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Kant’s conception of judgment both marks a pivotal moment in the development of logic and is at the center of his own philosophy. For Kant, judgment is the discursive rational activity par excellence, and it is in part because of Kant’s influence that subsequent philosophers, like Frege, have taken judgments to be the fundamental units of semantic content. Kant’s conception of the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments has also had a continuing impact. Given how influential Kant’s theory of judgment has continued to be for philosophy in general, it is likely unsurprising that it is also at the crux of his own thought. Broadly, Kant’s power of judgment splits into two parts. Reflecting judgment finds the concept or universal for given particulars. Determining judgment subsumes particulars under a given universal. As the paradigmatic rational activity, judgment is involved in the formation of concepts through the understanding, the making of inferences through reason, in judging theoretically or practically, aesthetically or teleologically, and in relating our immediate sensible representations of objects to concepts.

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  1. R. Lanier Anderson (2008). Comments on Wayne Martin, Theories of Judgment. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 137 (1):91 - 108.
    Martin offers an intriguing account of nineteenth century challenges to the traditional theory of judgment as a synthesis of subject and predicate (the synthesis theory)--criticisms motivated largely by the problem posed by existential judgments, which need not have two terms at all. Such judgments led to a theory of "thetic" judgments, whose essential feature is to "posit" something, rather than to combine terms (as in synthetic judgment). I argue, however, that Kant's official definition of judgment already implicitly recognizes the importance (...)
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  2. R. Lanier Anderson (2004). Containment Analyticity and Kant's Problem of Synthetic Judgment. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 25 (2):161-204.
  3. R. Lanier Anderson (2001). Synthesis, Cognitive Normativity, and the Meaning of Kant's Question, 'How Are Synthetic Cognitions a Priori Possible?'. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):275–305.
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  4. Richard Aquila (2003). Kant's Empirical Realism. [REVIEW] International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (3):389-390.
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  5. Richard E. Aquila (2002). Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (2):267-268.
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  6. Richard E. Aquila (1974). Kant's Theory of Concepts. Kant-Studien 65 (1-4):1-19.
  7. Gordon Prescott Barnes (2007). Necessity and Apriority. Philosophical Studies 132 (3):495 - 523.
    The classical view of the relationship between necessity and apriority, defended by Leibniz and Kant, is that all necessary truths are known a priori. The classical view is now almost universally rejected, ever since Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam discovered that there are necessary truths that are known only a posteriori. However, in recent years a new debate has emerged over the epistemology of these necessary a posteriori truths. According to one view – call it the neo-classical view – knowledge (...)
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  8. George Bealer, Analyticity.
    1. In Critique of Pure Reason Kant introduced the term ‘analytic’ for judgments whose truth is guaranteed by a certain relation of ‘containment’ between the constituent concepts, and ‘synthetic’ for judgments which are not like this. Closely related terms were found in earlier writings of Locke, Hume and Leibniz. In Kant’s definition, an analytic judgment is one in which ‘the predicate B belongs to the subject A, as something which is (covertly) contained in this concept A’ ([1781/1787] 1965: 48). Kant (...)
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  9. Jonathan Francis Bennett (1966). Kant's Analytic. London, Cambridge U.P..
  10. M. Bianchi (2005). Commento Alla Critica Della Facoltà di Giudizio di Kant. Le Monnier Università.
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  11. Henny Blomme (2012). The Completeness of Kant's Metaphysical Exposition of Space. Kant-Studien 103 (2):139-162.
    In the first edition of his book on the completeness of Kant’s table of judgments, Klaus Reich shortly indicates that the B-version of the metaphysical exposition of space in the Critique of pure reason is structured following the inverse order of the table of categories. In this paper, I develop Reich’s claim and provide further evidence for it. My argumentation is as follows: Through analysis of our actually given representation of space as some kind of object (the formal intuition of (...)
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  12. Angela Breitenbach (2013). Aesthetics in Science: A Kantian Proposal. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 113 (1pt1):83-100.
    Can aesthetic judgements legitimately be linked to the success of scientific theories? I suggest that a satisfactory answer to this question should account for the persistent attraction that aesthetic considerations seem to have for scientists, while also explaining the apparent instability of the link between the beauty of a theory and its truth. I argue that two widespread tendencies in the literature, Pythagorean and subjectivist approaches, have difficulties meeting this twofold challenge. I propose a Kantian conception of aesthetic judgements as (...)
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  13. Manuel Bremer (2008). Transcendental Logic Redefined. Review of Contemporary Philosophy 7.
