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  1. Gary Banham, Dennis Schulting & Nigel Hems (eds.) (2012). The Continuum Companion to Kant. Continuum.
    The first genuine and comprehensive English-language handbook to the study of Kant's philosophy, containing sections on Kant's key works, the philosophical and historical contexts of his philosophy, essays on the reception and influence of the Kantian philosophy, a lexical A-Z list of lemmata addressing central themes and concepts of Kant's thought and an extensive English-language bibliography of secondary literature.
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  2. Bruno Bauch (1914). Paralielstellen bei Hume und Kant. Kant-Studien 19 (1-3):521-523.
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  3. Lewis White Beck (1981). Kant on the Uniformity of Nature. Synthese 47 (3):449 - 464.
  4. Graham Bird (2014). Michael Friedman, Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013). Xix +624. £70.00 Hb. [REVIEW] Philosophical Investigations 37 (2):173-178.
  5. Henny Blomme (2011). Pourquoi la chimie ne peut-elle aspirer au titre de science proprement dite? In Grapotte Sophie, Lequan Mai & Ruffing Margit (eds.), Kant et les sciences. Un dialogue philosophique avec la pluralité des savoirs. Vrin. 129-138.
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  6. Gerd Buchdahl (1992). Kant and the Dynamics of Reason: Essays on the Structure of Kant's Philosophy. Blackwell.
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  7. Jill Vance Buroker (1994). Book Review:Kant and the Exact Sciences Michael Friedman. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 61 (2):321-.
  8. Robert E. Butts (1984). Kant's Philosophy of Science: The Transition From Metaphysics to Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:685 - 705.
    The principles of Kant's pure physics (conservation of quantity of matter, inertia, equality of action and reaction) are a priori in the same sense as are the principles of the understanding. We account for the empirical content of physics by showing that the pure principles operate as rules for generating wellformed empirical descriptions, and as rules for analysis of motion. The relationship between the metaphysics of matter and empirical descriptions is neither deductive, nor as loose as Buchdahl alleges. Belief that (...)
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  9. Martin Carrier (1992). Kant's Relational Theory of Absolute Space. Kant-Studien 83 (4):399-416.
  10. Daniel O. Dahlstrom (1995). Kant's Theory of Natural Science. Review of Metaphysics 49 (1):151-153.
  11. Karin de Boer (2011). Kant, Reichenbach, and the Fate of A Priori Principles. European Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):507-531.
    Abstract: This article contends that the relation of early logical empiricism to Kant was more complex than is often assumed. It argues that Reichenbach's early work on Kant and Einstein, entitled The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge (1920) aimed to transform rather than to oppose Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. One the one hand, I argue that Reichenbach's conception of coordinating principles, derived from Kant's conception of synthetic a priori principles, offers a valuable way of accounting for the (...)
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  12. Robert DiSalle (2013). The Transcendental Method From Newton to Kant. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):448-456.
  13. Mary Domski (2013). Kant and Newton on the a Priori Necessity of Geometry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):438-447.
  14. Steffen Ducheyne (2011). Kant and Whewell on Bridging Principles Between Metaphysics and Science. Kant-Studien 102 (1):22-45.
    In this essay, I call attention to Kant’s and Whewell’s attempt to provide bridging principles between a priori principles and scientific laws. Part of Kant’s aim in the Opus postumum (ca. 1796-1803) was precisely to bridge the gap between the metaphysical foundations of natural science (on the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) see section 1) and physics by establishing intermediary concepts or ‘Mittelbegriffe’ (henceforth this problem is referred to as ‘the bridging-problem’). I argue that the late-Kant attempted to show (...)
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  15. Howard Duncan (1984). Inertia, the Communication of Motion, and Kant's Third Law of Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 51 (1):93-119.
