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Summary Kant's thought about logic is at once central to his own philosophical system and also stands at a key transitional moment in the broader history of logic and philosophy of logic.  Kant conceives of logic as the science of our understanding, which means that it is tasked with discovering the basic kinds of activities that our understanding is capable of (formal logic), as well as the basic kinds of representational contents (concepts) that our understanding makes use of in these acts (transcendental logic).  Because forming a science is itself one of these acts, and because philosophy itself is intended to be a science, Kant thinks that logic provides philosophy with the core blueprint of its structure -- a thought exemplified by his famous organizational 'Tables', and picked up by later German Idealists (among others).  Yet because Kant thinks that our minds are capable of more than just understanding, both in terms of the kinds of its activity and in terms of the representational contents it can engage with, Kant thinks that the knowledge provided within logic is sharply limited.  Critically revisiting these alleged restrictions provided inspiration for many of those responsible for the most influential developments in the subsequent history of logic (such as Bolzano, Frege, and Russell).
Key works Despite its central importance for his philosophical system, Kant himself did not publish a separate work on logic during his lifetime.  Nevertheless, Kant does present his views on logic in almost all of his most important theoretical writings, including Kant 1998, and works collected in Kant 2002 and Kant 2002.  What is more, Kant lectured on logic throughout the entirety of his career, and the surviving student transcripts of some of these lectures provide us with a further window into Kant's thought about logic, some of which are collected in Kant 1992.  Finally, the vast collection of notes and fragments that Kant left after his death contain many brief discussions about logic, some of which can be found in Kant 2005.
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  1. Anthony Anderson (1970). Review: Lewis White Beck, Can Kant's Synthetic Judgements Be Made Analytic? [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (1):167-168.
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  2. Francesco Barone (1956). Kant e la logica formale. Filosofia 7 (4):697-750.
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  3. J. Bergmann (1899). Zur Lehre Kants von den logischen Grundsätzen. Kant-Studien 2 (1-3):323-348.
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  4. Jean-Yves Beziau (2008). What is “Formal Logic”? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 13:9-22.
    “Formal logic”, an expression created by Kant to characterize Aristotelian logic, has also been used as a name for modern logic, originated by Boole and Frege, which in many aspects differs radically from traditional logic. We shed light on this paradox by distinguishing in this paper five different meanings of the expression “formal logic”: (1) Formal reasoning according to the Aristotelian dichotomy of form and content, (2) Formal logic as a formal science by opposition to an empirical science, (3) Formal (...)
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  5. Mirella Capozzi (2001). Dialectic, Probability and Verisimilitude in Kant's Logic. In V. Fano, M. Stanzione & G. Tarozzi (eds.), Prospettive Della Logica E Della Filosofia Della Scienza. Rubettino. 31.
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  6. James Collins (1977). Kant's Logic as a Critical Aid. Review of Metaphysics 30 (3):440 - 461.
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  7. James Collins (1977). "Kants Logik: Eine Interpretation Auf der Grundlage von Vorlesungen, Veröffentlichten Werken Und Nachlass," by Rainer Stuhlmann-Laeisz. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 54 (3):311-312.
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  8. Alfredo Ferrarin (1997). Review of G. Tonelli, Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason" Within the Tradition of Modern Logic. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (3):472-474.
  9. D. Foellesdal (forthcoming). Bolzano's Legacy Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) Was an Original and Independent Thinker, Who Left a Lasting Legacy in Several Areas of Philosophy. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
  10. Dagfin Føllesdal (1997). Bolzano's Legacy. Grazer Philosophische Studien 53:1-11.
    Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) was an original and independent thinker, who left a lasting legacy in several areas of philosophy. Four such areas are singled for special attention: political philosophy, ethics and theology, logics and semantics, and mathematics. In all these areas he was far ahead of his time. He had pioneering ideas in political philosophy and in ethics and philosophy of religion, and he argued for them in a brilliantly clear way. In logic and semantics he anticipated Frege, Carnap and (...)
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  11. Bruno Haas (2004). Kant et la raison comme fonctionnalité logique. Archives de Philosophie 3:379-398.
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  12. Norbert Hinske (1994). Tra Illuminismo e critica della ragione: il significato filosofico del corpus logico di Kant. Rivista di Filosofia 85 (2):163-183.