    Traditionally transcendental logic has been set apart from formal logic. Transcendental logic had to deal with the conditions of possibility of judgements, which were presupposed by formal logic. Defined as a purely philosophical enterprise transcendental logic was considered as being a priori delivering either analytic or even synthetic a priori results. In this paper it is argued that this separation from the (empirical) cognitive sciences should be given up. Transcendental logic should be understood as focusing on specific questions. These do (...)
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  14. Franz Brentano (2013). Philosophie scientifique et philosophie des préjugés. Philosophie (119):3-31.
    Le texte traduit ici est tiré d’un recueil réunissant plusieurs écrits du philosophe allemand Franz Brentano (1838-1917) et publié en 1925 par son disciple Alfred Kastil sous le titre Essai sur la connaissance. La pièce maîtresse du recueil est un manuscrit de Brentano intitulé « À bas les préjugés ! », portant le sous-titre : « Une exhortation pour inciter l’époque actuelle à renoncer, dans l’esprit de Bacon et de Descartes, à tous les a priori aveugles » (1903). Nous avons (...)
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  15. J. A. Brook (1992). Kant's A Priori Methods for Recognizing Necessary Truths. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22 (sup1):215-252.
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  16. Jorge Brower Beltramin (2013). Aportes (otros) de Foucault al análisis de la cultura. Eidos 18 (18):198-202.
    En las discusiones modernas sobre la posibilidad de las proposiciones sintéticas a priori, la teoría de la definición tiene una importancia capital, porque la mayoría de las teorías sostiene que los juicios analíticos están lógicamente implicados en una definición explícita (lo que restringe los enunciados de una definición completa y precisa a juicios de este tipo). Sin embargo, para Kant -el primer autor en señalar la distinción entre proposiciones analíticas y sintéticas-muchos juicios analíticos son obtenidos mediante análisis de conceptos que (...)
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  17. Stefanie Buchenau (2011). Notions directrices et architectonique de la métaphysique. La critique kantienne de Wolff en 1763. Astérion 9.
    Cet article cherche à reconstituer la thèse de Christian Wolff sur l’évidence (Deutlichkeit) des principes métaphysiques, dans un article de 1729 sur les « Notions directrices et le véritable usage de la première science », qui offre une référence centrale (et méconnue aujourd’hui) aux répondants du concours de 1762-1763, dont Kant. Wolff affirme en effet que la métaphysique est susceptible d’une certitude égale voire supérieure à celle des mathématiques et qu’elle diffuse cette certitude à travers toutes les autres disciplines ; (...)
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  18. Jill Vance Buroker (2004). Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge Robert Greenberg University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001, Ix + 278 Pp. [REVIEW] Dialogue 43 (01):165-.
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  19. Luigi Caranti (2005). Logical Purposiveness and the Principle of Taste. Kant-Studien 96 (3):364-374.
    In both Introductions to the Critique of Judgment Kant seems to identify the a priori principle at the basis of aesthetic judgments with the principle that guides reflective judgment in its cognitive inquiry of nature, i.e. the purposiveness of nature or systematicity. For instance Kant writes.
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  20. Quassim Cassam (2003). Can Transcendental Epistemology Be Naturalized? Philosophy 78 (2):181-203.
    Transcendental epistemology is an inquiry into conditions of human knowledge which reflect the structure of the human cognitive apparatus. The dependence thesis is the thesis that a proper investigation of such conditions must lean in important respects on the deliverances of science. I argue that Kant is right to object to the dependence thesis, but that the best objections to this thesis lead to the conclusion that the conditions of knowledge which Kant identifies are not, in any interesting sense, a (...)
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  21. Ruth F. Chadwick & Clive Cazeaux (eds.) (1992). Kant's Critique of Judgement. Routledge.
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  22. Luciano Codato (2008). Judgment, Extension, Logical Form. In Kant-Gesellschaft E. V. Walter de Gruyter (ed.), Law and Peace in Kant’s Philosophy / Recht und Frieden in der Philosophie Kants. Walter de Gruyter. 1--139.
    In Kant’s logical texts the reference of the form of the judgment to an “unknown = x” is well known, but its understanding remains far from consensual. Due to the universality of all concepts, the subject as much as the predicate, in the form S is P, is regarded as predicate of the x, which, in turn, is regarded as the subject of the judgment. In the CPR, particularly in the text on the “logical use of the understanding”, this Kantian (...)
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  23. Luciano Codato (2002). Dedução dos Conhecimentos puros a priori (Reflexão 5923), de Kant. Cadernos de Filosofia Alemã 8:119-127.
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  24. Georges Dicker (2004). Kant's Theory of Knowledge: An Analytical Introduction. OUP USA.