    In Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science are found a dynamist reduction of matter and an account of the communication of motion by impact. One would expect to find an analysis of the causal mechanism involved in the communication of motion between bodies given in terms of the fundamental dynamical nature of bodies. However, Kant's analysis, as given in the discussion of his third law of mechanics (an action-reaction law) is purely kinematical, invoking no causal mechanisms at all, let alone (...)
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  16. Richard Mark Fincham (2011). Transcendental Idealism and the Problem of the External World. Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (2):221-241.
    Kant's transcendental idealism is often praised for resolving antinomies and attacked for representationalism. Such an attitude prevailed even among Kant's contemporaries. As early as 1787 Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi noted that the "main advantage" of the doctrine that we cognize only appearances and not things in themselves is that it resolves the antinomical conflicts in which previous metaphysics was embroiled and thus "sets reason at rest." Yet, at the same time, Jacobi bemoaned that the transcendental idealist cannot consistently uphold the positive (...)
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  17. Eckart Förster (1987). Is There "a Gap" in Kant's Critical System? Journal of the History of Philosophy 25 (4):533-555.
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  18. M. Friedman (2003). Transcendental Philosophy and Mathematical Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (1):29-43.
    This paper explores the relationship between Kant's views on the metaphysical foundations of Newtonian mathematical physics and his more general transcendental philosophy articulated in the Critique of Pure Reason. I argue that the relationship between the two positions is very close indeed and, in particular, that taking this relationship seriously can shed new light on the structure of the transcendental deduction of the categories as expounded in the second edition of the Critique.
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  19. Michael Friedman (2013). Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.
    Michael Friedman's book develops a new and complete reading of this work and reconstructs Kant's main argument clearly and in great detail, explaining its relationship to both Newton's Principia and eighteenth-century scientific thinkers ...
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  20. Michael Friedman (2012). Newton and Kant: Quantity of Matter in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):482-503.
    Immanuel Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) provides metaphysical foundations for the application of mathematics to empirically given nature. The application that Kant primarily has in mind is that achieved in Isaac Newton's Principia (1687). Thus, Kant's first chapter, the Phoronomy, concerns the mathematization of speed or velocity, and his fourth chapter, the Phenomenology, concerns the empirical application of the Newtonian notions of true or absolute space, time, and motion. This paper concentrates on Kant's second and third chapters—the Dynamics (...)
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  21. Michael Friedman (2001). Matter and Motion in the Metaphysical Foundations and the First Critique: The Empirical Concept of Matter and the Categories. In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant and the Sciences. Oxford University Press. 53--69.
  22. Michael Friedman (1992). Causal Laws and the Foundations of Natural Science. In Paul Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant. Cambridge University Press. 3--161.
  23. Ludmila L. Guenova (2007). Review: Guyer, Kant. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 12 (2):184-185.
  24. P. M. Heimann (1974). Helmholtz and Kant: The Metaphysical Foundations of Über Die Erhaltung der Kraft. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 5 (3):205-238.
  25. Michał Heller (2011). Philosophy in Science: An Historical Introduction. Springer.
    The first task of the philosophy of nature -- The problem of elementarity -- The philosophical myth of creation : the Platonic philosophy of nature -- Aristotle's Physics -- Aristotle's method of cosmological speculation -- Descartes' mechanism -- Isaac Newton and the mathematical principles of natural philosophy -- The world of Leibniz : the best of all possible worlds -- Immanuel Kant : the a priori conditions of the sciences -- The romantic philosophy of nature -- The cosmology of Whitehead: (...)
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  26. Alois Höfler (1906). Zu Kants Metaphysischen Anfangsgründen der Naturwissenschaft. Kant-Studien 11 (1-3):255-259.
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  27. David Hyder (2014). Review of Michael Friedman, Kant’s Construction of Nature. [REVIEW] Isis 105 (2).
  28. Willem R. De Jong (1995). How Is Metaphysics as a Science Possible? Kant on the Distinction Between Philosophical and Mathematical Method. Review of Metaphysics 49 (2):235 - 274.
