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Summary Though Kant does not devote a separate text to the philosophical analysis of language, he does discuss language, communication, and meaning at several key points in his major writings.  What is more, Kant's theory of concepts and his related distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments have both been deeply influential upon subsequent developments in philosophy of language across many different traditions.
Key works Discussions of language and meaning can be found in the Doctrine of Method in the Critique of Pure Reason, scattered throughout the later Critique of the Power of Judgment, as well as in his Anthropology.  There are also discussions of our capacity to engage with language and signs in his lectures on metaphysics.  The most well-known discussions of the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments can also be found in the Critique of Pure Reason, as well as in the Prolegomena and in other writings collected in Kant 2002.
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  1. Hermann Ulrich Asemissen (1959). Egologische Reflexion. Kant-Studien 50 (1-4):262-272.
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  2. Diana E. Axelsen (1989). Kant's Metaphors for Persons and Community. Philosophy and Theology 3 (4):301-321.
    I argue that, although it is probably not possible to construct a thoroughly consistent interpretation of Kantian metaphors, there is a perspective in Kant’s later writings which provides a framework for selecting and sorting central metaphors. Following a discussion of the work or Lakoff and Johnson on metaphor, I provide an examination of Kant’s distinction between noumenon and phenomenon as an example of a metaphor grounded upon spatio-temporal experience, and conclude with suggestions concerning the role of metaphor in Kant’s account (...)
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  3. K. Bagchi (1971). Kant's Transcendental Problem as a Linguistic Problem. Philosophy 46 (178):341 - 345.
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  4. Kalyankumar Bagchi (1972). Metalanguage and Transcendental Idealism. Centre of Advanced Study in Philosophy, Visva-Bharati.
  5. Gary Banham (2010). Ethics Vindicated: Kant's Transcendental Legitimation of Moral Discourse. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (1):111-112.
    This is a short review of a work by Bencivenga on Kant's ethics that argues for a view of Kant that treats his moral rules as not prescriptive but only transcendental and takes issue with this reading.
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  6. George Bealer, Analyticity.
    1. In Critique of Pure Reason Kant introduced the term ‘analytic’ for judgments whose truth is guaranteed by a certain relation of ‘containment’ between the constituent concepts, and ‘synthetic’ for judgments which are not like this. Closely related terms were found in earlier writings of Locke, Hume and Leibniz. In Kant’s definition, an analytic judgment is one in which ‘the predicate B belongs to the subject A, as something which is (covertly) contained in this concept A’ ([1781/1787] 1965: 48). Kant (...)
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  7. Lewis White Beck (1956). Kant's Theory of Definition. Philosophical Review 65 (2):179-191.
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  8. R. F. Beerling (1964). Russell and Historical Truth. Kant-Studien 55 (1-4):385-393.
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  9. Sven Bernecker (2012). Kant on Spatial Orientation. European Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):519-533.
    This paper develops a novel interpretation of Kant's argument from incongruent counterparts to the effect that the representations of space and time are intuitions rather than concepts. When properly understood, the argument anticipates the contemporary position whereby the meaning of indexicals cannot be captured by descriptive contents.
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  10. Giovanni Boniolo & Silvio Valentini (2008). Vagueness, Kant and Topology: A Study of Formal Epistemology. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (2):141 - 168.
    In this paper we propose an approach to vagueness characterised by two features. The first one is philosophical: we move along a Kantian path emphasizing the knowing subject’s conceptual apparatus. The second one is formal: to face vagueness, and our philosophical view on it, we propose to use topology and formal topology. We show that the Kantian and the topological features joined together allow us an atypical, but promising, way of considering vagueness.
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  11. Robert E. Butts (1988). The Grammar of Reason: Hamann's Challenge to Kant. Synthese 75 (2):251 - 283.
  12. John J. Callanan (2008). Kant on Analogy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (4):747 – 772.
    The role of analogy appears in surprisingly different areas of the first Critique. On the one hand, Kant considered the concept to have a specific enough meaning to entitle the principle concerned with causation an analogy; on the other hand we can find Kant referring to analogy in various parts of the Transcendental Dialectic in a seemingly different manner. Whereas in the Transcendental Analytic, Kant takes some time to provide a detailed (if not clear) account of the meaning of the (...)
