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Kant’s conception of judgment both marks a pivotal moment in the development of logic and is at the center of his own philosophy. For Kant, judgment is the discursive rational activity par excellence, and it is in part because of Kant’s influence that subsequent philosophers, like Frege, have taken judgments to be the fundamental units of semantic content. Kant’s conception of the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments has also had a continuing impact. Given how influential Kant’s theory of judgment has continued to be for philosophy in general, it is likely unsurprising that it is also at the crux of his own thought. Broadly, Kant’s power of judgment splits into two parts. Reflecting judgment finds the concept or universal for given particulars. Determining judgment subsumes particulars under a given universal. As the paradigmatic rational activity, judgment is involved in the formation of concepts through the understanding, the making of inferences through reason, in judging theoretically or practically, aesthetically or teleologically, and in relating our immediate sensible representations of objects to concepts.

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  1. R. Lanier Anderson (2008). Review: Comments on Wayne Martin, Theories of Judgment. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 137 (1):91-108.
    Martin offers an intriguing account of nineteenth century challenges to the traditional theory of judgment as a synthesis of subject and predicate (the synthesis theory)--criticisms motivated largely by the problem posed by existential judgments, which need not have two terms at all. Such judgments led to a theory of "thetic" judgments, whose essential feature is to "posit" something, rather than to combine terms (as in synthetic judgment). I argue, however, that Kant's official definition of judgment already implicitly recognizes the importance (...)
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  2. R. Lanier Anderson (2004). Containment Analyticity and Kant's Problem of Synthetic Judgment. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 25 (2):161-204.
  3. R. Lanier Anderson (2001). Synthesis, Cognitive Normativity, and the Meaning of Kant's Question, 'How Are Synthetic Cognitions a Priori Possible?'. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):275–305.
  4. Richard E. Aquila (2002). Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (2):267-268.
    Richard E. Aquila - Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:2 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.2 267-268 Book Review Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge Robert Greenberg. Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge. University Park: Penn State University Press, 2001. Pp. ix + 278. Cloth, $45.00. This is one of the deepest and most carefully reasoned books on Kant I have read. It is a book for the scholar of the first (...)
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  5. Richard E. Aquila (1974). Kant's Theory of Concepts. Kant-Studien 65 (1-4):1-19.
  6. Gordon Prescott Barnes (2007). Necessity and Apriority. Philosophical Studies 132 (3):495 - 523.
    The classical view of the relationship between necessity and apriority, defended by Leibniz and Kant, is that all necessary truths are known a priori. The classical view is now almost universally rejected, ever since Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam discovered that there are necessary truths that are known only a posteriori. However, in recent years a new debate has emerged over the epistemology of these necessary a posteriori truths. According to one view – call it the neo-classical view – knowledge (...)
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  7. M. Bianchi (2005). Commento Alla Critica Della Facoltà di Giudizio di Kant. Le Monnier Università.
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  8. Johannes L. Brandl, Marian David, Maria E. Reicher & Leopold Stubenberg (2012). Bolzano & Kant. Rodopi.
    Inhaltsverzeichnis/Table of ContentsThemenschwerpunkt/Special Topic: Bolzano & KantGastherausgeber/Guest Editor: Sandra LapointeSandra Lapointe: IntroductionSandra Lapointe: Is Logic Formal? Bolzano, Kant and the Kantian LogiciansNicholas F. Stang: A Kantian Reply to Bolzano’s Critique of Kant’s Analytic-Synthetic DistinctionClinton Tolley: Bolzano and Kant on the Place of Subjectivity in a WissenschaftslehreTimothy Rosenkoetter: Kant and Bolzano on the Singularity of IntuitionsWaldemar Rohloff: From Ordinary Language to Definition in Kant and BolzanoWeitere Artikel/Further ArticlesChristian Damböck: Wilhelm Diltheys empirische Philosophie und der rezente Methodenstreit in der analytischen PhilosophieBernd Prien: (...)