  29. Immanuel Kant, Introduction to Metaphysical Foundations of the Science of Nature (German).
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  30. Immanuel Kant (2004). Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant was centrally concerned with issues in the philosophy of natural science throughout his career. The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science presents his most mature reflections on these themes in the context of both his 'critical' philosophy, presented in the Critique of Pure Reason, and the natural science of his time. This volume presents a new translation, by Michael Friedman, which is especially clear and accurate. There are explanatory notes indicating some of the main connections between the argument of the (...)
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  31. Immanuel Kant (2002). Theoretical Philosophy After 1781. Cambridge University Press.
    The purpose of the Cambridge edition is to offer translations of the best modern German edition of Kant's work in a uniform format suitable for Kant scholars. This volume is the first to assemble in historical sequence the writings that Kant published between 1783 and 1796 to popularize, summarize, amplify and defend the doctrines of his masterpiece, the Critique of Pure Reason of 1781. The best known of them, the Prolegomena, is often recommended to beginning students, but the other texts (...)
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  32. Immanuel Kant (1900f.). Gesammelte Werke. Akademie.
  33. Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena and Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.
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  34. Pierre Kerszberg, On Kant's Transcendental Account of Newtonian Mechanics.
    Kant's account of Newtonian science in terms of a priori structures of the mind has been generally interpreted as too restrictive. If Newtonian science is an instantiation of the system of categories, then, in order to retain any value, they need to be dynamized in accordance with the development of science beyond Newton. This paper suggests that the restriction in best understood as Kant attempt to provide a primary matrix of sense for any possible natural science, inasmuch as it reflects (...)
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  35. Filip Kobiela (2006). Struktura i geneza świata w filozofii przedkrytycznej Immanuela Kanta. Diametros 7:22-36.
    Artykuł zawiera prezentację niektórych wątków Kantowskiej filozofii przedkrytycznej, w dziedzinie filozofii przyrody zawierającej wiele oryginalnych hipotez i argumentów często niewykorzystanych w krytycznej filozofii Kanta i przez to mniej znanych. Przedstawiona jest nowatorska hipoteza wiążąca trójwymiarowość przestrzeni z prawem grawitacji pochodząca z pierwszej rozprawy Kanta Gedanken von der wahren Schätzung der lebendigen Kräfte und Beurteilung der Beweise z 1747 roku. Omówiona została praca Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels zawierająca słynną hipotezę Kanta dotyczącą genezy układu planetarnego. Przedstawiono też tzw. argument z (...)
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  36. A. Laywine (2002). Substance, Force, and the Possibility of Knowledge: On Kant's Philosophy of Nature. Philosophical Review 111 (3):439-442.
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  37. Edward MacKinnon (1978). The Development of Kant's Conception of Scientific Explanation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:18 - 30.
    In the course of his long development, Kant's concept of matter changed somewhat, while his concept of scientific explanation changed considerably. Both developments achieved a coherent integration in Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Using this developmental background, the present paper argues that the Foundations should be interpreted as an attempted rational reconstruction of the mechanics of Newton and Euler. Kant attempted to do this by constructing a concept of matter that would confer a Leibnizian intelligibility on Newtonian mechanics, and (...)
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  38. Wolfgang Malzkorn (1998). Kant Über Die Teilbarkeit der Materie. Kant-Studien 89 (4):385-409.
    In this paper it is argued that the _Physical Monadology of 1756 has to be seen as an attempt to evade the same paradox as the one given in the second antinomy of the _Critique of Pure Reason. Since this attempt presupposes the claim that space rests upon relations between substances, it contradicts the thesis that it is a mere form of intuition, presented by Kant in his dissertation of 1770. Therefore, at least since 1770 the paradox of the divisibility (...)
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  39. Michela Massimi (2013). Philosophy of Natural Science From Newton to Kant. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):393-395.
  40. Michela Massimi (2011). Kant's Dynamical Theory of Matter in 1755, and its Debt to Speculative Newtonian Experimentalism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):525-543.
