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Kant’s conception of judgment both marks a pivotal moment in the development of logic and is at the center of his own philosophy. For Kant, judgment is the discursive rational activity par excellence, and it is in part because of Kant’s influence that subsequent philosophers, like Frege, have taken judgments to be the fundamental units of semantic content. Kant’s conception of the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments has also had a continuing impact. Given how influential Kant’s theory of judgment has continued to be for philosophy in general, it is likely unsurprising that it is also at the crux of his own thought. Broadly, Kant’s power of judgment splits into two parts. Reflecting judgment finds the concept or universal for given particulars. Determining judgment subsumes particulars under a given universal. As the paradigmatic rational activity, judgment is involved in the formation of concepts through the understanding, the making of inferences through reason, in judging theoretically or practically, aesthetically or teleologically, and in relating our immediate sensible representations of objects to concepts.

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  1. Béatrice Longuenesse (2004). Les concepts a priori kantiens et leur destin. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 4 (44):485-510.
    Kant soutient qu'une table complète et systématique des catégories peut être établie selon le « fil conducteur » des fonctions logiques du jugement. La première partie de cet article est une exposition de l'argument kantien. La deuxième partie est un examen de quelques-unes des objections formulées à l'encontre du « fil conducteur » de Kant. Je conclus que l'appropriation contemporaine de la doctrine kantienne des catégories est désormais divisée entre deux problèmes distincts : celui du contenu conceptuel (ou non) de (...)
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Kant: Judgment of Perception vs Judgment of Experience
  1. Béatrice Longuenesse (1995). Kant et les jugements empiriques. Jugements de perception et jugements d'expérience. Kant-Studien 86 (3):278-307.
  2. Ansgar Lyssy (2007). Subjektiv, Intersubjektiv, Objektiv: Über die Struktur der Erfahrungsurteile bei Kant. In Christoph Asmuth (ed.), Transzendentalphilosophie und Person: Leiblichkeit, Interpersonalität, Anerkennung. Transcript 147-162.
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  3. Brigitte Sassen (2008). Varieties of Subjective Judgments: Judgments of Perception. Kant-Studien 99 (3):269-284.
  4. Alberto Vanzo (2012). Kant on Truth-Aptness. History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (2):109-126.
    Many scholars claimed that, according to Immanuel Kant, some judgements lack a truth-value: analytic judgements, judgements about items of which humans cannot have experience, judgements of perception, and non-assertoric judgements. However, no one has undertaken an extensive examination of the textual evidence for those claims. Based on an analysis of Kant's texts, I argue that: (1) according to Kant, only judgements of perception are not truth-apt. All other judgements are truth-apt, including analytic judgements and judgements about items of which humans (...)
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Kant: Reflective vs Determining Judgment
  1. María Isabel Cabrera Bosch (1996). Verdad y juicio reflexionante en Kant. Dianoia: Anuario de Filosofía 42:81-90.
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  2. Luigi Caranti (2005). Logical Purposiveness and the Principle of Taste. Kant-Studien 96 (3):364-374.
    In both Introductions to the Critique of Judgment Kant seems to identify the a priori principle at the basis of aesthetic judgments with the principle that guides reflective judgment in its cognitive inquiry of nature, i.e. the purposiveness of nature or systematicity. For instance Kant writes.
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  3. Daniel Dumouchel (1994). La découverte de la faculté de juger réfléchissante. Kant-Studien 85 (4):419-442.
  4. P. Faggiotto (1990). Note on the Kantian Distinction Between Natural Judgment (Reflecting) and Transcendental Judgment (Determining). Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):3-11.
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  5. Pietro Faggiotto (1995). L'Urteilskraft nella formazione delle leggi empiriche secondo Kant. Studi Kantiani 8:31-38.
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  6. Immanuel Kant (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment. Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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  7. Matthew McAndrew (2014). Kant's Theory of Inductive Reasoning: The Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant's Logic. Kant Studies Online:43-64.
  8. Helga Mertens (1975). Kommentar Zur Ersten Einleitung in Kants Kritik der Urteilskraft Zur Systemat. Funktion D. Kritik D. Urteilskraft F.D. System D. Vernunftkritik. [REVIEW] Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  9. Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez (2012). Ingenio, Uso Hipotético de la Razón y Juicio Reflexionante en la Filosofía de Kant. Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 29 (2):577-592.
    This article researches the historical and systematic background of Kant’s reflecting power of judgment theory based on a historical study of the concept of wit [ingenium, Witz]. Although the Notes from Lessons on Anthropology even expound the meaning of this concept in the context of Baumgarten’s empirical psychology, this material helps us interpret the concept of wit as one of the most important precedents of the reflecting power of judgment theory presented in Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment. The (...)
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  10. Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez (2012). Logica Naturalis, Healthy Understanding and the Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant's Philosophy. Kant-Studien 103 (2):188-206.
