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  1. R. Lanier Anderson (2008). Review: Comments on Wayne Martin, Theories of Judgment. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 137 (1):91-108.
    Martin offers an intriguing account of nineteenth century challenges to the traditional theory of judgment as a synthesis of subject and predicate (the synthesis theory)--criticisms motivated largely by the problem posed by existential judgments, which need not have two terms at all. Such judgments led to a theory of "thetic" judgments, whose essential feature is to "posit" something, rather than to combine terms (as in synthetic judgment). I argue, however, that Kant's official definition of judgment already implicitly recognizes the importance (...)
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  2. R. Lanier Anderson (2004). It Adds Up After All: Kant's Philosophy of Arithmetic in Light of the Traditional Logic. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (3):501–540.
    Officially, for Kant, judgments are analytic iff the predicate is "contained in" the subject. I defend the containment definition against the common charge of obscurity, and argue that arithmetic cannot be analytic, in the resulting sense. My account deploys two traditional logical notions: logical division and concept hierarchies. Division separates a genus concept into exclusive, exhaustive species. Repeated divisions generate a hierarchy, in which lower species are derived from their genus, by adding differentia(e). Hierarchies afford a straightforward sense of containment: (...)
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  3. Frederick C. Beiser (2010). Mathematical Method in Kant, Schelling, and Hegel. In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
  4. Ruth F. Chadwick (1994). Kant, Thought Insertion, and Mental Unity. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 1 (2):105-113.
  5. Alberto Coffa (1982). Kant, Bolzano, and the Emergence of Logicism. Journal of Philosophy 79 (11):679-689.
  6. Kirk Dallas Wilson (1978). Studies in the Formal Logic of Kant's Modal Functions of Judgment. Kant-Studien 69 (1-4):252-272.
  7. Paul Forster (1997). Kant, Boole and Peirce's Early Metaphysics. Synthese 113 (1):43-70.
    Charles Peirce is often credited for being among the first, perhaps even the first, to develop a scientific metaphysics of indeterminism. After rejecting the received view that Peirce developed his views from Darwin and Maxwell, I argue that Peirce's view results from his synthesis of Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy and George Boole's contributions to formal logic. Specifically, I claim that Kant's conception of the laws of logic as the basis for his architectonic, when combined with Boole's view of probability, yields (...)
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  8. Tim Henning (2010). Kant Und Die Logik des "Ich Denke&Quot;. Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 64 (3):331-356.
    This paper explores Kant’s views about the logical form of “I think”-judgments. It is shown that according to Kant, in an important class of cases the prefix “I think” does not contribute to the assertoric, truth-conditional content of judgments of the form “I think that P.” Thus, judgments of this type are often merely judgments that P. The prefix “I think” does mention the subject and his thought, but it does not make the complex judgment a judgment about the subject (...)
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  9. Andreas Kamlah (2009). Kants antwort auf Hume und eine linguistische analyse seiner modalbegriffe. Kant-Studien 100 (1):28-52.
    The concept of necessity plays a central role in Kant's philosophy, but seems to lead to severe paradoxes. On the one hand he states: ‘Notwendigkeit und strenge Allgemeinheit sind sichere Kennzeichen einer Erkenntnis a priori’. On the other hand he talks also about ‘notwendig (d. i. nach einer Regel)’, which means ‘necessary according to the empirical natural laws’. However, he never states explicitly the distinction between these two different concepts of necessity. Either Kant's philosophy is inconsistent or we have to (...)
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  10. Immanuel Kant (2005). Notes and Fragments: Logic, Metaphysics, Moral Philosophy, Aesthetics. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume provides the first ever extensive translation of the notes and fragments that survived Kant's death in 1804. These include marginalia, lecture notes, and sketches and drafts for his published works. They are important as an indispensable resource for understanding Kant's intellectual development and published works, casting new light on Kant's conception of his own philosophical methods and his relations to his predecessors, as well as on central doctrines of his work such as the theory of space, time and (...)
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  11. Tapio Korte, Ari Maunu & Tuomo Aho (2009). Modal Logic From Kant to Possible Worlds Semantics. In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter begins with a discussion of Kant's theory of judgment-forms. It argues that it is not true in Kant's logic that assertoric or apodeictic judgments imply problematic ones, in the manner in which necessity and truth imply possibility in even the weakest systems of modern modal logic. The chapter then discusses theories of judgment-form after Kant, the theory of quantification, Frege's Begriffsschrift, C. I. Lewis and the beginnings of modern modal logic, the proof-theoretic approach to modal logic, possible world (...)