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  13. J. Alberto Coffa (1981). Russell and Kant. Synthese 46 (2):247 - 263.
  14. A. B. Dickerson (2002). Kant and the Foundations of Analytic Philosophy. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (3):386 – 388.
    Book Information Kant and the Foundations of Analytic Philosophy. By Robert Hanna. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 2001. Pp. xv + 312. Hardback, £45.00.
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  15. John Divers (1999). Kant's Criteria of the a Priori. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 80 (1):17–45.
  16. S. Morris Engel (1970). Wittgenstein and Kant. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (4):483-513.
  17. Jerry H. Gill (1984). Kant, Analogy, and Natural Theology. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 16 (1):19 - 28.
  18. Hans-Johann Glock (1997). Kant and Wittgenstein: Philosophy, Necessity and Representation. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 (2):285 – 305.
    Several authors have detected profound analogies between Kant and Wittgenstein. Their claims have been contradicted by scholars, such being the agreed penalty for attributions to authorities. Many of the alleged similarities have either been left unsubstantiated at a detailed exegetical level, or have been confined to highly general points. At the same time, the 'scholarly' backlash has tended to ignore the importance of some of these general points, or has focused on very specific issues or purely terminological matters. To advance (...)
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  19. William Mark Goodwin (2010). Coffa's Kant and the Evolution of Accounts of Mathematical Necessity. Synthese 172 (3):361 - 379.
    According to Alberto Coffa in The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap, Kant’s account of mathematical judgment is built on a ‘semantic swamp’. Kant’s primitive semantics led him to appeal to pure intuition in an attempt to explain mathematical necessity. The appeal to pure intuition was, on Coffa’s line, a blunder from which philosophy was forced to spend the next 150 years trying to recover. This dismal assessment of Kant’s contributions to the evolution of accounts of mathematical necessity is fundamentally (...)
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  20. Jürgen Habermas (2000). From Kant to Hegel: On Robert Brandom's Pragmatic Philosophy of Language. European Journal of Philosophy 8 (3):322–355.
  21. Seung-Kee Lee (2004). The Determinate-Indeterminate Distinction and Kants Theory of Judgment. Kant-Studien 95 (2):204-225.
  22. Danielle Macbeth (2007). Striving for Truth in the Practice of Mathematics: Kant and Frege. Grazer Philosophische Studien 75 (1):65-92.
    My aim is to understand the practice of mathematics in a way that sheds light on the fact that it is at once a priori and capable of extending our knowledge. The account that is sketched draws first on the idea, derived from Kant, that a calculation or demonstration can yield new knowledge in virtue of the fact that the system of signs it employs involves primitive parts (e.g., the ten digits of arithmetic or the points, lines, angles, and areas (...)
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  23. Verena Mayer (2003). Implicit Thoughts: Quine, Frege and Kant on Analytic Propositions. Grazer Philosophische Studien 66 (1):61-90.
    Quine criticised the semantic notion of analyticity that is often attributed to Frege and Kant for presupposing an essentialist theory of meaning. In what follows I trace back the notion from Quine via Carnap to Frege and Kant, and eventually examine Kant's distinction between analytic and synthetic judgements in more detail. It turns out that the so called Frege-Kant-notion of analyticity can not be attributed to Kant. In contrast, Kant had a distinctly pragmatic notion of analytic judgements. According to him (...)
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  24. Kurt Mosser (2001). Why Doesn't Kant Care About Natural Language? Dialogue 40 (01):25-.
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  25. James R. O'Shea & Eric Rubenstein (eds.) (2010). Self, Language, and World: Problems From Kant, Sellars, and Rosenberg. Ridgeview Publishing Co..
  26. H. J. Paton (1956). Kant's First Critique. Philosophical Quarterly 6 (24):260-265.
  27. Gene Pendleton (1989). Kant, the Local Sign Theorists, and Wilfrid Sellars' Doctrine of Analogical Predication. Philosophia 19 (1):45-59.