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  9. Angela Breitenbach (2013). Aesthetics in Science: A Kantian Proposal. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 113 (1pt1):83-100.
    Can aesthetic judgements legitimately be linked to the success of scientific theories? I suggest that a satisfactory answer to this question should account for the persistent attraction that aesthetic considerations seem to have for scientists, while also explaining the apparent instability of the link between the beauty of a theory and its truth. I argue that two widespread tendencies in the literature, Pythagorean and subjectivist approaches, have difficulties meeting this twofold challenge. I propose a Kantian conception of aesthetic judgements as (...)
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  10. Manuel Bremer (2008). Transcendental Logic Redefined. Review of Contemporary Philosophy 7.
    Traditionally transcendental logic has been set apart from formal logic. Transcendental logic had to deal with the conditions of possibility of judgements, which were presupposed by formal logic. Defined as a purely philosophical enterprise transcendental logic was considered as being a priori delivering either analytic or even synthetic a priori results. In this paper it is argued that this separation from the (empirical) cognitive sciences should be given up. Transcendental logic should be understood as focusing on specific questions. These do (...)
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  11. Franz Brentano (2013). Philosophie scientifique et philosophie des préjugés. Philosophie (119):3-31.
    Le texte traduit ici est tiré d’un recueil réunissant plusieurs écrits du philosophe allemand Franz Brentano (1838-1917) et publié en 1925 par son disciple Alfred Kastil sous le titre Essai sur la connaissance. La pièce maîtresse du recueil est un manuscrit de Brentano intitulé « À bas les préjugés ! », portant le sous-titre : « Une exhortation pour inciter l’époque actuelle à renoncer, dans l’esprit de Bacon et de Descartes, à tous les a priori aveugles » (1903). Nous avons (...)
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  12. Harold W. Brogan (1996). The Ontological Motif in Kant's Account of Reflective Judgment. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University
    This dissertation argues the position that the Critique of Judgment is the realization of Kant's intent throughout the critical project to provide a transcendental justification of the metaphysics of Leibniz. With this objective in view the dissertation examines Kant's writing in the Eberhard Controversy and The Prize Essay in order to bring into relief Kant's own avowed commitment to Leibniz, and to show how this faithfulness to the tenets of Leibniz' metaphysics formed Kant's arguments in the Critique of Judgment. The (...)
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  13. J. A. Brook (1992). Kant's A Priori Methods for Recognizing Necessary Truths. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22 (sup1):215-252.
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  14. Jorge Brower Beltramin (2013). Aportes (otros) de Foucault al análisis de la cultura. Eidos 18 (18):198-202.
    En las discusiones modernas sobre la posibilidad de las proposiciones sintéticas a priori, la teoría de la definición tiene una importancia capital, porque la mayoría de las teorías sostiene que los juicios analíticos están lógicamente implicados en una definición explícita (lo que restringe los enunciados de una definición completa y precisa a juicios de este tipo). Sin embargo, para Kant -el primer autor en señalar la distinción entre proposiciones analíticas y sintéticas-muchos juicios analíticos son obtenidos mediante análisis de conceptos que (...)
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  15. Stefanie Buchenau (2011). Notions directrices et architectonique de la métaphysique. La critique kantienne de Wolff en 1763. Astérion 9.
    Cet article cherche à reconstituer la thèse de Christian Wolff sur l’évidence (Deutlichkeit) des principes métaphysiques, dans un article de 1729 sur les « Notions directrices et le véritable usage de la première science », qui offre une référence centrale (et méconnue aujourd’hui) aux répondants du concours de 1762-1763, dont Kant. Wolff affirme en effet que la métaphysique est susceptible d’une certitude égale voire supérieure à celle des mathématiques et qu’elle diffuse cette certitude à travers toutes les autres disciplines ; (...)
