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Kant’s conception of judgment both marks a pivotal moment in the development of logic and is at the center of his own philosophy. For Kant, judgment is the discursive rational activity par excellence, and it is in part because of Kant’s influence that subsequent philosophers, like Frege, have taken judgments to be the fundamental units of semantic content. Kant’s conception of the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments has also had a continuing impact. Given how influential Kant’s theory of judgment has continued to be for philosophy in general, it is likely unsurprising that it is also at the crux of his own thought. Broadly, Kant’s power of judgment splits into two parts. Reflecting judgment finds the concept or universal for given particulars. Determining judgment subsumes particulars under a given universal. As the paradigmatic rational activity, judgment is involved in the formation of concepts through the understanding, the making of inferences through reason, in judging theoretically or practically, aesthetically or teleologically, and in relating our immediate sensible representations of objects to concepts.

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  1. Charlotte Baumann (2016). Kant, Neo‐Kantians, and Transcendental Subjectivity. European Journal of Philosophy 24 (2).
    This article discusses an interpretation of Kant's conception of transcendental subjectivity, which manages to avoid many of the concerns that have been raised by analytic interpreters over this doctrine. It is an interpretation put forward by selected C19 and early C20 neo-Kantian writers. The article starts out by offering a neo-Kantian interpretation of the object as something that is constituted by the categories and that serves as a standard of truth within a theory of judgment. The second part explicates transcendental (...)
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Kant: Judgment of Perception vs Judgment of Experience
  1. Béatrice Longuenesse (1995). Kant et les jugements empiriques. Jugements de perception et jugements d'expérience. Kant-Studien 86 (3):278-307.
  2. Ansgar Lyssy (2007). Subjektiv, Intersubjektiv, Objektiv: Über die Struktur der Erfahrungsurteile bei Kant. In Christoph Asmuth (ed.), Transzendentalphilosophie und Person: Leiblichkeit, Interpersonalität, Anerkennung. Transcript 147-162.
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  3. Brigitte Sassen (2008). Varieties of Subjective Judgments: Judgments of Perception. Kant-Studien 99 (3):269-284.
  4. Alberto Vanzo (2012). Kant on Truth-Aptness. History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (2):109-126.
    Many scholars claimed that, according to Immanuel Kant, some judgements lack a truth-value: analytic judgements, judgements about items of which humans cannot have experience, judgements of perception, and non-assertoric judgements. However, no one has undertaken an extensive examination of the textual evidence for those claims. Based on an analysis of Kant's texts, I argue that: (1) according to Kant, only judgements of perception are not truth-apt. All other judgements are truth-apt, including analytic judgements and judgements about items of which humans (...)
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Kant: Reflective vs Determining Judgment
  1. María Isabel Cabrera Bosch (1996). Verdad y juicio reflexionante en Kant. Dianoia: Anuario de Filosofía 42:81-90.
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  2. Luigi Caranti (2005). Logical Purposiveness and the Principle of Taste. Kant-Studien 96 (3):364-374.
    In both Introductions to the Critique of Judgment Kant seems to identify the a priori principle at the basis of aesthetic judgments with the principle that guides reflective judgment in its cognitive inquiry of nature, i.e. the purposiveness of nature or systematicity. For instance Kant writes.
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  3. Daniel Dumouchel (1994). La découverte de la faculté de juger réfléchissante. Kant-Studien 85 (4):419-442.
  4. P. Faggiotto (1990). Note on the Kantian Distinction Between Natural Judgment (Reflecting) and Transcendental Judgment (Determining). Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):3-11.
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  5. Pietro Faggiotto (1995). L'Urteilskraft nella formazione delle leggi empiriche secondo Kant. Studi Kantiani 8:31-38.
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  6. Paul Guyer (1996). Los principios del juicio reflexivo. Dianoia 42 (42):1-59.
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  7. Immanuel Kant (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment. Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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  8. Samuel J. Kerstein (2002). Kant's Religion and Reflective Judgment. Ethics 112 (3):634--637.