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  13. Robert A. Holland (1993). Immanuel Kant, Lectures on Logic Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 13 (5):239-241.
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  14. C. S. I. Jenkins & Masashi Kasaki (forthcoming). The Traditional Conception of the a Priori. Synthese:1-22.
    In this paper, we explore the traditional conception of a prioricity as epistemic independence of evidence from sense experience. We investigate the fortunes of the traditional conception in the light of recent challenges by Timothy Williamson. We contend that Williamson’s arguments can be resisted in various ways. En route, we argue that Williamson’s views are not as distant from tradition (in particular, from Kant) as they might seem at first glance.
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  15. Immanuel Kant, John Richardson & W. Simpkin and R. Marshall (1819). Logic From the German of Emmanuel Kant, M.A. ... To Which is Annexed a Sketch of His Life and Writings. Printed for W. Simpkin and R. Marshall ..
  16. Anders Kraal (2013). The Aim of Russell's Early Logicism: A Reinterpretation. Synthese:1-18.
    I argue that three main interpretations of the aim of Russell’s early logicism in The Principles of Mathematics (1903) are mistaken, and propose a new interpretation. According to this new interpretation, the aim of Russell’s logicism is to show, in opposition to Kant, that mathematical propositions have a certain sort of complete generality which entails that their truth is independent of space and time. I argue that on this interpretation two often-heard objections to Russell’s logicism, deriving from Gödel’s incompleteness theorem (...)
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  17. Danielle MacBeth (1995). The Logic of Relations and the Ideality of Space. Journal of Philosophical Research 20:367-379.
    As Friedman has argued, Kant's argument for the ideality of space turns on the nondeductive character of geometrical reasoning in Euclid's system. Since geometry can be axiomatized, this argument fails. But ("pace" Russell) Leibniz's argument based on the unreality of constitutive relations is not thereby answered as well. I argue that what is needed in response to Leibniz is a properly post-Kantian conception of concepts as inferentially articulated. This conception, I suggest, is based on the same fundamental insight that underlies (...)
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  18. Penelope Maddy (2012). The Philosophy of Logic. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (4):481-504.
    This talk surveys a range of positions on the fundamental metaphysical and epistemological questions about elementary logic, for example, as a starting point: what is the subject matter of logic—what makes its truths true? how do we come to know the truths of logic? A taxonomy is approached by beginning from well-known schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics—Logicism, Intuitionism, Formalism, Realism—and sketching roughly corresponding views in the philosophy of logic. Kant, Mill, Frege, Wittgenstein, Carnap, Ayer, Quine, and Putnam (...)
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  19. Ulrich Majer (2006). The Relation of Logic and Intuition in Kant's Philosophy of Science, Particularly Geometry. In Emily Carson & Renate Huber (eds.), Intuition and the Axiomatic Method. Springer. 47--66.
  20. Wayne Martin, Inverse Psychologism in the Theory of Judgment.
    Outline: 1. Why Judgment? 2. Inverse Psychologism: General Issues 3. Inverse Psychologism in the Phenomeno-Logic of Judgment 4. Judgment and Language 5. [De-]stabilizing Kant’s Inverse Psychologism..
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  21. H. E. Matthews (1970). Kant's Transcendental Logic. Philosophical Books 11 (2):28-29.
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  22. Emily Michael (1978). Peirce's Adaptation of Kant's Definition of Logic: The Early Manuscripts. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 14 (3):176 - 183.
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  23. Imtiaz Moosa (1995). Formalism of Kant's A Priori Versus Scheler's Material A Priori. International Studies in Philosophy 27 (2):33-47.
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  24. Chris Onof, Thinking the in-Itself and its Relation to Appearances.
    Book synopsis: This key collection of essays sheds new light on long-debated controversies surrounding Kant’s doctrine of idealism and is the first book in the English language that is exclusively dedicated to the subject. Well-known Kantians Karl Ameriks and Manfred Baum present their considered views on this most topical aspect of Kant's thought. Several essays by acclaimed Kant scholars broach a vastly neglected problem in discussions of Kant's idealism, namely the relation between his conception of logic and idealism: The standard (...)
