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  1. Tom P. S. Angier (ed.) (2012). Ethics: The Key Thinkers. Continuum International Pub. Group.
    Plato Tom Angier -- Aristotle Timothy Chappell -- Stoics Jacob Klein -- Aquinas Vivian Boland O.P -- Hume Peter Millican -- Kant Ralph Walker -- Hegel Kenneth Westphal -- Marx Sean Sayers -- Mill Krister Bykvist -- Nietzsche Ken Gemes and Christoph Schuringa -- Macintyre David Solomon.
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  2. Samuel V. Bruton (2000). Establishing Kant's Formula of Humanity. Southwest Philosophy Review 16 (1):41-49.
  3. Aaron Bunch (2014). Throwing Oneself Away: Kant on the Forfeiture of Respect. Kantian Review 19 (1):71-91.
    Surprisingly often Kant asserts that it is possible to behave in such a degrading way that one ‘throws oneself away’ and turns oneself ‘into a thing’, as a result of which others may treat one ‘as they please’. Rather than dismiss these claims out of hand, I argue that they force us to reconsider what is meant and required by ‘respect for humanity’. I argue that to ‘throw away’ humanity is not to lose or extinguish it, but rather to refuse (...)
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  4. Andrew Chignell (2006). Review: Moore, Noble in Reason, Infinite in Faculty: Themes and Varitation in Kant's Moral and Religious Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 115 (1):118-121.
  5. Michael Cholbi (forthcoming). A Direct Kantian Duty to Animals. Southern Journal of Philosophy.
    Kant’s view that we have only indirect duties to animals fails to capture the intuitive notion that wronging animals transgresses duties we owe to those animals. Here I argue that Kantianism can allow for direct duties to animals, and in particular, an imperfect duty to promote animal welfare, without unduly compromising its core theoretical commitments, especially its claims concerning the source and nature of our duties toward rational beings. The basis for such duties is that animal welfare, on my revised (...)
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  6. Adam Cureton (2013). A Contractualist Reading of Kant's Proof of the Formula of Humanity. Kantian Review 18 (3):363-386.
    Kant offers the following argument for the formula of humanity (FH): Each rational agent necessarily conceives of her own rational nature as an end in itself and does so on the same grounds as every other rational agent, so all rational agents must conceive of one another's rational nature as an end in itself. As it stands, the argument appears to be question-begging and fallacious. Drawing on resources from the formula of universal law (FUL) and Kant's claims about the primacy (...)
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  7. Adam Cureton (2013). From Self-Respect to Respect for Others. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 94 (2):166-187.
    The leading accounts of respect for others usually assume that persons have a rational nature, which is a marvelous thing, so they should be respected like other objects of ‘awesome’ value. Kant's views about the ‘value’ of humanity, which have inspired contemporary discussions of respect, have been interpreted in this way. I propose an alternative interpretation in which Kant proceeds from our own rational self-regard, through our willingness to reciprocate with others, to duties of respect for others. This strategy, which (...)
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  8. Richard Dean (2013). Humanity as an Idea, as an Ideal, and as an End in Itself. Kantian Review 18 (2):171-195.
    Kant emphasizes that moral philosophy must be divided into two parts, a metaphysics of morals, and an empirical application to individuals, which Kant calls 'moral anthropology'. But Kant gives humanity (die Menschheit) a prominent role even in the purely rational part of ethics – for example, one formulation of the categorical imperative is a demand to treat humanity as an end in itself. This paper argues that the only concepts of humanity suited to play such a role are the rational (...)
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  9. Richard Dean (2009). The Formula of Humanity as an End in Itself. In Thomas E. Hill (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Kant's Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
  10. Richard Dean (2006). The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory. Oxford University Press.
    The humanity formulation of Kant's Categorical Imperative demands that we treat humanity as an end in itself. Because this principle resonates with currently influential ideals of human rights and dignity, contemporary readers often find it compelling, even if the rest of Kant's moral philosophy leaves them cold. Moreover, some prominent specialists in Kant's ethics have recently turned to the humanity formulation as the most theoretically central and promising principle of Kant's ethics. Nevertheless, it has received less attention than many other (...)