    The aim of this article is to explore historically the origin of the difficulty of founding the reflecting power of judgment as Kant outlines it in the Preface to the third Critique. Despite that a foundation of the power of judging in the system of Transcendental Philosophy was only established in 1790, we must interpret it as a critical solution for an old problem, which Kant had already recognized around 1770. Through his comprehension of the meaning of healthy understanding he (...)
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  11. Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez (2012). Logica Naturalis, Healthy Understanding and the Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant's Philosophy. The Source of the Problem of Judgment in the Leibniz-Wolffian Logic and Aesthetics. Kant-Studien 103 (2).
    The aim of this article is to explore historically the origin of the difficulty of founding the reflecting power of judgment as Kant outlines it in the Preface to the third Critique. Despite that a foundation of the power of judging in the system of Transcendental Philosophy was only established in 1790, we must interpret it as a critical solution for an old problem, which Kant had already recognized around 1770. Through his comprehension of the meaning of healthy understanding he (...)
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Kant: Teleological Judgment
  1. M. Bianchi (2005). Commento Alla Critica Della Facoltà di Giudizio di Kant. Le Monnier Università.
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  2. F. Chiereghin (1990). Finality and the Idea of Life-the Hegelian Reception of the Teleology of Kant. Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):127-229.
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  3. Crompton Llewellyn Davies (1895). Kant's Teleology. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 3 (2):65 - 86.
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  4. Dilek Huseyinzadegan (2013). Teleology and Its Risks for Reason: A Closer Look at the Antinomy of Teleological Judgment. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 899-910.
  5. Immanuel Kant (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment. Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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  6. Michael Kraft (1982). Kant's Theory of Teleology. International Philosophical Quarterly 22 (1):42-49.
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  7. Susan F. Krantz (1992). Humility and Teleology in Kant's Third Critique. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 66:85-98.
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  8. Marcel Quarfood (2014). The Antinomy of Teleological Judgment: What It Is and How It Is Solved. In Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.), Kant's Theory of Biology. De Gruyter 167-184.
  9. A. Savile (1973). McFARLAND, J. D. - "Kant's Concept of Teleology". [REVIEW] Mind 82:618.
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  10. Joan Steigerwald (2006). Kant's Concept of Natural Purpose and the Reflecting Power of Judgement. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (4):712-734.
    This paper examines how in the ‘Critique of teleological judgment’ Kant characterized the concept of natural purpose in relation to and in distinction from the concepts of nature and the concept of purpose he had developed in his other critical writings. Kant maintained that neither the principles of mechanical science nor the pure concepts of the understanding through which we determine experience in general provide adequate conceptualizations of the unique capacities of organisms. He also held that although the concept of (...)
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  11. P. A. T. (1971). Kant's Concept of Teleology. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 24 (4):750-750.
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  12. Georg Toepfer (2011). Kant’s Teleology, the Concept of the Organism, and the Context of Contemporary Biology. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 14.
  13. J. Tufts (1893). The Sources and Development of Kant's Teleology. Philosophical Review 2:249.
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  14. Mary-Barbara Zeldin (1973). Kant's Concept of Teleology. Studi Internazionali Di Filosofia 5:265-269.
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Kant: Theoretical Judgment
  1. Richard E. Aquila (2002). Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (2):267-268.
    Richard E. Aquila - Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:2 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.2 267-268 Book Review Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge Robert Greenberg. Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge. University Park: Penn State University Press, 2001. Pp. ix + 278. Cloth, $45.00. This is one of the deepest and most carefully reasoned books on Kant I have read. It is a book for the scholar of the first (...)
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  2. Jonathan Francis Bennett (1966). Kant's Analytic. London, Cambridge U.P..
  3. Jill Vance Buroker (2004). Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge Robert Greenberg University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001, Ix + 278 Pp. [REVIEW] Dialogue 43 (01):165-.
  4. Quassim Cassam (2003). Can Transcendental Epistemology Be Naturalized? Philosophy 78 (2):181-203.
    Transcendental epistemology is an inquiry into conditions of human knowledge which reflect the structure of the human cognitive apparatus. The dependence thesis is the thesis that a proper investigation of such conditions must lean in important respects on the deliverances of science. I argue that Kant is right to object to the dependence thesis, but that the best objections to this thesis lead to the conclusion that the conditions of knowledge which Kant identifies are not, in any interesting sense, a (...)
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  5. Alfredo Dinis (1993). Kant: Objectividade e Causalidade na Segunda Analogia da Experiência. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 49 (4):627 - 633.
    O objectivo central de Kant no texto da "Segunda Analogia da Experiência", na Crítica da Razão Pura, é o de estabelecer a condição de possibilidade da experiência de uma sucessão objectiva de fenómenos. A sucessão contingente de fenómenos ao nível da intuição converte-se na percepção objectiva de uma sequência de fenómenos apenas pela actividade sintética da imaginação de acordo com o princípio de causalidade. No texto em análise, a aplicação daquele princípio não vai além das formas a priori do espaço (...)