    The Critique of Pure Reason is Kant's acknowledged masterpiece, in which he tackles the question of how we can possibly have knowledge that does not rest on experience (a priori knowledge). The first half of the Critique advances a constructive theory of human cognition and defends the possibility of human knowledge against the skeptical empiricism of Hume. These sections of the Critique are difficult for beginners and for advanced students alike. While there exist many scholarly works discussing the Critique on (...)
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  25. Daniel Dumouchel (1994). La découverte de la faculté de juger réfléchissante. Kant-Studien 85 (4):419-442.
  26. Theodor Ebert (2009). Michael Wolff über Syllogismen bei Aristoteles und Vernunftschlüsse bei Kant. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):357 - 372.
  27. Pietro Faggiotto (1995). L'Urteilskraft nella formazione delle leggi empiriche secondo Kant. Studi Kantiani 8:31-38.
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  28. Edgard José Jorge Filho (2008). Concerning the Problem of Error in Kant. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 16:67-76.
    In the Introduction to the Transcendental Dialectic, of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant presents a conception of error. In the (Jäsche) Logic, he also deals with the problem of error, albeit in a different way. This paper aims at exposing this difference and arguing that, in the (Jäsche) Logic, error is explained moreconsistently and suitably than it is in the Transcendental Dialectic. It begins by considering judgment as the place of truth, falsehood and error, and inquiring into the cognitive (...)
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  29. J. Freudiger (1991). The Problem of Perceptual Judgment in Kant's Theoretical Philosophy. Kant-Studien 82 (4):414-435.
  30. Martha I. Gibson (1995). Reference and Unity in Kant's Theory of Judgment. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 25 (2):229 - 256.
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  31. Bob Hale (1999). Intuition and Reflection in Arithmetic: Bob Hale. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 73 (1):75–98.
    [Michael Potter] If arithmetic is not analytic in Kant's sense, what is its subject matter? Answers to this question can be classified into four sorts according as they posit logic, experience, thought or the world as the source, but in each case we need to appeal to some further process if we are to generate a structure rich enough to represent arithmetic as standardly practised. I speculate that this further process is our reflection on the subject matter already obtained. This (...)
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  32. R. Hanna (2002). Review: Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (443):671-675.
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  33. Wojciech Hanuszkiewicz (2012). Problem syntetyczności sądów a priori w ujęciu Hermanna Lotzego. ARGUMENT 2 (2):363-375.
    English title: The Problem of the Synthetic a priori Judgements According to Hermann Lotze. The present article compares Kant’s and Lotze’s concepts of synthetic judgements. Lotze’s aim is a renewing of the Kant’s solutions, what he achieves thanks to introduction of the distinction between analytic (identical) content and synthetic form of these judgements which Kant recognised as synthetic. This distinction makes possible to lay down the concept of intentional sense which has influence over Frege and Husserl.
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  34. Robert Hopkins (2001). Kant, Quasi-Realism, and the Autonomy of Aesthetic Judgement. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):166–189.
    Aesthetic judgements are autonomous, as many other judgements are not: for the latter, but not the former, it is sometimes justifiable to change one's mind simply because several others share a different opinion. Why is this? One answer is that claims about beauty are not assertions at all, but expressions of aesthetic response. However, to cover more than just some of the explananda, this expressivism needs combining with some analogue of cognitive command, i.e. the idea that disagreements over beuaty can (...)
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  35. Fiona Hughes (2009). Kant's Critique of Judgment: A Reader's Guide. Continuum.
    Context -- Overview of themes -- Reading the text -- Reception and influence.
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  36. Béla Juhos (1968). Die empirische wahrheit und ihre überprüfung. Kant-Studien 59 (1-4):435-447.
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  37. Béla Juhos (1967). Die „intensionale“ wahrheit und die zwei arten Des aussagengebrauchs. Kant-Studien 58 (1-4):173-186.
  38. Immanuel Kant (2005). Notes and Fragments: Logic, Metaphysics, Moral Philosophy, Aesthetics. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume provides the first ever extensive translation of the notes and fragments that survived Kant's death in 1804. These include marginalia, lecture notes, and sketches and drafts for his published works. They are important as an indispensable resource for understanding Kant's intellectual development and published works, casting new light on Kant's conception of his own philosophical methods and his relations to his predecessors, as well as on central doctrines of his work such as the theory of space, time and (...)
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  39. Immanuel Kant (2004). Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science: With Selections From the Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press.
