oxford University Press.
    The humanity formulation of Kant's Categorical Imperative demands that we treat humanity as an end in itself. Because this principle resonates with currently influential ideals of human rights and dignity, contemporary readers often find it compelling, even if the rest of Kant's moral philosophy leaves them cold. Moreover, some prominent specialists in Kant's ethics have recently turned to the humanity formulation as the most theoretically central and promising principle of Kant's ethics. Nevertheless, it has received less attention than many other (...)
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  16. Lara Denis (2011). Humanity, Obligation, and the Good Will: An Argument Against Dean's Interpretation of Humanity. Kantian Review 15 (1):118-141.
    Humanity is an important notion within Kant's moral theory. The humanity formulation of the categorical imperative commands: ‘So act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means’ . Kant's analysis of ethical obligation and his expositions of rights and duties in the Metaphysics of Morals refer frequently to humanity. How we understand this concept, then, has signifcant implications for how (...)
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  17. Lara Denis (2007). Abortion and Kant's Formula of Universal Law. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (4):547-580.
    The formula of universal law (FUL) is a natural starting point for philosophers interested in a Kantian perspective on the morality of abortion. I argue, however, that FUL does not yield much in the way of promising or substantive conclusions regarding the morality of abortion. I first reveal how two philosophers' (Hare's and Gensler's) attempts to use Kantian considerations of universality and prescriptivity fail to provide analyses of abortion that are either compelling or true to Kant=s understanding of FUL. I (...)
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  18. Lara Denis (2007). Kant's Formula of the End in Itself: Some Recent Debates. Philosophy Compass 2 (2):244–257.
    This is a survey article in which I explore some important recent work on the topic in question, Kant’s formula of the end in itself (or “formula of humanity”). I first provide an overview of the formulation, including what the formula seems roughly to be saying, and what Kant’s main argument for it seems to be. I then call the reader’s attention to a variety of questions one might have about the import of and argument for this formula, alluding to (...)
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  19. Lara Denis (1999). Kant on the Wrongness of 'Unnatural' Sex. History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (2):225-48.
    I consider Kant’s use of claims about “nature’s ends” in his arguments to establish maxims of homosexual sex, masturbation, and bestiality as constituting “unnatural” sexual vices, which are contrary to one’s duties to oneself as an animal and moral being. I argue, first, that the formula of humanity is the principle best suited for understanding duties to oneself as an animal and moral being; and second, that although natural teleology is relevant to some degree in specifying these duties, it cannot (...)
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  20. Lara Denis (1999). Kant on the Perfection of Others. Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (1):25-41.
    Kant claims that we have a duty to promote our own moral perfection, but not the moral perfection of others. I examine three types of argument for this asymmetry, as well as the implications of these arguments--and their success or failure--for Kantian theory. The arguments I consider say that (first) to promote others’ perfection is impossible; (second) to try to promote others’ perfection is impermissible; and (third) one cannot be obligated to promote both others’ perfection and one’s own. I argue (...)
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  21. Kyla Ebels-Duggan (2013). Review: Hill, Virtue, Rules, and Justice: Kantian Aspirations. [REVIEW] Mind 122 (488):1098-1102.
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  22. Dan Egonsson (1997). Kant's Vegetarianism. Journal of Value Inquiry 31 (4):473-483.
  23. Melissa Seymour Fahmy (2011). Love, Respect, and Interfering with Others. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92 (2):174-192.
    The fact that Kantian beneficence is constrained by Kantian respect appears to seriously restrict the Kantian's moral response to agents who have embraced self-destructive ends. In this paper I defend the Kantian duties of love and respect by arguing that Kantians can recognize attempts to get an agent to change her ends as a legitimate form of beneficence. My argument depends on two key premises. First, that rational nature is not identical to the capacity to set ends, and second, that (...)
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  24. W. J. Fitzpatrick (2007). Review: Dean, The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory. [REVIEW] Mind 116 (464):1098-1104.
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  25. Paul Formosa (2014). Dignity and Respect: How to Apply Kant's Formula of Humanity. Philosophical Forum 45 (1):49-68.