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  16. Jill Vance Buroker (2004). Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge Robert Greenberg University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001, Ix + 278 Pp. [REVIEW] Dialogue 43 (01):165-.
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  17. Luigi Caranti (2005). Logical Purposiveness and the Principle of Taste. Kant-Studien 96 (3):364-374.
    In both Introductions to the Critique of Judgment Kant seems to identify the a priori principle at the basis of aesthetic judgments with the principle that guides reflective judgment in its cognitive inquiry of nature, i.e. the purposiveness of nature or systematicity. For instance Kant writes.
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  18. Quassim Cassam (2003). Can Transcendental Epistemology Be Naturalized? Philosophy 78 (2):181-203.
    Transcendental epistemology is an inquiry into conditions of human knowledge which reflect the structure of the human cognitive apparatus. The dependence thesis is the thesis that a proper investigation of such conditions must lean in important respects on the deliverances of science. I argue that Kant is right to object to the dependence thesis, but that the best objections to this thesis lead to the conclusion that the conditions of knowledge which Kant identifies are not, in any interesting sense, a (...)
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  19. Ruth F. Chadwick & Clive Cazeaux (eds.) (1992). Kant's Critique of Judgement. Routledge.
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  20. David Howard Chandler (1979). Furwahrhalten: The Subjective Validity of Judgments in Kant's Works on Logic. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
  21. Danilo Ciolino, La Grundlage Metafisico-Trascendentale Schopenaueriana. Una Fenomenologia Trascendentale.
    The present study is an attempt to explain and account for the metaphysical foundation of the transcendental elements of Schopenhauer's idealism, according to the suggestions Schopenhauer gives in its philosophical production for the understanding of his own philosophy. According to Schopenhauer these elements are to be found outside The World as Will and Representation, that is, in the treatise On Fourfold Roots of Principle of Sufficient Reason, the work he considers as the necessary premise in order to understand its major (...)
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  22. Luciano Codato (2008). Judgment, Extension, Logical Form. In Kant-Gesellschaft E. V. Walter de Gruyter (ed.), Law and Peace in Kant’s Philosophy / Recht und Frieden in der Philosophie Kants. Walter de Gruyter. 1--139.
    In Kant’s logical texts the reference of the form S is P to an “unknown = x” is well known, but its understanding still remains controversial. Due to the universality of all concepts, the subject as much as the predicate is regarded as predicate of the x, which, in turn, is regarded as the subject of the judgment. In the CPR, this Kantian interpretation of the S-P relationship leads to the question about the relations between intuition and concept in judgment. (...)
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  23. Luciano Codato (2002). Dedução dos Conhecimentos puros a priori (Reflexão 5923), de Kant. Cadernos de Filosofia Alemã 8:119-127.
    Introduction and translation into Portuguese of Kant's Reflection 5923 (AA 18: 385-7).
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  24. Georges Dicker (2004). Kant's Theory of Knowledge: An Analytical Introduction. Oup Usa.
    Kant's masterpiece, Critique of Pure Reason, is universally recognized to be among the most difficult of all philosophical writing, and yet it is required reading in almost every course that covers modern philosophy. Most students find Critique of Pure Reason impenetrable without the help of secondary sources. While there are numerous advanced scholarly works on the topic, Dicker's is the first treatment explicitly designed for undergraduates to read alongside the primary text, rendering Kant's views accessible without oversimplifying them. His book (...)
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  25. Alfredo Dinis (1993). Kant: Objectividade e Causalidade na Segunda Analogia da Experiência. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 49 (4):627 - 633.
    O objectivo central de Kant no texto da "Segunda Analogia da Experiência", na Crítica da Razão Pura, é o de estabelecer a condição de possibilidade da experiência de uma sucessão objectiva de fenómenos. A sucessão contingente de fenómenos ao nível da intuição converte-se na percepção objectiva de uma sequência de fenómenos apenas pela actividade sintética da imaginação de acordo com o princípio de causalidade. No texto em análise, a aplicação daquele princípio não vai além das formas a priori do espaço (...)