  28. Michael Perrick (1985). Kant and Kripke on Necessary Empirical Truths. Mind 94 (376):596-598.
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  29. Kirk Pillow (2001). Jupiter's Eagle and the Despot's Hand Mill: Two Views on Metaphor in Kant. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 59 (2):193–209.
  30. Suma Rajiva (2006). Is Hypothetical Reason a Precursor to Reflective Judgment? Kant-Studien 97 (1):114-126.
  31. Manfred Riedel (1983). Critique of Pure Reason and Language: Concerning the Problem of Categories in Kant. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 9 (2):33-46.
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  32. Frank Schalow (2003). Kant, Heidegger and the Performative Character of Language in the First Critique. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 8 (1):165-180.
    By tracing the discourse employed by Critical philosophy back to a pre-predicative level of language, this paper adds a dimension to Heidegger’s retrieval of Kant. By making explicit the role that language plays in the first Critique—both in the development of the transcendental schema of knowledge in the Transendental Analytic and the determination of the boundaries of pure reason in the Transcendental Dialectic—a bridge is formed between Heidegger’s hermeneutics and Kant’s critical enterprise. Heidegger’s destructive-retrieval of Kant’s thought is then seen (...)
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  33. Paul E. Stroble (1993). Without Running Riot: Kant, Analogical Language, and Theological Discourse. Sophia 32 (3):57-73.
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  34. Katie Terezakis (2007). The Immanent Word: The Turn to Language in German Philosophy 1759-1801. Routledge.
    The Immanent Word establishes that the philosophical study of language inaugurated in the 1759 works of Hamann and Lessing marks a paradigm shift in modern philosophy; it analyzes the transformation of that shift in works of Herder, Kant, Fichte, Novalis and Schlegel. It contends that recent studies of early linguistic philosophy obscure the most relevant commission of its thinkers, arguing against the theological appropriation of Hamann by John Milbank; against the "expressive" appropriation of Hamann and Herder by Christina Lafont and (...)
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  35. Giuseppe Varnier (2000). Unity of the Mental and 'Logical' Identity: After Kant and Hegel. Topoi 19 (2):157-178.
  36. Wayne Waxman (1995). Kant on the Possibility of Thought: Universals Without Language. Review of Metaphysics 48 (4):809 - 858.
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  37. Wing-Chun Wong (1999). On a Semantic Interpretation of Kant's Concept of Number. Synthese 121 (3):357-383.
    What is central to the progression of a sequence is the idea of succession, which is fundamentally a temporal notion. In Kant's ontology numbers are not objects but rules (schemata) for representing the magnitude of a quantum. The magnitude of a discrete quantum 11...11 is determined by a counting procedure, an operation which can be understood as a mapping from the ordinals to the cardinals. All empirical models for numbers isomorphic to 11...11 must conform to the transcendental determination of time-order. (...)
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  38. Falk Wunderlich (2004). Review of Otfried Hoeffe, Kants Kritik der Reinen Vernunft. Die Grundlegung der Modernen Philosophie. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (9).
Kant: Analyticity
  1. Henry E. Allison (1993). Apperception and Analyticity in the B-Deduction. Grazer Philosophische Studien 44:233-252.
    This paper defends the thesis of the analyticity of the principle of apperception, as developed in the first part of the B-Deduction, against recent criticisms by Paul Guyer and Patricia Kitchen The first part presents these criticisms, the most important of which being that the analyticity thesis is incompatible with both the avowed goal of which being that the Deduction of establishing the validity of the categories and Üie account of apperception in the A-Deduction. The second part argues that Kant's (...)
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  2. R. Lanier Anderson (2005). The Wolffian Paradigm and its Discontent: Kant's Containment Definition of Analyticity in Historical Context. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 87 (1):22-74.
    I defend Kant’s definition of analyticity in terms of concept “containment”, which has engendered widespread scepticism. Kant deployed a clear, technical notion of containment based on ideas standard within traditional logic, notably genus/species hierarchies formed via logical division. Kant’s analytic/synthetic distinction thereby undermines the logico-metaphysical system of Christian Wolff, showing that the Wolffian paradigm lacks the expressive power even to represent essential knowledge, including elementary mathematics, and so cannot provide an adequate system of philosophy. The results clarify the extent to (...)