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  6. J. Freudiger (1991). The Problem of Perceptual Judgment in Kant's Theoretical Philosophy. Kant-Studien 82 (4):414-435.
  7. Léo Freuler (1991). Schematismus und Deduktion in Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Kant-Studien 82 (4):397-413.
    This contribution first proposes to link the transcendental deduction to the problematic function of the understanding, and the transcendental schematism to the assertoric function of the faculty of judgment. Then it deals with classical objections against the irrelevance of schematism and the doctrine of subsumption, and concludes that the universal character of the transcendental scheme is not the same as the universal character of the concept (which lies in the extension, hence in a relation of subordination), but results necessarily from (...)
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  8. Martha I. Gibson (1995). Reference and Unity in Kant's Theory of Judgment. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 25 (2):229 - 256.
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  9. William Mark Goodwin (2003). Kant's Philosophy of Geometry. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    In my dissertation, I argue that contemporary interpretive work on Kant's philosophy of geometry has failed to understand properly the diagrammatic aspects of Euclidean reasoning. Attention to these aspects is amply repaid, not only because it provides substantial insight into the role of intuition in Kant's philosophy of mathematics, but also because it brings out both the force and the limitations of Kant's philosophical account of geometry. ;Kant characterizes the predecessors with which he was engaged as agreeing that mathematical judgments (...)
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  10. Adrian Haldane, On the Possibility of Kant's Answer to Hume : Subjective Necessity and Objective Validity.
    This thesis argues that Kant is able to maintain the distinctiveness of his position in opposition to Hume's naturalism (contrary to the arguments of R. A. Mall and L. W. Beck) without invoking premises which are question begging with regard to Hume's scepticism. The argument of Kant's Transcendental Deduction of the Categories, as presented in the second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason, is considered in relation to the two sets of criticism that have been levelled at it from (...)
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  11. Bob Hale (1999). Intuition and Reflection in Arithmetic: Bob Hale. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 73 (1):75–98.
    [Michael Potter] If arithmetic is not analytic in Kant's sense, what is its subject matter? Answers to this question can be classified into four sorts according as they posit logic, experience, thought or the world as the source, but in each case we need to appeal to some further process if we are to generate a structure rich enough to represent arithmetic as standardly practised. I speculate that this further process is our reflection on the subject matter already obtained. This (...)
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  12. R. Hanna (2002). Review: Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (443):671-675.
  13. Robert Hanna, Kant's Theory of Judgment. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  14. Robert Hanna (1990). Kant's Theory of Empirical Judgment and Modern Semantics. History of Philosophy Quarterly 7 (3):335 - 351.
  15. Robert Alan Hanna (1989). The Nature and Philosophical Significance of Empirical Judgment. Dissertation, Yale University
    Simple or "standard" empirical judgments--as expressed in such statements as "The rose is red" or "Socrates is mortal"--are logically basic for theoretical rationality. All the more complex forms of judgment presuppose the existence and tenability of judgments of the "standard" type. The overall aim of this study is twofold: to show how the traditional theory of standard empirical judgments--as represented by Kant's doctrine of judgment--is subject to a through-going form of skepticism that I entitle "judgmental skepticism" and to attempt to (...)
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  16. James H. Hyslop (1903). Kant's Treatment of Analytic and Synthetic Judgments. The Monist 13 (3):331-351.
  17. Béla Juhos (1968). Die empirische wahrheit und ihre überprüfung. Kant-Studien 59 (1-4):435-447.
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  18. Patricia Kitcher (2011). Kant's Thinker. Oxford University Press.
    Overview -- Locke's internal sense and Kant's changing views -- Personal identity amd its problems -- Rationalist metaphysics of mind -- Consciousness, self-consciousness, and cognition -- Strands of Argument in the Duisburg Nachlass -- A transcendental deduction for a priori concepts -- Synthesis : why and how? -- Arguing for apperception -- The power of apperception -- "I-think" as the destroyer of rational psychology -- Is Kant's theory consistent? -- The normativity objection -- Is Kant's thinker (as such) a free (...)
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  19. Seung-Kee Lee (2004). The Determinate-Indeterminate Distinction and Kants Theory of Judgment. Kant-Studien 95 (2):204-225.
  20. Béatrice Longuenesse (2005). Kant on the Human Standpoint. Cambridge University Press.
    Béatrice Longuenesse considers the three aspects of Kant's philosophy, his epistemology and metaphysics of nature, moral philosophy, and aesthetic theory, under one unifying standpoint: Kant's conception of our capacity to form judgments. She argues that the elements which make up our cognitive access to the world have an equally important role to play in our moral evaluations and our aesthetic judgments. Her book will appeal to all interested in Kant and his thought, ranging over Kant's account of our representations of (...)
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