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  26. Danny Frederick (2014). Voluntary Slavery. Las Torres de Lucca 4:115-37.
    The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil (...)
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  27. Patrick R. Frierson (2007). Review: Dean, The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (4).
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  28. James Furner (2015). Marx with Kant on Exploitation. Contemporary Political Theory 14 (1):23.
  29. Jon Garthoff (2011). Meriting Concern and Meriting Respect. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5 (2).
    Recently there has been a somewhat surprising interest among Kantian theorists in the moral standing of animals, coupled with a no less surprising optimism among these theorists about the prospect of incorporating animal moral standing into Kantian theory without contorting its other attractive features. These theorists contend in particular that animal standing can be incorporated into Kantian moral theory without abandoning its logocentrism: the claim that everything that is valuable depends for its value on its relation to rationality. In this (...)
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  30. Joshua Glasgow (2007). Kant's Conception of Humanity. Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (2):291-308.
    Contemporary Kant scholarship generally takes Kant’s conception of humanity in his ethical writings to refer to beings with rational capacities. 1 According to this interpretation, when Kant tells us in the Categorical Imperative’s Formula of Humanity [FH] to “act so that you use humanity…always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means,” we are to treat anyone with rational capacities this way. 2 However, Richard Dean has recently revived an alternative interpretation that he traces to H. (...)
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  31. Joshua Glasgow (2007). Kant's Conception of Humanity. Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (2):291-308.
    Contemporary Kant scholarship generally takes 'humanity' in Kant's ethical writings to refer to beings with rational capacities. However, his claims that only the good will has unqualified goodness and that humanity is unconditionally valuable suggests that humanity might be the good will. This problem seems to have infiltrated some prominent scholarship, and Richard Dean has recently argued that, in fact, humanity is indeed the good will. This paper defends, and tries to make sense of, the more conventional view that humanity (...)
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  32. Christopher W. Gowans (2008). The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory—Richard Dean. International Philosophical Quarterly 48 (1):107-109.
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  33. R. K. Gupta (1997). Notes on Kant's Derivation of the Various Formulae of the Categorical Imperative. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 (3):383 – 396.
    This article is concerned with examining Kant's derivation of the various formulae of his Categorical Imperative. It is in agreement with Paton in maintaining that Kant actually mentions five formulae. But it is not in agreement with him, and some others, in maintaining that they are ultimately reducible to three. Nor is it in agreement with those who maintain that they are ultimately reducible to just one. According to the present article, they are ultimately reducible to two: that about a (...)
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  34. Pepita Haezrahi (1962). The Concept of Man as End-in-Himself. Kant-Studien 53 (1-4):209-224.
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  35. Tim Henning (2014). Retter-Kinder, Instrumentalisierung und Kants Zweckformel. Ethik in der Medizin 26 (3):195-209.
    Definition of the problem The creation and selection of children as tissue donors is ethically controversial. Critics often appeal to Kant’s Formula of Humanity, i.e. the requirement that people be treated not merely as means but as ends in themselves. As many defenders of the procedure point out, these appeals usually do not explain the sense of the requirement and hence remain obscure. Arguments This article proposes an interpretation of Kant’s principle, and it proposes that two different instrumental stances be (...)
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  36. Thomas E. Hill (1980). Humanity as an End in Itself. Ethics 91 (1):84 - 99.
  37. Christina Hoff (1983). Kant's Invidious Humanism. Environmental Ethics 5 (1):63-70.
    In Kant’s philosophy nonrational beings are denied moral standing. I argue that Kant's rational humanism is arbitrary and morally impoverished. In particular I show that Kant moves illegitimately from the first formulation of the categorical imperative (which makes no mention of a moral domain) to the second (which limits moral recognition to rational beings). The move to the second formulation relies on a new and unsupported principle introduced by Kant: rational nature and only rational nature exists as an end in (...)
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  38. Zachary Hoskins (2008). Review: The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory - by Richard Dean. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 49 (2):150-152.
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  39. Robert Johnson, Kantian Irrealism.