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  3. R. Lanier Anderson (2004). Containment Analyticity and Kant's Problem of Synthetic Judgment. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 25 (2):161-204.
  4. R. Lanier Anderson (2004). It Adds Up After All: Kant's Philosophy of Arithmetic in Light of the Traditional Logic. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (3):501–540.
    Officially, for Kant, judgments are analytic iff the predicate is "contained in" the subject. I defend the containment definition against the common charge of obscurity, and argue that arithmetic cannot be analytic, in the resulting sense. My account deploys two traditional logical notions: logical division and concept hierarchies. Division separates a genus concept into exclusive, exhaustive species. Repeated divisions generate a hierarchy, in which lower species are derived from their genus, by adding differentia(e). Hierarchies afford a straightforward sense of containment: (...)
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  5. Jocelyn Benoist (1997). De Kant à Bolzano : Husserl et l'analyticité. Revue de Métaphysique Et de Morale:217-238.
    Dans les Recherches Logiques, Husserl a recours à un concept d'analyticité qui s'écarte des définitions kantiennes. En fait, pour le comprendre, il faut se plonger dans la tradition d'analyse logique autrichienne qui remonte à Bolzano. L'analyticité est ici une propriété formelle, qui s'illustre par la possibilité de la mise en variables de propositions, leur vérité étant maintenue. Husserl ne laisse toutefois pas la question dans l'état dans lequel Bolzano l'avait laissée : surgit la question propre aux Recherches Logiques, qui est (...)
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  6. Graham Bird (1959). The Necessity of Kant. Mind 68 (271):389-392.
  7. Jorge Brower Beltramin (2013). Aportes (otros) de Foucault al análisis de la cultura. Eidos 18 (18):198-202.
    En las discusiones modernas sobre la posibilidad de las proposiciones sintéticas a priori, la teoría de la definición tiene una importancia capital, porque la mayoría de las teorías sostiene que los juicios analíticos están lógicamente implicados en una definición explícita (lo que restringe los enunciados de una definición completa y precisa a juicios de este tipo). Sin embargo, para Kant -el primer autor en señalar la distinción entre proposiciones analíticas y sintéticas-muchos juicios analíticos son obtenidos mediante análisis de conceptos que (...)
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  8. Tyler Burge (2003). Logic and Analyticity. Grazer Philosophische Studien 66 (1):199-249.
    The view that logic is true independently of a subject matter is criticized—enlarging on Quine's criticisms and adding further ones. It is then argued apriori that full reflective understanding of logic and deductive reasoning requires substantial commitment to mathematical entities. It is emphasized that the objectively apriori connections between deductive reasoning and commitment to mathematics need not be accepted by or even comprehensible to a given deductive reasoner. The relevant connections emerged only slowly in the history of logic. But they (...)
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  9. Emily Carson (1999). Kant on the Method of Mathematics. Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (4):629-652.
  10. Hector Neri Castañeda (1960). "7 + 5 = 12" as a Synthetic Proposition. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 21 (2):141-158.
  11. Albert Casullo, Intuition, Thought Experiments, and the A Priori.
    There has been a significant shift in the discussion of a priori knowledge. The shift is due largely to the influence of Quine. The traditional debate focused on the epistemic status of mathematics and logic. Kant, for example, maintained that arithmetic and geometry provide clear examples of synthetic a priori knowledge and that principles of logic, such as the principle of contradiction, provide the basis for analytic a priori knowledge. Quine’s rejection of the analytic-synthetic distinction and his holistic empiricist account (...)
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  12. Alberto Coffa (1991). The Semantic Tradition From Kant to Carnap: To the Vienna Station. Cambridge University Press.
    This major publication is a history of the semantic tradition in philosophy from the early nineteenth century through its incarnation in the work of the Vienna Circle, the group of logical positivists that emerged in the years 1925-1935 in Vienna who were characterised by a strong commitment to empiricism, a high regard for science, and a conviction that modern logic is the primary tool of analytic philosophy. In the first part of the book, Alberto Coffa traces the roots of logical (...)
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