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  11. Lara Denis (2011). Humanity, Obligation, and the Good Will: An Argument Against Dean's Interpretation of Humanity. Kantian Review 15 (1):118-141.
  12. Kyla Ebels-Duggan (2013). Review: Hill, Virtue, Rules, and Justice: Kantian Aspirations. [REVIEW] Mind 122 (488):1098-1102.
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  13. Dan Egonsson (1997). Kant's Vegetarianism. Journal of Value Inquiry 31 (4):473-483.
  14. W. J. Fitzpatrick (2007). Review: Dean, The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory. [REVIEW] Mind 116 (464):1098-1104.
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  15. Danny Frederick (2014). Voluntary Slavery. Las Torres de Lucca 4:115-37.
  16. Patrick R. Frierson (2007). Review: Dean, The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (4).
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  17. James Furner (forthcoming). Marx with Kant on Exploitation. Contemporary Political Theory.
  18. Jon Garthoff (2011). Meriting Concern and Meriting Respect. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5 (2).
  19. Joshua Glasgow (2007). Kant's Conception of Humanity. Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (2):291-308.
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  20. Pepita Haezrahi (1962). The Concept of Man as End-in-Himself. Kant-Studien 53 (1-4):209-224.
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  21. Tim Henning (forthcoming). Retter-Kinder, Instrumentalisierung und Kants Zweckformel. Ethik in der Medizin.
    Definition of the problem The creation and selection of children as tissue donors is ethically controversial. Critics often appeal to Kant’s Formula of Humanity, i.e. the requirement that people be treated not merely as means but as ends in themselves. As many defenders of the procedure point out, these appeals usually do not explain the sense of the requirement and hence remain obscure. Arguments This article proposes an interpretation of Kant’s principle, and it proposes that two different instrumental stances be (...)
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  22. Thomas E. Hill (1980). Humanity as an End in Itself. Ethics 91 (1):84 - 99.
  23. Christina Hoff (1983). Kant's Invidious Humanism. Environmental Ethics 5 (1):63-70.
    In Kant’s philosophy nonrational beings are denied moral standing. I argue that Kant's rational humanism is arbitrary and morally impoverished. In particular I show that Kant moves illegitimately from the first formulation of the categorical imperative (which makes no mention of a moral domain) to the second (which limits moral recognition to rational beings). The move to the second formulation relies on a new and unsupported principle introduced by Kant: rational nature and only rational nature exists as an end in (...)
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  24. Noriaki Iwasa (2013). Reason Alone Cannot Identify Moral Laws. Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (1-2):67-85.
    Immanuel Kant's moral thesis is that reason alone must identify moral laws. Examining various interpretations of his ethics, this essay shows that the thesis fails. G. W. F. Hegel criticizes Kant's Formula of Universal Law as an empty formalism. Although Christine Korsgaard's Logical and Practical Contradiction Interpretations, Barbara Herman's contradiction in conception and contradiction in will tests, and Kenneth Westphal's paired use of Kant's universalization test all refute what Allen Wood calls a stronger form of the formalism charge, they are (...)
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  25. Robert Johnson, Kantian Irrealism.
    Kantian ethics can at times appear to defend the position that there is a unique sort of value that plays a foundational role in morality. For instance, Kant's most well known work in ethics, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, begins by trying to establish that a good will is good without qualification' and then ends with a first statement of the fundamental principle that divides right from wrong, the Categorical Imperative.1 This presentation can make it seems as if (...)
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  26. Robert N. Johnson, Kantian Irrealism.
    Kantian ethics can at times appear to defend the position that there is a unique sort of value that plays a foundational role in morality. For instance, Kant’s most well known work in ethics, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, begins by trying to establish that a good will is good ‘without qualification’ and then ends with a first statement of the fundamental principle that divides right from wrong, the Categorical Imperative.1 This presentation can make it seems as if (...)
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  27. Samuel Kahn (2014). Can Positive Duties Be Derived From Kant's Formula of Universal Law? Kantian Review 19 (1):93-108.