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  12. Thomas Land (2013). Intuition and Judgment: How Not to Think About the Singularity of Intuition. In Stefano Bacin, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant and Philosophy in a Cosmopolitan Sense. de Gruyter.
    According to a widely held view, a Kantian intuition functions like a singular term. I argue that this view is false. Its apparent plausibility, both textual and philosophical, rests on attributing to Kant a Fregean conception of judgment. I show that Kant does not hold a Fregean conception of judgment and argue that, as a consequence, intuition cannot be understood on analogy with singular terms.
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  13. Sandra Lapointe (2012). Is Logic Formal? Bolzano, Kant and the Kantian Logicians. Grazer Philosophische Studien 85 (1):11-32.
    In the wake of Kant, logicians seemed to have adhered to the idea that what is distinctive of logic is its “formality”. In the paper, I discuss the distinction Kant draws between formality and generality of logic and argue that he ultimately conflates the two notions. I argue further that Kant's views on the formality of logic rest on a series of non trivial assumptions concerning the nature of cognition. I document the way in which these assumptions were received in (...)
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  14. Øystein Linnebo (2003). Frege's Conception of Logic: From Kant to Grundgesetze. Manuscrito 26 (2):235-252.
    I shall make two main claims. My first main claim is that Frege started out with a view of logic that is closer to Kant’s than is generally recognized, but that he gradually came to reject this Kantian view, or at least totally to transform it. My second main claim concerns Frege’s reasons for distancing himself from the Kantian conception of logic. It is natural to speculate that this change in Frege’s view of logic may have been spurred by a (...)
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  15. Béatrice Longuenesse (2001). Synthesis, Logical Forms, and the Objects of Our Ordinary Experience: Response to Michael Friedman. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 83 (2):199-212.
    In the 82/2 (2000) issue of this journal, Michael Friedman has offered a stimulating discussion of my recent book, Kant and the Capacity to Judge. His conclusion is that on the whole I fail to do justice to what is most revolutionary about Kant's natural philosophy, and instead end up attributing to Kant a pre-Newtonian, Aristotelian philosophy of nature. This is because, according to Friedman, I put excessive weight on Kant's claim to have derived his categories from a set of (...)
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  16. John MacFarlane (2002). Frege, Kant, and the Logic in Logicism. Philosophical Review 111 (1):25-65.
    Let me start with a well-known story. Kant held that logic and conceptual analysis alone cannot account for our knowledge of arithmetic: “however we might turn and twist our concepts, we could never, by the mere analysis of them, and without the aid of intuition, discover what is the sum [7+5]” (KrV, B16). Frege took himself to have shown that Kant was wrong about this. According to Frege’s logicist thesis, every arithmetical concept can be defined in purely logical terms, and (...)
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  17. Penelope Maddy (1999). Logic and the Discursive Intellect. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40 (1):94-115.
    The effort to fit simple logical truths–like `if it's either red or green and it's not red, then it must be green'–into Kant's account of knowledge turns up a position more subtle and intriguing than might be expected at first glance.
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  18. Wayne M. Martin (2006). Theories of Judgment: Psychology, Logic, Phenomenology. Cambridge University Press.
    Wayne Martin traces attempts to develop theories of judgment in British Empiricism, the logical tradition stemming from Kant, nineteenth-century psychologism, recent experimental neuropsychology, and the phenomenological tradition associated with Brentano, Husserl and Heidegger. His reconstruction of vibrant but largely forgotten nineteenth-century debates links Kantian approaches to judgment with twentieth-century phenomenological accounts. He also shows that the psychological, logical and phenomenological dimensions of judgment are not only equally important, but fundamentally interlinked.
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  19. Wayne M. Martin (2003). Nothing More or Less Than Logic: General Logic, Transcendental Philosophy, and Kant's Repudiation of Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre. [REVIEW] Topoi 22 (1):29-39.
    In this paper I lay the foundations for an understanding of one of Fichte's most neglected and least understood texts: the late lecture course on Transcendental Logic. I situate this work in the context of Fichte's lifelong struggle with the problem of understanding the relation between logic and philosophy – a problem that I show to figure centrally both in Fichte's own revolutionary thinking and in his response to Kant's notorious denunciation of the Wissenschaftslehre. By attending to this context we (...)
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  20. Arthur Melnick (1993). P. Kitcher, Kant's Transcendental Psychology. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 60 (3):513-.
  21. Michael D. Potter (2000). Reason's Nearest Kin: Philosophies of Arithmetic From Kant to Carnap. Oxford University Press.