  9. Rudolf A. Makkreel (2006). Reflection, Reflective Judgment, and Aesthetic Exemplarity. In Rebecca Kukla (ed.), Aesthetics and Cognition in Kant's Critical Philosophy. Cambridge University Press
  10. Rudolf A. Makkreel (2002). Reflective Judgment and the Problem of Assessing Virtue in Kant. Journal of Value Inquiry 36 (2-3):205-220.
  11. Rudolf A. Makkreel (2001). Reflective Judgment, Orientation and the Priorities of Justice. Philosophy and Social Criticism 27 (3):105-110.
  12. Matthew McAndrew (2014). Kant's Theory of Inductive Reasoning: The Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant's Logic. Kant Studies Online:43-64.
  13. Ralf Meerbote (2000). Review: Munzel, G. Felicitas, Kant's Conception of Moral Character: The 'Critical' Link of Morality, Anthropology, and Reflective Judgment. Review of Metaphysics 53 (3):724-726.
  14. Helga Mertens (1975). Kommentar Zur Ersten Einleitung in Kants Kritik der Urteilskraft Zur Systemat. Funktion D. Kritik D. Urteilskraft F.D. System D. Vernunftkritik. [REVIEW] Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  15. Alexandra Newton (2013). Kant on the Form of Aesthetic Judgment. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 169-180.
  16. Lara Ostaric (2013). Aesthetic Judgment and the Completion of Kant’s Critical System. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 679-690.
  17. Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez (2012). Ingenio, Uso Hipotético de la Razón y Juicio Reflexionante en la Filosofía de Kant. Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 29 (2):577-592.
    This article researches the historical and systematic background of Kant’s reflecting power of judgment theory based on a historical study of the concept of wit [ingenium, Witz]. Although the Notes from Lessons on Anthropology even expound the meaning of this concept in the context of Baumgarten’s empirical psychology, this material helps us interpret the concept of wit as one of the most important precedents of the reflecting power of judgment theory presented in Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment. The (...)
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  18. Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez (2012). Logica Naturalis, Healthy Understanding and the Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant's Philosophy. Kant-Studien 103 (2):188-206.
    The aim of this article is to explore historically the origin of the difficulty of founding the reflecting power of judgment as Kant outlines it in the Preface to the third Critique. Despite that a foundation of the power of judging in the system of Transcendental Philosophy was only established in 1790, we must interpret it as a critical solution for an old problem, which Kant had already recognized around 1770. Through his comprehension of the meaning of healthy understanding he (...)
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  19. Sánchez Rodríguez Manuel (2012). Logica Naturalis, Healthy Understanding and the Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant's Philosophy. The Source of the Problem of Judgment in the Leibniz-Wolffian Logic and Aesthetics. Kant-Studien 103 (2).
    The aim of this article is to explore historically the origin of the difficulty of founding the reflecting power of judgment as Kant outlines it in the Preface to the third Critique. Despite that a foundation of the power of judging in the system of Transcendental Philosophy was only established in 1790, we must interpret it as a critical solution for an old problem, which Kant had already recognized around 1770. Through his comprehension of the meaning of healthy understanding he (...)
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  20. Marco Sgarbi (2010). La Logica Dell'irrazionale: Studi Sul Significato E Sui Problemi Della Kritik der Urteilskraft. Mimesis.
Kant: Teleological Judgment
  1. M. Bianchi (2005). Commento Alla Critica Della Facoltà di Giudizio di Kant. Le Monnier Università.
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  2. F. Chiereghin (1990). Finality and the Idea of Life-the Hegelian Reception of the Teleology of Kant. Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):127-229.
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  3. Nassar Dalia (2016). Analogical Reflection as a Source for the Science of Life: Kant and the Possibility of the Biological Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 58:57-66.
    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of (...)
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  4. Crompton Llewellyn Davies (1895). Kant's Teleology. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 3 (2):65 - 86.
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  5. William Drean (1990). Kant's Theory of Reflective Judgements and Teleology.