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  25. George Henry Radcliffe Parkinson (1970). Francesco Barone: Logica formale E logica trascendentale. I: Da Leibniz a Kant. [REVIEW] Studia Leibnitiana 2:67.
  26. T. Pinder (2000). On the Akademie Edition of the New Logic Writings From the Previously Unpublished Works of Kant. Kant-Studien 91:172-177.
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  27. Tillmann Pinder (1979). Kants Begriff der Logik. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 61 (3):309-336.
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  28. Marcin Poręba (2013). Two Concepts of Apriority. Dialogue and Universalism 23 (2):43-53.
    The paper considers two—in author’s belief fundamental—approaches to apriority, which he proposes to call “absolute” and “relative.” The first was most fully expressed by Immanuel Kant, the second by Ludwig Wittgenstein. In author’s opinion, both derive from empiricist philosophy in its modern form. The concept of experience which is characteristic of modern empiricism forces acceptance of certain experienceindependent (a priori) assumptions, thanks to which only experience can provide information about objects. Depending on whether we regard these assumptions as independent of (...)
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  29. R. Pozzo (1999). I. KANT Logik-Vorlesungen: Unveroffentliche Nachschriften. History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (2):133-133.
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  30. Hoke Robinson (2007). Comments on Mosser's "Kant and the Logic of Aristotle". Southwest Philosophy Review 23 (2):33-36.
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  31. Sebastian Rödl (2012). Categories of the Temporal: An Inquiry Into the Forms of the Finite Understanding. Harvard University Press.
    The publication of Frege’s Begriffsschrift in 1879 forever altered the landscape for many Western philosophers. Here, Sebastian Rödl traces how the Fregean influence, written all over the development and present state of analytic philosophy, led into an unholy alliance of an empiricist conception of sensibility with an inferentialist conception of thought. -/- According to Rödl, Wittgenstein responded to the implosion of Frege’s principle that the nature of thought consists in its inferential order, but his Philosophical Investigations shied away from offering (...)
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  32. Paul Rusnock (1999). Philosophy of Mathematics: Bolzano's Responses to Kant and Lagrange/La Philosophie des Mathématiques: Les Réponses de Bolzano À Kant Et Lagrange. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 52 (3):399-428.
  33. Pedro Santos (2012). A Note on Kant's Formal Logic. Manuscrito 35 (1):99-113.
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  34. Marco Sgarbi (2009). Kant, Rabe and the Aristotelian Logic. Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 64 (2):269 - +.
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  35. Marco Sgarbi (2009). Kant, Rabe e la logica aristotelica. Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia:289-313.
    Kant, Rabe e la logica aristotelica - This article shows the influence of the Aristotelian Paul Rabe on Immanuel Kant’s philosophy. In the first part, I reconstruct the status quaestions regarding Rabe in Aristotelian studies and in Kantforschung. The second part looks at Rabe’s life and works. It is demonstrated in the third part that Kant’s definition of dialectic as Logik des Scheins comes from Rabe’s definition of dialectic as logica ex apparentibus. The fourth part shows the Aristotelian origin of (...)
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  36. Maria Jesús Vásquez Lobeiras (1998). Die Logik und ihr Spiegelbild: Das Verhältnis von formaler und transzendentaler Logik in Kants philosophischer Entwicklung. Lang.
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  37. Richard Velkley (1986). Kant on the Primacy and the Limits of Logic. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 11 (2):147-162.
    KANT ASSERTS THAT "ONTOLOGY IS NOTHING OTHER THAN A TRANSCENDENTAL LOGIC," AND HE BOTH CONTINUES AND CRITICIZES A TRADITION IN WHICH LOGIC SERVES AS FOUNDATION FOR ONTOLOGY. TRANSCENDENTAL LOGIC IS A META-LOGIC THAT CRITICIZES THE FOUNDATIONAL COMPET.
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  38. Mscislaw Wartenberg (1900). Der Begriff des „transscendentalen Gegenstandes“ bei Kant — und Schopenhauers Kritik desselben. Kant-Studien 4 (1-3):202-231.