    Kantian ethics can at times appear to defend the position that there is a unique sort of value that plays a foundational role in morality. For instance, Kant's most well known work in ethics, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, begins by trying to establish that a good will is good without qualification' and then ends with a first statement of the fundamental principle that divides right from wrong, the Categorical Imperative.1 This presentation can make it seems as if (...)
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  40. Robert N. Johnson, Kantian Irrealism.
    Kantian ethics can at times appear to defend the position that there is a unique sort of value that plays a foundational role in morality. For instance, Kant’s most well known work in ethics, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, begins by trying to establish that a good will is good ‘without qualification’ and then ends with a first statement of the fundamental principle that divides right from wrong, the Categorical Imperative.1 This presentation can make it seems as if (...)
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  41. Samuel Kahn (2014). Review: Kerstein, How to Treat Persons. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 19 (2):319-323.
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  42. Samuel Kerstein (2009). Treating Others Merely as Means. Utilitas 21 (2):163-180.
    In the Formula of Humanity, Kant embraces the principle that it is wrong for us to treat others merely as means. For contemporary Kantian ethicists, this Mere Means Principle plays the role of a moral constraint: it limits what we may do, even in the service of promoting the overall good. But substantive interpretations of the principle generate implausible results in relatively ordinary cases. On one interpretation, for example, you treat your opponent in a tennis tournament merely as a means (...)
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  43. Samuel Kerstein (2009). Treating Others Merely as Means. Utilitas 21 (2):163-180.
    In the Formula of Humanity, Kant embraces the principle that it is wrong for us to treat others merely as means. For contemporary Kantian ethicists, this Mere Means Principle plays the role of a moral constraint: it limits what we may do, even in the service of promoting the overall good. But substantive interpretations of the principle generate implausible results in relatively ordinary cases. On one interpretation, for example, you treat your opponent in a tennis tournament merely as a means (...)
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  44. Samuel J. Kerstein (2013). How to Treat Persons. OUP Oxford.
    Samuel J. Kerstein develops a new, broadly Kantian account of the ethical issues that arise when a person treats another merely as a means. He explores how Kantian principles on the dignity of persons shed light on pressing issues in modern bioethics, including the distribution of scarce medical resources and the regulation of markets in organs.
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  45. Samuel J. Kerstein (2009). Kantian Condemnation of Commerce in Organs. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (2):pp. 147-169.
  46. Samuel J. Kerstein (2002). Kant's Search for the Supreme Principle of Morality. Cambridge University Press.
    At the core of Kant's ethics lies the claim that if there is a supreme principle of morality then it cannot be a principle based on utilitarianism or Aristotelian perfectionism or the Ten Commandments. The only viable candidate for such a principle is the categorical imperative. This book is the most detailed investigation of this claim. It constructs a new, criterial reading of Kant's derivation of one version of the categorical imperative: the Formula of Universal Law. This reading shows this (...)
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  47. Halla Kim (2004). The Unity of Kant's Categorical Imperative. Southwest Philosophy Review 20 (1):75-82.
  48. Dennis Klimchuk (2004). Three Accounts of Respect for Persons in Kant's Ethics. Kantian Review 8 (1):38-61.
    The idea that respect for persons comprises the core of morality has long been associated with Kant and the ethics of the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. In particular, the second formulation of the categorical imperative , the Formula of Humanity as an End-in-itself – ‘So act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means’ – is often glossed (...)
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  49. Christine M. Korsgaard (1986). Kant's Formula of Humanity. Kant-Studien 77 (1-4):183-202.
  50. B. A. Manninen (2006). Medicating the Mind: A Kantian Analysis of Overprescribing Psychoactive Drugs. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (2):100-105.
    Psychoactive drugs are being prescribed to millions of Americans at an increasing rate. In many cases these drugs are necessary in order to overcome debilitating emotional problems. Yet in other instances, these drugs are used to supplant, not supplement, interpersonal therapy. The process of overcoming emotional obstacles by introspection and the attainment of self knowledge is gradually being eroded via the gratuitous use of psychoactive medication in order to rapidly attain a release from the common problems that life inevitably presents (...)
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