    This paper explores the scientific sources behind Kant’s early dynamic theory of matter in 1755, with a focus on two main Kant’s writings: Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens and On Fire. The year 1755 has often been portrayed by Kantian scholars as a turning point in the intellectual career of the young Kant, with his much debated conversion to Newton. Via a careful analysis of some salient themes in the two aforementioned works, and a reconstruction of the (...)
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  41. Michela Massimi & Silvia De Bianchi (2013). Cartesian Echoes in Kant's Philosophy of Nature. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):481-492.
  42. James McCall (1988). Berichte Und Diskussionen: A Response to Burkhard Tuschling's Critique of Kant's Physics. Kant-Studien 79:57.
  43. James L. McCall (2005). Metaphysical Foundations and Ponderomotive Nature. Kant-Studien 96 (3):269-311.
    Any attempt to assess the validity of Kant’s basic philosophical approach to the problems of physics must begin, not with a comprehensive metaphysical foundation of natural science but, rather, with the metaphysical foundation of the science directed to the primordial basis of nature, viz., the science of ponderomotive nature. The concrete aggregate of its constructive concerns is the aggregate of momenta. The synthesis of this aggregate is subject to a dynamic reciprocity of nature under the two radical aspects of reality (...)
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  44. Jennifer McRobert, Concept Construction in Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.
    Kant's reasoning in his special metaphysics of nature is often opaque, and the character of his a priori foundation for Newtonian science is the subject of some controversy. Recent literature on the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science has fallen well short of consensus on the aims and reasoning in the work. Various of the doctrines and even the character of the reasoning in the Metaphysical Foundations have been taken to present insuperable obstacles to accepting Kant's claim to ground Newtonian science. (...)
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  45. A. E. Miller & M. G. Miller (1994). Kant's Theory of Natural Science According to P. Plaass. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 159:167-187.
  46. Ae Miller & Mg Miller (1994). Central Themes of Kant's Philosophy of Science: Metaphysics and Mathematics as the a Priori Basis for Natural Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 159:10-16.
  47. Ae Miller & Mg Miller (1994). The Relevance of Kant's Philosophy of Natural Science Today. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 159:141-162.
  48. Douglas Moggach (2000). The Construction of Juridical Space. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 7:201-209.
    This paper examines the relation between Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals and his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science in order to explain the analogy in the doctrine of right between juridical interactions and the movement of bodies according to mechanical laws. Kant’s various formulations of the idea of reciprocal action and his concept of limit are central to the examination. A comparison with Fichte is suggested, and implications for the theory of property are indicated.
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  49. Ernst-Otto Onnasch (ed.) (2009). Kants Philosophie der Natur, Ihre Entwicklung Im "Opus Postumum" Und Ihre Wirkung. Walter de Gruyter.
    Insbesondere die Naturphilosophie hat Kant zeitlebens beschäftigt. Ihre Begründung kulminiert in der Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1781) in den berühmten Fragen, wie Erfahrung überhaupt und wie synthetische Urteile a priori möglich sind. Seine Metaphysischen Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft (1786) liefern eine metaphysische Begründung der newtonschen Physik. Dieses Begründungsprogramm hat die damalige Debatte nachhaltig beeinflusst. Das vielleicht größte systematische Problem in diesem Werk ist der von Kant sehr eng gefasste Begriff von Naturwissenschaft, der etwa die Chemie oder Biologie ausschließt. <br><br>Insbesondere was die (...)
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  50. Robert Palter (1971). Absolute Space and Absolute Motion in Kant's Critical Philosophy. Synthese 23 (1):47 - 62.
    The significance of absolute space and absolute motion in the Critical philosophy is clarified by analysis of relevant passages in Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Newton's absolute space is rejected in favor of absolute space conceived of as an idea of reason serving to unify the infinity of possible relative kinematic spaces. On the other hand, something like newton's concept of absolute motion (e.g., in the case of rotation) is accepted by Kant under the heading of real - as (...)
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