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  6. Lorenzo Greco (2010). Alessandro Ferrara, La forza dell'esempio (Milano: Feltrinelli, 2008). [REVIEW] Rivista di Filosofia 101 (1):123-24.
  7. Paul Guyer (2009). CHAPTER 5: Systematicity, Taste, and Purpose. In Knowledge, Reason, and Taste: Kant's Response to Hume. Princeton University Press 198-254.
  8. Dilek Huseyinzadegan (2013). Teleology and Its Risks for Reason: A Closer Look at the Antinomy of Teleological Judgment. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 899-910.
  9. Immanuel Kant (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment. Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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  10. Michael Kraft (1982). Kant's Theory of Teleology. International Philosophical Quarterly 22 (1):42-49.
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  11. Susan F. Krantz (1992). Humility and Teleology in Kant's Third Critique. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 66:85-98.
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  12. Dalia Nassar (2015). Analogy, Natural History and the Philosophy of Nature: Kant, Herder and the Problem of Empirical Science. Journal of the Philosophy of History 9 (2):240-257.
  13. Marcel Quarfood (2014). The Antinomy of Teleological Judgment: What It Is and How It Is Solved. In Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.), Kant's Theory of Biology. De Gruyter 167-184.
  14. A. Savile (1973). McFARLAND, J. D. - "Kant's Concept of Teleology". [REVIEW] Mind 82:618.
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  15. Dennis Schulting (forthcoming). Analytic of Teleological Judgment. In Sorin Baiasu & Mark Timmons (eds.), The Kantian Mind. Routledge
  16. Marco Sgarbi (2010). La Logica Dell'irrazionale: Studi Sul Significato E Sui Problemi Della Kritik der Urteilskraft. Mimesis.
  17. Joan Steigerwald (2006). Kant's Concept of Natural Purpose and the Reflecting Power of Judgement. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (4):712-734.
    This paper examines how in the ‘Critique of teleological judgment’ Kant characterized the concept of natural purpose in relation to and in distinction from the concepts of nature and the concept of purpose he had developed in his other critical writings. Kant maintained that neither the principles of mechanical science nor the pure concepts of the understanding through which we determine experience in general provide adequate conceptualizations of the unique capacities of organisms. He also held that although the concept of (...)
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  18. Toby Svoboda (2015). Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Environmental Ethic. Routledge.
    In this book, Toby Svoboda develops and defends a Kantian environmental virtue ethic, challenging the widely-held view that Kant's moral philosophy takes an instrumental view toward nature and animals and has little to offer environmental ethics. On the contrary, Svoboda posits that there is good moral reason to care about non-human organisms in their own right and to value their flourishing independently of human interests, since doing so is constitutive of certain virtues. Svoboda argues that Kant’s account of indirect duties (...)
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  19. P. A. T. (1971). Kant's Concept of Teleology. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 24 (4):750-750.
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  20. Thomas Teufel (2011). What is the Problem of Teleology in Kant's Critique of the Teleological Power of Judgment? SATS: Northern European Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):198-236.
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  21. Georg Toepfer (2011). Kant’s Teleology, the Concept of the Organism, and the Context of Contemporary Biology. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 14.
  22. J. Tufts (1893). The Sources and Development of Kant's Teleology. Philosophical Review 2:249.
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  23. Eric Watkins (2009). The Antinomy of Teleological Judgment. Kant Yearbook 1 (1).
  24. Mary-Barbara Zeldin (1973). Kant's Concept of Teleology. Studi Internazionali Di Filosofia 5:265-269.
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  25. Rachel Zuckert (2000). Purposiveness, Time, and Unity: A Reading of "the Critique of Judgment". Dissertation, The University of Chicago
    I propose a unified reading of Kant's third critical work, The Critique of Judgment, as a sustained argument that "purposiveness without a purpose" is the a priori, transcendental principle of judgment, a "subjective" yet necessary condition for the practice of judging and for the possibility of experience. I argue that Kant's principle of purposiveness is a temporal-formal structure of the subject's judging activity, a structure of anticipation that unites present and past moments as "towards" the future. Such purposiveness is a (...)
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