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  26. Daniel Dumouchel (1994). La découverte de la faculté de juger réfléchissante. Kant-Studien 85 (4):419-442.
  27. Theodor Ebert (2009). Michael Wolff über Syllogismen bei Aristoteles und Vernunftschlüsse bei Kant. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):357 - 372.
  28. P. Faggiotto (1990). Note on the Kantian Distinction Between Natural Judgment (Reflecting) and Transcendental Judgment (Determining). Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):3-11.
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  29. Pietro Faggiotto (1995). L'Urteilskraft nella formazione delle leggi empiriche secondo Kant. Studi Kantiani 8:31-38.
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  30. Edgard José Jorge Filho (2008). Concerning the Problem of Error in Kant. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 16:67-76.
    In the Introduction to the Transcendental Dialectic, of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant presents a conception of error. In the (Jäsche) Logic, he also deals with the problem of error, albeit in a different way. This paper aims at exposing this difference and arguing that, in the (Jäsche) Logic, error is explained moreconsistently and suitably than it is in the Transcendental Dialectic. It begins by considering judgment as the place of truth, falsehood and error, and inquiring into the cognitive (...)
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  31. J. Freudiger (1991). The Problem of Perceptual Judgment in Kant's Theoretical Philosophy. Kant-Studien 82 (4):414-435.
  32. Léo Freuler (1991). Schematismus und Deduktion in Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Kant-Studien 82 (4):397-413.
    This contribution first proposes to link the transcendental deduction to the problematic function of the understanding, and the transcendental schematism to the assertoric function of the faculty of judgment. Then it deals with classical objections against the irrelevance of schematism and the doctrine of subsumption, and concludes that the universal character of the transcendental scheme is not the same as the universal character of the concept (which lies in the extension, hence in a relation of subordination), but results necessarily from (...)
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  33. Martha I. Gibson (1995). Reference and Unity in Kant's Theory of Judgment. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 25 (2):229 - 256.
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  34. William Mark Goodwin (2003). Kant's Philosophy of Geometry. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    In my dissertation, I argue that contemporary interpretive work on Kant's philosophy of geometry has failed to understand properly the diagrammatic aspects of Euclidean reasoning. Attention to these aspects is amply repaid, not only because it provides substantial insight into the role of intuition in Kant's philosophy of mathematics, but also because it brings out both the force and the limitations of Kant's philosophical account of geometry. ;Kant characterizes the predecessors with which he was engaged as agreeing that mathematical judgments (...)
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  35. Kyriaki Goudeli, Logic and Logogrif in German Idealism : An Investigation Into the Notion of Experience in Kant, Fichte, Schelling.
    In this thesis I investigate the notion of experience in German Idealist Philosophy. I focus on the exploration of an alternative to the transcendental model notion of experience through Schelling's insight into the notion of logogrif. The structural division of this project into two sections reflects the two theoretical standpoints of this project, namely the logic and the logogrif of experience. The first section - the logic of experience - explores the notion of experience provided in Kant's Critique of Pure (...)
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  36. Adrian Haldane, On the Possibility of Kant's Answer to Hume : Subjective Necessity and Objective Validity.
    This thesis argues that Kant is able to maintain the distinctiveness of his position in opposition to Hume's naturalism (contrary to the arguments of R. A. Mall and L. W. Beck) without invoking premises which are question begging with regard to Hume's scepticism. The argument of Kant's Transcendental Deduction of the Categories, as presented in the second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason, is considered in relation to the two sets of criticism that have been levelled at it from (...)
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  37. Bob Hale (1999). Intuition and Reflection in Arithmetic: Bob Hale. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 73 (1):75–98.