    According to the standard reading of Kant's formula of universal law (FUL), positive duties can be derived from FUL. In this article, I argue that the standard reading does not work. In the first section, I articulate FUL and what I mean by a positive duty. In the second section, I set out an intuitive version of the standard reading of FUL and argue that it does not work. In the third section, I set out a more rigorous version of (...)
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  28. Samuel Kahn (2014). Review: Kerstein, How to Treat Persons. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 19 (2):319-323.
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  29. Immanuel Kant (2009). Treating Others Merely as Means. Utilitas 21 (2).
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  30. Samuel Kerstein (2009). Treating Others Merely as Means. Utilitas 21 (2):163-180.
    In the Formula of Humanity, Kant embraces the principle that it is wrong for us to treat others merely as means. For contemporary Kantian ethicists, this Mere Means Principle plays the role of a moral constraint: it limits what we may do, even in the service of promoting the overall good. But substantive interpretations of the principle generate implausible results in relatively ordinary cases. On one interpretation, for example, you treat your opponent in a tennis tournament merely as a means (...)
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  31. Samuel J. Kerstein (2013). How to Treat Persons. Oup Oxford.
    Samuel J. Kerstein develops a new, broadly Kantian account of the ethical issues that arise when a person treats another merely as a means. He explores how Kantian principles on the dignity of persons shed light on pressing issues in modern bioethics, including the distribution of scarce medical resources and the regulation of markets in organs.
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  32. Samuel J. Kerstein (2009). Kantian Condemnation of Commerce in Organs. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (2):pp. 147-169.
  33. Halla Kim (2004). The Unity of Kant's Categorical Imperative. Southwest Philosophy Review 20 (1):75-82.
  34. Christine M. Korsgaard (1986). Kant's Formula of Humanity. Kant-Studien 77 (1-4):183-202.
  35. Julia Markovits (2014). Moral Reason. Oup Oxford.
    Julia Markovits develops a desire-based, internalist account of what normative reasons are--an account which is compatible with the idea that moral reasons can apply to all of us, regardless of our desires. She builds on Kant's formula of humanity to defend universal moral reasons, and addresses the age-old question of why we should be moral.
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  36. Adrienne M. Martin (2006). How to Argue for the Value of Humanity. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (1):96–125.
    Significant effort has been devoted to locating a good argument for Kant's Formula of Humanity. In this paper, I contrast two arguments, based on Kant's text, for the Formula of Humanity. The first, which I call the 'Valued Ends' argument, is an influential and appealing argument developed most notably by Christine Korsgaard and Allen Wood. Notwithstanding the appeal and influence of this argument, it ultimately fails on several counts. I therefore present as an alternative the 'Autonomy' argument, which is largely (...)
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  37. Arthur Melnick (2002). Kant's Formulations of the Categorical Imperative. Kant-Studien 93 (3):291-308.
  38. Wp Mendonca (1993). An Individual as Purpose in and of Himself Kant Philosophy. Kant-Studien 84 (2):167-184.
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  39. Dean Moyar (2003). Review: Sussman, The Idea of Humanity: Anthropology and Anthroponomy in Kant’s Ethics. [REVIEW] Ethics 114 (1):196-199.
  40. William Nelson (2008). Kant's Formula of Humanity. Mind 117 (465):85-106.
    This paper is concerned with the normative content of Kant's formula of humanity (FH). More specifically, does FH, as some seem to think, imply the specific and rigid prescriptions in 'standard' deontological theories? To this latter question, I argue, the answer is 'no'. I propose reading FH largely through the formula of autonomy and the formula of the kingdom of ends, where I understand FA to describe the nature of the capacity of humanity-a capacity for self-governance. The latter, I suggest, (...)
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  41. Michael Neumann (2000). Did Kant Respect Persons? Res Publica 6 (3):285-299.
    The illusion that Kant respects persons comes from ascribing contemporary meanings to purely technical terms within his second formulation of the categorical imperative, “[A]ct so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only”. When we realize that “humanity” means rational nature and “person” means the supersensible self (homo noumenon), we find that we are to respect, not human selves in all their diversity (homo phaenomenon), (...)