    This new, revised edition of Kant's Prolegomena, the best introduction to the theoretical side of his philosophy, presents his thought clearly through careful attention to his original language. Also included are selections from the Critique of Pure Reason, which fill out and explicate some of Kant's central arguments (including famous sections of the Schematism and Analogies), and in which Kant himself explains his special terminology. The first reviews of the Critique, to which Kant responded in the Prolegomena, are included in (...)
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  40. Immanuel Kant (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment. Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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  41. Patricia Kitcher (2011). Kant's Thinker. Oxford University Press.
    Overview -- Locke's internal sense and Kant's changing views -- Personal identity amd its problems -- Rationalist metaphysics of mind -- Consciousness, self-consciousness, and cognition -- Strands of Argument in the Duisburg Nachlass -- A transcendental deduction for a priori concepts -- Synthesis : why and how? -- Arguing for apperception -- The power of apperception -- "I-think" as the destroyer of rational psychology -- Is Kant's theory consistent? -- The normativity objection -- Is Kant's thinker (as such) a free (...)
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  42. Joachim Kopper (1981). Jenseits des analytischen und des synthetischen Urteils. Reflexionen zu Hermann Cohens Logik der reinen Erkenntnis. Kant-Studien 72 (1-4):58-67.
  43. Srećko Kovač (2008). In What Sense is Kantian Principle of Contradiction Non-Classical? Logic and Logical Philosophy 17 (3):251-274.
    On the ground of Kant’s reformulation of the principle of con- tradiction, a non-classical logic KC and its extension KC+ are constructed. In KC and KC+, \neg(\phi \wedge \neg\phi),  \phi \rightarrow (\neg\phi \rightarrow \phi), and  \phi \vee \neg\phi are not valid due to specific changes in the meaning of connectives and quantifiers, although there is the explosion of derivable consequences from {\phi, ¬\phi} (the deduc- tion theorem lacking). KC and KC+ are interpreted as fragments of an S5-based first-order (...)
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  44. Seung-Kee Lee (2004). The Determinate-Indeterminate Distinction and Kants Theory of Judgment. Kant-Studien 95 (2):204-225.
  45. Zeljko Loparic (2005). Os problemas da razão pura e a semântica transcendental. Doispontos 2 (2).
    O presente artigo tem como objetivo mostrar que a teoria kantiana da possibilidade de juízos a priori, o conteúdo essencial da sua crítica da razão pura, foi elaborada no intuito de garantir a solubilidade dos problemas necessários da razão pura e que essa teoria pode ser interpretada como uma semântica transcendental (a priori). The problems of pure reason and the transcendental semanticsThis article aims at showing that Kant´s theory of possibility of a priori judgments, which is the essential content of (...)
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  46. H. Lorenz (1997). Conditions and Completeness a-Priori of Kant's Catalogue of Judgements. Kant-Studien 88 (4):386-405.
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  47. Hilmar Lorenz (1997). Die Gegebenheit und Vollständigkeit a priori der Kantischen Urteilstafel. Kant-Studien 88 (4):386-405.
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  48. Jean-François Lyotard (1994). Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime: Kant's Critique of Judgment, [Sections] 23-29. Stanford University Press.
    Philosophical aesthetics have seen an amazing revival over the past decade, as a radical questioning of the very grounds of Western epistemology has revealed that descriptions of what used to be seen as specific to aesthetic experience can instead be viewed as a general model for human cognition. In this revival, no text in the classical corpus of Western philosophy has been more frequently discussed and debated than the dense, complex paragraphs inserted into Kant's Critique of Judgment as sections 23-29: (...)
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  49. Wayne M. Martin (2006). Theories of Judgment: Psychology, Logic, Phenomenology. Cambridge University Press.
    Wayne Martin traces attempts to develop theories of judgment in British Empiricism, the logical tradition stemming from Kant, nineteenth-century psychologism, recent experimental neuropsychology, and the phenomenological tradition associated with Brentano, Husserl and Heidegger. His reconstruction of vibrant but largely forgotten nineteenth-century debates links Kantian approaches to judgment with twentieth-century phenomenological accounts. He also shows that the psychological, logical and phenomenological dimensions of judgment are not only equally important, but fundamentally interlinked.
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  50. Wayne M. Martin (2003). Nothing More or Less Than Logic: General Logic, Transcendental Philosophy, and Kant's Repudiation of Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre. Topoi 22 (1):29-39.
    In this paper I lay the foundations for an understanding of one of Fichte's most neglected and least understood texts: the late lecture course on Transcendental Logic. I situate this work in the context of Fichte's lifelong struggle with the problem of understanding the relation between logic and philosophy – a problem that I show to figure centrally both in Fichte's own revolutionary thinking and in his response to Kant's notorious denunciation of the Wissenschaftslehre. By attending to this context we (...)
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