About this topic
Summary A central aspect of Kant's philosophical project during the Critical period was to set metaphysics on the secure path of a science. This was meant to be achieved by developing and defending transcendental idealism, a view that is largely motivated by considerations pertaining to the ideality of space and time. On the positive side, this project consisted in defending the applicability of metaphysical concepts, such as substance, causation and necessity to the phenomenal realm. On the negative side, it led to a limitation of metaphysics by identifying the boundaries beyond which it cannot reach, which involved to a critique of traditional metaphysics, in particular a critique of rational psychology, cosmology and theology.
Key works The key primary texts are: 1. Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787), 2. Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786), 3. Inaugural Dissertation (1770).
Introductions Important secondary book-length discussions: Friedman 1992, Friedman 2013Langton 1998Cleve 1999Ameriks 2003
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  1. Erich Adickes (1924). Kant und das Ding an sich. Heise.
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  2. Patrick Grüneberg (2012). Elena Ficara: Die Ontologie in der »Kritik der reinen Vernunft«. Fichte-Studien 40:299-307.
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  3. Patrick Grüneberg (2012). Elena Ficara: Die Ontologie in der »Kritik der reinen Vernunft«. Fichte-Studien 40:299-307.
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  4. Patrick Grüneberg (2012). Elena Ficara: Die Ontologie in der »Kritik der reinen Vernunft«. Fichte-Studien 40:299-307.
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  5. David Landy (2009). Inferentialism and the Transcendental Deduction. Kantian Review 14 (1):1-30.
    One recent trend in Kant scholarship has been to read Kant as undertaking a project in philosophical semantics, as opposed to, say, epistemology, or transcendental metaphysics. This trend has evolved almost concurrently with a debate in contemporary philosophy of mind about the nature of concepts and their content. Inferentialism is the view that the content of our concepts is essentially inferentially articulated, that is, that the content of a concept consists entirely, or in essential part, in the role that that (...)
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  6. D. H. Mellor (1998). Transcendental Tense. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):29 - 56.
    [D. H. Mellor] Kant's claim that our knowledge of time is transcendental in his sense, while false of time itself, is true of tenses, i.e. of the locations of events and other temporal entities in McTaggart's A series. This fact can easily, and I think only, be explained by taking time itself to be real but tenseless. /// [J. R. Lucas] Mellor's argument from Kant fails. The difficulties in his first Antinomy are due to topological confusions, not the tensed nature (...)
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  7. Marco Santi (2013). Kant and Leibniz on Relations and Their Place in the Monadology. In Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. De Gruyter Vol 5: 391-403.
    Throughout the development of his views of relations, Kant takes Leibniz’s theory as a constant – though not fixed – term of comparison. In fact, Kant’s picture and evaluation of Leibniz develop as well. Kant is a stalwart advocate of the Physical Influx model of causality, which he equates with the reality of interaction relations. Leibniz’s view of the ideality of such relations, by contrast, entails Monadology and Pre-established Harmony. Kant’s premiss is the “Basic Insight” that we cannot conceptually grasp (...)
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  8. Wayne Waxman (1993). Time and Change in Kant and Mctaggart. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 16 (1):179-186.
Kant: Space
  1. Christopher Stephen Adair-Toteff (1992). Die Dritte Moeglichkeit: The Neo-Kantian 'Raum' Controversy, From Trendelenburg to Vaihinger. Dissertation, University of South Florida
    In the "Transcendental Aesthetic" section of the Kritik der reinen Vernunft Kant dismisses both the Newtonian and the Leibnizian notions of space. In their place he offers his own view that space is a "pure intuition" which is both empirically real and transcendentally ideal. Kant means by this that space is objectively valid and is applicable to things as they appear to us, but that it is not something that either exists independently of humans or as a relation that pertains (...)
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  2. Lucy Allais (2009). Kant, Non-Conceptual Content and the Representation of Space. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):pp. 383-413.
    :Space is not an empirical concept that has been drawn from outer experiences. For in order for certain sensations to be related to something outside me , thus in order for me to represent them as outside and next to one another, thus not merely different but as in different places, the representation of space must already be their ground. Thus the representation of space cannot be obtained from the relations of outer appearance through experience, but this outer experience is (...)