  39. John H. Zammito (2008). Kant and Naturalism Reconsidered. Inquiry 51 (5):532 – 558.
    Reconstructions of Kant are prominent in the contemporary debate over naturalism. Given that this naturalism rejects a priori principles, Kant's anti-naturalism can best be discerned in the “critical turn” as a response to David Hume. Hume did not awaken Kant to criticize but to defend rational metaphysics. But when Kant went transcendental did he not, in fact, go transcendent? The controversy in the 1990s over John McDowell's Mind and World explored just this suspicion: the questions of the normative force of (...)
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  40. Piotr Łaciak (2005). Kant I Husserl a Problem Materialnego a Priori. Nowa Krytyka 18.
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Kant: Inference
  1. Robert Adamson (1883). Kant's View of Mathematical Premisses and Reasonings. Mind 8 (31):421 - 425.
  2. R. Lanier Anderson (2004). Containment Analyticity and Kant's Problem of Synthetic Judgment. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 25 (2):161-204.
  3. Jody Azzouni (2009). Why Do Informal Proofs Conform to Formal Norms? Foundations of Science 14 (1-2):9-26.
    Kant discovered a philosophical problem with mathematical proof. Despite being a priori , its methodology involves more than analytic truth. But what else is involved? This problem is widely taken to have been solved by Frege’s extension of logic beyond its restricted (and largely Aristotelian) form. Nevertheless, a successor problem remains: both traditional and contemporary (classical) mathematical proofs, although conforming to the norms of contemporary (classical) logic, never were, and still aren’t, executed by mathematicians in a way that transparently reveals (...)
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  4. Nathan Bauer (2010). Kant's Subjective Deduction. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (3):433-460.
    In the transcendental deduction, the central argument of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant seeks to secure the objective validity of our basic categories of thought. He distinguishes objective and subjective sides of this argument. The latter side, the subjective deduction, is normally understood as an investigation of our cognitive faculties. It is identified with Kant’s account of a threefold synthesis involved in our cognition of objects of experience, and it is said to precede and ground Kant’s proof of the (...)
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  5. Frederick Beiser (2010). Mathematical Method in Kant, Schelling, and Hegel. In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
  6. Francesca Biagioli (2014). What Does It Mean That “Space Can Be Transcendental Without the Axioms Being So”? Journal for General Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-21.
    In 1870, Hermann von Helmholtz criticized the Kantian conception of geometrical axioms as a priori synthetic judgments grounded in spatial intuition. However, during his dispute with Albrecht Krause (Kant und Helmholtz über den Ursprung und die Bedeutung der Raumanschauung und der geometrischen Axiome. Lahr, Schauenburg, 1878), Helmholtz maintained that space can be transcendental without the axioms being so. In this paper, I will analyze Helmholtz’s claim in connection with his theory of measurement. Helmholtz uses a Kantian argument that can be (...)
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  7. Tyler Burge (2003). Logic and Analyticity. Grazer Philosophische Studien 66 (1):199-249.
    The view that logic is true independently of a subject matter is criticized—enlarging on Quine's criticisms and adding further ones. It is then argued apriori that full reflective understanding of logic and deductive reasoning requires substantial commitment to mathematical entities. It is emphasized that the objectively apriori connections between deductive reasoning and commitment to mathematics need not be accepted by or even comprehensible to a given deductive reasoner. The relevant connections emerged only slowly in the history of logic. But they (...)
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  8. Mirella Capozzi (2011). Le inferenze del giudizio riflettente nella logica di Kant: l'induzione e l'analogia. Studi Kantiani 24:11-48.
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  9. David Howard Chandler (1979). Furwahrhalten: The Subjective Validity of Judgments in Kant's Works on Logic. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
  10. Alfredo Dinis (1993). Kant: Objectividade e Causalidade na Segunda Analogia da Experiência. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 49 (4):627 - 633.
    O objectivo central de Kant no texto da "Segunda Analogia da Experiência", na Crítica da Razão Pura, é o de estabelecer a condição de possibilidade da experiência de uma sucessão objectiva de fenómenos. A sucessão contingente de fenómenos ao nível da intuição converte-se na percepção objectiva de uma sequência de fenómenos apenas pela actividade sintética da imaginação de acordo com o princípio de causalidade. No texto em análise, a aplicação daquele princípio não vai além das formas a priori do espaço (...)
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