    This is a critical examination of the astonishing progress made in the philosophical study of the properties of the natural numbers from the 1880s to the 1930s. Reassessing the brilliant innovations of Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, and others, which transformed philosophy as well as our understanding of mathematics, Michael Potter places arithmetic at the interface between experience, language, thought, and the world.
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  22. Sebastian Rödl (2005). Transcendental Deduction of Predicative Structure in Kant and Brandom. Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (1):91-108.
    Fregean predicates applied to Fregean objects are merely defined by a "timeless" deductive order of sentences. They cannot provide sufficient structure in order to explain how names can refer to objects of intuition and how predicates can express properties of substances that change in time. Therefore, the accounts of Wilson and Quine, Prior and Brandom for temporal judgments fail -- and a new reconstruction of Kant's transcendental logic, especially of the analogies of experience, is needed.
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  23. Timothy Rosenkoetter (2010). Absolute Positing, the Frege Anticipation Thesis, and Kant's Definitions of Judgment. European Journal of Philosophy 18 (4):539-566.
    Abstract: Kant follows a substantial tradition by defining judgment so that it must involve a relation of concepts, which raises the question of why he thinks that single-term existential judgments should still qualify as judgments. There is a ready explanation if Kant is somehow anticipating a Fregean second-order account of existence, an interpretation that is already widely held for separate reasons. This paper examines Kant's early (1763) critique of Wolffian accounts of existence, finding that it provides the key idea in (...)
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  24. Paul Rusnock (2011). Kant and Bolzano on Logical Form. Kant-Studien 102 (4):477-491.
    In the works of Kant and his followers, the notion of form plays an important role in explaining the apriority, necessity and certainty of logic. Bernard Bolzano (1781–1848), an important early critic of Kant, found the Kantians' definitions of form imprecise and their explanations of the special status of logic deeply unsatisfying. Proposing his own conception of form, Bolzano developed radically different views on logic, truth in virtue of form, and other matters. This essay presents Bolzano's views in the light (...)
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  25. Harold R. Smart (1955). Two Views on Kant and Formal Logic. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 16 (2):155-171.
  26. J. Steigerwald (2003). The Dynamics of Reason and its Elusive Object in Kant, Fichte and Schelling. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (1):111-134.
    Kant used transcendental reflection to distinguish in judgment what belongs to its form and what to its material. Regarding the form of judgment, Buchdahl's work highlights the analogies between the different levels of judgment in Kant's transcendental ontology. He uses the explicit contingency of judgments of the system of nature to illuminate the contingency of judgments of objects in general. In the Critique of pure reason, Kant had left much of the work of judgment to the unconscious imagination. Fichte and (...)
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  27. Clinton Tolley (2012). Bolzano and Kant on the Nature of Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (4):307-327.
    Here I revisit Bolzano's criticisms of Kant on the nature of logic. I argue that while Bolzano is correct in taking Kant to conceive of the traditional logic as a science of the activity of thinking rather than the content of thought, he is wrong to charge Kant with a failure to identify and examine this content itself within logic as such. This neglects Kant's own insistence that traditional logic does not exhaust logic as such, since it must be supplemented (...)
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  28. Clinton Tolley (2006). Kant on the Nature of Logical Laws. Philosophical Topics 34 (1/2):371-407.
  29. Risto Vilkko & Jaakko Hintikka (2006). Existence and Predication From Aristotle to Frege. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (2):359–377.
    One of the characteristic features of contemporary logic is that it incorporates the Frege-Russell thesis according to which verbs for being are multiply ambiguous. This thesis was not accepted before the nineteenth century. In Aristotle existence could not serve alone as a predicate term. However, it could be a part of the force of the predicate term, depending on the context. For Kant existence could not even be a part of the force of the predicate term. Hence, after Kant, existence (...)
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  30. Michael Wolff (2007). Die Reinheit der reinen Logik: Kant und Frege. In Jürgen Stolzenberg (ed.), Kant in der Gegenwart. De Gruyter. 53.
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  31. J. M. Young (ed.) (1992). Lectures on Logic. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume includes three previously untranslated transcripts of Kant's logic lectures.
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  32. Günter Zöller (2008). Kant and the Problem of Existential Judgment: Critical Comments on Wayne Martin's Theories of Judgment. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 137 (1):121 - 134.
    The paper assesses Martin's recent logico-phenomenological account of judgment that is cast in the form of an eclectic history of judging, from Hume and Kant through the 19th century to Frege and Heidegger as well as current neuroscience. After a preliminary discussion of the complex unity and temporal modalities of judgment that draws on a reading of Titian's "Allegory of Prudence" (National Gallery, London), the remainder of the paper focuses on Martin's views on Kant's logic in general and his theory (...)
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