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  3. Henry E. Allison (1976). The Non-Spatiality of Things in Themselves for Kant. Journal of the History of Philosophy 14 (3):313-321.
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  4. A. Altmann (1988). A Hitherto Unknown Critique of Kant Theory of Time and Space by Eberhard. Kant-Studien 79 (3):329-341.
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  5. Alexander Altmann (1988). Eine bisher unbekannte frühe Kritik Eberhards an Kants Raum-und Zeitlehre. Kant-Studien 79 (3):329-341.
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  6. Carlos Álvarez (2003). Acerca de las parejas incongruentes y las figuras simétricas. Critica 35 (104):31-68.
    Kant plantea el problema de las parejas incongruentes en 1768, posteriormente en 1770 y 1783. Este problema, relacionado con su concepción acerca de la naturaleza del espacio, se vincula también con su idea sobre la naturaleza del conocimiento geométrico. Mi objetivo en este texto es analizar las observaciones de Kant sobre este punto--tres de las cuales son, a nuestro juicio, de suma relevancia--a partir de la geometría sólida euclidiana, la que constituye precisamente el marco teórico en el cual él pretende (...)
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  7. Antonio J. Pacheco Amitesarove (2010). Las nociones de espacio y tiempo en la obra pre-crítica de Kant. Dikaiosyne: Revista Semestral de Filosofía Práctica 24 (13):89-124.
    El propósito de este trabajo es únicamente esclarecer el sentido de las nociones de espacio y tiempo, tal como Kant las entiende en esta obra precrítica suya de 1763. El propósito del trabajo se enmarca dentro de uno más amplio que examina estas nociones desde el primer escrito de Kant de 1747 , a través de todo el período precrítico, hasta concluir con la obra de 1770 , punto de inflexión y de partida de las reflexiones que once años después (...)
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  8. Manuel Bächtold (2011). L'espace dans ses dimensions transcendantale et pragmatiste. Kant-Studien 102 (2):145-167.
    This article examines the Kantian thesis of the a priori nature of our knowledge of space. Because it makes the representation of objects possible as external to us and all others, and consequently, as distinct and individualized, space (whatever its structure may be) claims the status as necessary condition and as apriori possibility of all knowledge. However, in the light of various physical, psychological and philosophical considerations, it seems that the particular structure allocated by Kant to space (i.e. uniqueness, infinity, (...)
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  9. Manuel Baechtold (2011). The Space in its Transcendental and Pragmatist Dimensions. Kant-Studien 102 (2).
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  10. Sorin Baiasu (2011). Space, Time and Mind-Dependence. Kantian Review 16 (2):175-190.
  11. John Tull Baker (1937). Henry More and Kant: A Note to the Second Argument on Space in the Transcendental Aesthetic. Philosophical Review 46 (3):298-306.
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  12. Erik C. Banks (2005). Kant, Herbart and Riemann. Kant-Studien 96 (2):208-234.
    A look at the dynamical concept of space and space-generating processes to be found in Kant, J.F. Herbart and the mathematician Bernhard Riemann's philosophical writings.
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  13. B. Bavink (1927). Raum, Zeit und Kausalität im System des kritischen Realismus. Kant-Studien 32 (1-3):264-272.
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  14. Marissa Bennett, Pure and Applied Geometry in Kant.
  15. Sven Bernecker (2012). Kant on Spatial Orientation. European Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):519-533.
    This paper develops a novel interpretation of Kant's argument from incongruent counterparts to the effect that the representations of space and time are intuitions rather than concepts. When properly understood, the argument anticipates the contemporary position whereby the meaning of indexicals cannot be captured by descriptive contents.
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  16. Graham Bird (2013). Reply to Edward Kanterian. Kantian Review 18 (2):289-300.
    The reply to Kanterian offers a rebuttal of his central criticisms. It reaffirms the difference between Kant's arguments in the Aesthetic and at B 148-9; it rejects the alleged error of logic in Fischer's (and my) arguments; and it rejects Kanterian's reading of passages in the Preface (A xx-xxii) and of the Amphiboly. Beyond these specific points Kanterian assumes that Kant's project in the first Critique cannot be understood as a and so begs the question at issue.