    [Michael Potter] If arithmetic is not analytic in Kant's sense, what is its subject matter? Answers to this question can be classified into four sorts according as they posit logic, experience, thought or the world as the source, but in each case we need to appeal to some further process if we are to generate a structure rich enough to represent arithmetic as standardly practised. I speculate that this further process is our reflection on the subject matter already obtained. This (...)
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  38. R. Hanna (2002). Review: Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (443):671-675.
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  39. Robert Alan Hanna (1989). The Nature and Philosophical Significance of Empirical Judgment. Dissertation, Yale University
    Simple or "standard" empirical judgments--as expressed in such statements as "The rose is red" or "Socrates is mortal"--are logically basic for theoretical rationality. All the more complex forms of judgment presuppose the existence and tenability of judgments of the "standard" type. The overall aim of this study is twofold: to show how the traditional theory of standard empirical judgments--as represented by Kant's doctrine of judgment--is subject to a through-going form of skepticism that I entitle "judgmental skepticism" and to attempt to (...)
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  40. Wojciech Hanuszkiewicz (2012). Problem syntetyczności sądów a priori w ujęciu Hermanna Lotzego. ARGUMENT 2 (2):363-375.
    English title: The Problem of the Synthetic a priori Judgements According to Hermann Lotze. The present article compares Kant’s and Lotze’s concepts of synthetic judgements. Lotze’s aim is a renewing of the Kant’s solutions, what he achieves thanks to introduction of the distinction between analytic (identical) content and synthetic form of these judgements which Kant recognised as synthetic. This distinction makes possible to lay down the concept of intentional sense which has influence over Frege and Husserl.
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  41. S. H. Hodgson (1877). Kant's Analytic and Synthetic Judgements. Mind 2:118.
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  42. Robert Hopkins (2001). Kant, Quasi-Realism, and the Autonomy of Aesthetic Judgement. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):166–189.
    Aesthetic judgements are autonomous, as many other judgements are not: for the latter, but not the former, it is sometimes justifiable to change one's mind simply because several others share a different opinion. Why is this? One answer is that claims about beauty are not assertions at all, but expressions of aesthetic response. However, to cover more than just some of the explananda, this expressivism needs combining with some analogue of cognitive command, i.e. the idea that disagreements over beuaty can (...)
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  43. Fiona Hughes (2009). Kant's Critique of Judgment: A Reader's Guide. Continuum.
    Context -- Overview of themes -- Reading the text -- Reception and influence.
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  44. James H. Hyslop (1903). Kant's Treatment of Analytic and Synthetic Judgments. The Monist 13 (3):331-351.
  45. Béla Juhos (1968). Die empirische wahrheit und ihre überprüfung. Kant-Studien 59 (1-4):435-447.
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  46. Béla Juhos (1967). Die „intensionale“ wahrheit und die zwei arten Des aussagengebrauchs. Kant-Studien 58 (1-4):173-186.
  47. I. Kant (1992). The Jasche Logic. In J. M. Young (ed.), Lectures on Logic. Cambridge University Press.
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  48. Immanuel Kant (2005). Notes and Fragments: Logic, Metaphysics, Moral Philosophy, Aesthetics. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume provides the first ever extensive translation of the notes and fragments that survived Kant's death in 1804. These include marginalia, lecture notes, and sketches and drafts for his published works. They are important as an indispensable resource for understanding Kant's intellectual development and published works, casting new light on Kant's conception of his own philosophical methods and his relations to his predecessors, as well as on central doctrines of his work such as the theory of space, time and (...)
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  49. Immanuel Kant (2004). Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science: With Selections From the Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press.
    This new, revised edition of Kant's Prolegomena, the best introduction to the theoretical side of his philosophy, presents his thought clearly through careful attention to his original language. Also included are selections from the Critique of Pure Reason, which fill out and explicate some of Kant's central arguments (including famous sections of the Schematism and Analogies), and in which Kant himself explains his special terminology. The first reviews of the Critique, to which Kant responded in the Prolegomena, are included in (...)
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  50. Immanuel Kant (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment. Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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