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  42. Sven Nyholm (2013). On Kant's Idea of Humanity as an End in Itself. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2).
    Writers like Christine Korsgaard and Allen Wood understand Kant's idea of rational nature as an end in itself as a commitment to a substantive value. This makes it hard for them to explain the supposed equivalence between the universal law and humanity formulations of the categorical imperative, since the former does not appear to assert any substantive value. Nor is it easy for defenders of value-based readings to explain Kant's claim that the law-giving nature of practical reason makes all beings (...)
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  43. Sven Nyholm (2012). On the Universal Law and Humanity Formulas. Dissertation, University of Michigan
    Whereas the universal law formula says to choose one’s basic guiding principles (or “maxims”) on the basis of their fitness to serve as universal laws, the humanity formula says to always treat the humanity in each person as an end, and never as a means only. Commentators and critics have been puzzled by Kant’s claims that these are two alternative statements of the same basic law, and have raised various objections to Kant’s suggestion that these are the most basic formulas (...)
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  44. Japa Pallikkathayil (2010). Deriving Morality From Politics: Rethinking the Formula of Humanity. Ethics 121 (1):116-147.
    Kant's Formula of Humanity famously forbids treating others merely as a means. It is unclear, however, what exactly treating someone merely as a means comes to. This essay argues against an interpretation of this idea advanced by Christine Korsgaard and Onora O'Neill. The essay then develops a new interpretation that suggests an important connection between the Formula of Humanity and Kant's political philosophy: the content of many of our moral duties depends on the results of political philosophy and, indeed, on (...)
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  45. Theodosios N. Pelegrinēs (1980). Kant's Conceptions of the Categorical Imperative and the Will. Zeno.
  46. Marek Piechowiak (2011). Klasyczna Koncepcja Osoby Jako Podstawa Pojmowania Praw Człowieka. Wokół Tomasza Z Akwinu I Immanuela Kanta Propozycji Ugruntowania Godności Człowieka. In Piotr Dardziński, Franciszek Longchamps de Bérier & Krzysztof Szczucki (eds.), Prawo naturalne – natura prawa. C. H. Beck. 3-20.
    Za „ojca” filozoficznej kategorii „godności”, która legła u podstaw kategorii prawnej, uznawany jest powszechnie Immanuel Kant. Przypomnieć jednak trzeba, że w bardzo podobny sposób, choć w zasadniczo odmiennym kontekście systemowym, charakteryzował godność Tomasz z Akwinu, pół tysiąca lat wcześniej, uznając ją za fundament bycia osobą. Stąd najistotniejszym i centralnym elementem, tytułowej, klasycznej koncepcji człowieka jest koncepcja godności. Akwinata jest autorem bodaj najbardziej rozbudowanej koncepcji osoby w tradycji filozofii klasycznej. Co więcej zmierzać będę do wykazania, że jego koncepcja lepiej nadaje się (...)
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  47. Andrews Reath, Formal Approaches to Kant's Formula of Humanity.
    My aim in this paper is to explore different ways of understanding Kant’s Formula of Humanity as a formal principle. I believe that a formal principle for Kant is a principle that is constitutive of some domain of cognition or rational activity. It is a principle that both constitutively guides that activity and serves as its internal regulative norm. In the first section of this essay, I explain why it is desirable to find a way to understand the Formula of (...)
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  48. Mary Veronica Sabelli (2009). Review: Dean, The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory. Review of Metaphysics 62 (3):653-655.
  49. Oliver Sensen (2009). Dignity and the Formula of Humanity. In Jens Timmermann (ed.), Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
  50. Alan Soble (2003). Kant and Sexual Perversion. The Monist 86 (1):55-89.
    This article discusses the views of Immanuel Kant on sexual perversion (what he calls "carnal crimes against nature"), as found in his Vorlesung (Lectures on Ethics) and the Metaphysics of Morals (both the Rechtslehre and Tugendlehre). Kant criticizes sexual perversion by appealing to Natural Law and to his Formula of Humanity. Neither argument for the immorality of sexual perversion succeeds.
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