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  17. Henny Blomme (forthcoming). Kant et la matière de l'espace. Georg Olms Verlag.
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  18. Henny Blomme (2013). Kants Raumbegriff in der Diskussion. Philosophische Rundschau 60 (3):225-239.
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  19. Henny Blomme (2013). Können wir den ursprünglichen Raum erkennen? In Dieter Hüning, Stefan Klingner & Carsten Olk (eds.), Das Leben der Vernunft. Beiträge zur Philosophie Kants. De Gruyter 30-39.
    Mit dem Terminus 'ursprünglicher Raum' wird der Raum bezeichnet, der Kant innerhalb der transzendentalen Ästhetik als reine subjektive Form der Anschauung des äußeren Sinnes bestimmt. Man könnte ihn auch den 'ästhetischen Raum' nennen. Auf jeden Fall muss er vom (proto-)geometrischen Raum unterschieden werden, da letzterer eine Einheit voraussetzt die auf einer Synthesis beruht, und dadurch – weil bei Kant alle Synthesis unter den Kategorien steht – weniger ursprünglich zum Anschauungsvermögen gehört. Es ist diese Unterscheidung zwischen dem ursprünglichen Raum, der „Form (...)
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  20. Henny Blomme (2012). The Completeness of Kant's Metaphysical Exposition of Space. Kant-Studien 103 (2):139-162.
    In the first edition of his book on the completeness of Kant’s table of judgments, Klaus Reich shortly indicates that the B-version of the metaphysical exposition of space in the Critique of pure reason is structured following the inverse order of the table of categories. In this paper, I develop Reich’s claim and provide further evidence for it. My argumentation is as follows: Through analysis of our actually given representation of space as some kind of object (the formal intuition of (...)
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  21. L. Boi (1996). Non-Euclidean Geometry, the Philosophical Problem of Space, and the Origins of the Transcendental: Helmholtz and Kant, the Neo-Kantians, Einstein, Poincare, and Mach. Kant-Studien 87 (3):257-289.
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  22. Luciano Boi (1996). Les géométries non euclidiennes, le problème philosophique de l'espace et la conception transcendantale; Helmholtz et Kant, les néo-kantiens, Einstein, Poincaré et Mach. Kant-Studien 87 (3):257-289.
  23. Artur Buchenau (1909). Über den Begriff des Unendlichen und der intelligibeln Ausdehnung bei Malebranche und die Beziehung des letzteren zum Kantischen Raumbegriff. Kant-Studien 14 (1-3):440-467.
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  24. Jill Vance Buroker (1997). Review: Falkenstein, Kant's Intuitionism: A Commentary on the Transcendental Aesthetic. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 1 (1):162-171.
  25. Jeremy Byrd (2008). A Remark on Kant's Argument From Incongruent Counterparts. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (4):789 – 800.
    I argue that, by the time of his essay "Concerning the Ultimate Ground of the Differentiation of Directions in Space" (1768), Kant had come to question the status of the Principle of Sufficient Reason as a result, at least in part, of his recognition of the existence of incongruent counterparts. Though Kant's argument against absolute space based on the existence of incongruent counterparts has been much discussed in recent years, its importance as a useful benchmark by which to judge the (...)
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  26. John J. Callanan (2014). Contemporary Kantian Metaphysics: New Essays on Space and Time. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 22 (1):144-148.
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  27. Rudolf Carnap (1925). Über die Abhängigkeit der Eigenschaften des Raumes von denen der Zeit. Kant-Studien 30 (1-2):331-345.
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  28. Martin Carrier (1992). Kant's Relational Theory of Absolute Space. Kant-Studien 83 (4):399-416.
  29. François-Xavier Chenet (1993). Que sont donc l'espace et le temps? Les hypothèses considérées par Kant et la lancinante objection de la «troisième possibilité». Kant-Studien 84 (2):129-153.
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  30. Jeremy Delong (2009). Van Cleve and the Neglected Alternative. Auslegung 30 (1).
    In Van Cleve's "Problems from Kant," it is suggested that his interpretation of Kant's metaphysics resolves the problem of "The Neglected Alternative"--the worry that Kant failed to consider that space and time, while perhaps necessary for sensible intuition, could also be objectively real in-themselves. However, it is far from clear how Van Cleve is supposed to have solved this objection. This paper examines why Van Cleve might have thought the problem resolved on his view, and argues that there is no (...)
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  31. Éric Dufour & Julien Servois (2005). Le Statut de l'espace esthétique dans la philosophie kantienne. Kant-Studien 96 (2):161-181.
    Il semble tout autant irrecevable de comprendre l’Esthétique à l’aune de la Logique que de mettre sur le même plan les écrits des différentes périodes de Kant : on nie par là même le sens positif de l’Esthétique, puisque, en expliquant ce passage en rapport à ce qui suit, on en gomme la spécificité. C’est alors l’irréductibilité de la passivité et la signification véritable de l’espace et du temps qui se trouvent anéanties. Or cette passivité est pourtant attestée par l’expression (...)
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  32. Howard Duncan (1983). Review: Buroker, Space and Incongruence: The Origin of Kant's Idealism. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 50 (2):346-.
  33. Corey W. Dyck (forthcoming). Tetens as a Reader of Kant's Inaugural Dissertation. In Violetta L. Waibel & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Akten des 12. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses “Natur und Freiheit” in Wien vom 21.–25. September 2015.
    In this paper I consider Tetens' reaction to Kant's Inaugural Dissertation in his two most important philosophical works, the essay “Über die allgemeine speculativische Philosophie” of 1775 and the two-volume Philosophische Versuche of 1777. In particular, I focus on Tetens’ critical discussion of Kant's account of the acquisition of concepts of space and time.
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  34. E. J. Engel (2004). Mendelssohn Versus Kant--Early Evidence of a Confrontation with Kant's Doctrine of Time and Space in the Dissertation of 1770. Kant-Studien 95 (3):269-282.
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  35. B. Falkenburg (1995). Kant 2nd Antinomy and Physics. Kant-Studien 86 (1):4-25.
  36. Lorne Falkenstein (1989). Kant's Argument for the Non-Spatiotemporality of Things in Themselves. Kant-Studien 80 (1-4):265-283.
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  37. Gregg E. Franzwa (1978). Space and the Schematism. Kant-Studien 69 (1-4):149-159.
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  38. Peter A. French (1973). Multi-Spatial Myths: Kant and the Dreamer. Southern Journal of Philosophy 11 (3):167-174.
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  39. Martin F. Fricke (2012). Perspectivas modernas: Leibniz, Newton y Kant. In Rosario Gómez, Adam Sellen & Arturo Taracena Arriola (eds.), Diálogos sobre los espacios: imaginados, percibidos y construidos. UNAM 47-78.
    El capítulo introduce al debate sobre la naturaleza del espacio entre Leibniz y Clarke/Newton y a la posición que adopta Kant más tarde. En particular, se exponen los dos principales argumentos de Leibniz, basados en los Principios de Razón Suficiente e Identidad de Indiscernibles, en favor del relacionismo así como algunas respuestas de Clarke/Newton. También se presenta el argumento basado en la orientación del espacio que propuso Kant en 1768 para refutar al relacionismo de Leibniz. Se concluye con una breve (...)
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  40. Michael Friedman (2012). Geometria e Intuição espacial em Kant: Série 2. Kant E-Prints 7:02-32.
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  41. Michael Friedman (2012). Kant on Geometry and Spatial Intuition. Synthese 186 (1):231-255.
    I use recent work on Kant and diagrammatic reasoning to develop a reconsideration of central aspects of Kant’s philosophy of geometry and its relation to spatial intuition. In particular, I reconsider in this light the relations between geometrical concepts and their schemata, and the relationship between pure and empirical intuition. I argue that diagrammatic interpretations of Kant’s theory of geometrical intuition can, at best, capture only part of what Kant’s conception involves and that, for example, they cannot explain why Kant (...)
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  42. Michael Friedman (1989). Kant on Space, the Understanding, and the Law of Gravitation. The Monist 72 (2):236-284.
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