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Summary The nature of the human mind is a central concern in all of Kant's major works. His view of the mind is shaped by two fundamental distinctions: (1) activity vs. passivity and (2) form vs. matter. The paradigmatic activity of the mind, for Kant, is judgment, which involves the unification of representations through concepts. This activity is directed at intuitions/sensations, which are distinguished by our passivity in receiving them. While both judgment and intuition involve certain forms, the latter is the source of all the matter of our experience. Judgments, for Kant, are essentially connected to self-consciousness. Kant gives broadly similar accounts of practical and aesthetic experience, in each case emphasizing forms that we actively apply to the passive elements of our mental lives.
Key works The Critique of Pure Reason is taken by most scholars as the definitive statement of Kant's philosophy of mind, especially the 1787 B edition. Many of Kant's later works provide useful elaborations, however, especially the introductions to the 1790 Critique of the Power of Judgment.
Introductions The secondary literature on Kant's philosophy of mind is vast. For an overview of issues concerning the nature of the mind and self-consciousness, see Brook 2008. For an overview of Kant's theory of judgment and how it fits into his larger project, see Hanna 2008. For an introductory discussion of how Kant's views of the mind relate to his early modern predecessors, see Kitcher 2006.
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  1. Howard Adelman (1982). Discovering the Mind, Goethe, Kant and Hegel. The Owl of Minerva 13 (3):1-3.
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  2. Theodor W. Adorno (2002). Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Polity..
    "This volume . . . provides wonderful insight into Adorno's understanding of Kant and also allows us to see more clearly the role Kant's thought played in ...
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  3. Alexander Aichele (2012). Ich denke was, was Du nicht denkst, und das ist Rot: John Locke und George Berkeley über abstrakte Ideen und Kants logischer Abstraktionismus. Kant-Studien 103 (1):25-46.
    The paper discusses Berkeley's classical critique of Locke's theory of generating concepts by abstraction, rebuts it, and shows that endorses Lockean abstractionism concerning the formation of empirical concepts.
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  4. Lucy Allais (2016). Replies to Critics. Kantian Review 21 (2):303-311.
  5. Martín Arias-Albisu (2012). Acerca de la relación entre los dos tipos de esquemas de las ideas de la razón en la Crítica de la razón pura de Kant. Areté. Revista de Filosofía 24 (1):7-24.
    “Concerning the Relationship between the Two Kinds of Schemata of the Ideas of Reason in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason ”. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the two kinds of schemata of the ideas of reason introduced by Kant in his Critique of Pure Reason . On the one hand, Kant holds that the schemata of reason are principles, rules or procedures (those of homogeneity, specification and continuity). On the other hand, Kant states that (...)
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  6. Kent Baldner, Explanatory Unity and Transcendental Apperception. Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 17.
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  7. Ermanno Bencivenga (1986). Understanding and Reason in the First Critique. History of Philosophy Quarterly 3 (2):195 - 205.
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  8. Jocelyn Benoist (1998). L'impensé de la représentation: De Leibniz à Kant. Kant-Studien 89 (3):300-317.
  9. Jonathan H. Berk (2013). Jennifer Mensch, Kant’s Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 34 (2):487-491.
  10. Michael Berman (2011). 'The Happy Accident': Merleau-Ponty and Kant on the Judgment of God. The European Legacy 16 (2):223-236.
    Kant's ideas about, questions, and challenges to the Western tradition of philosophy reverberate into the third century of the reception of his texts. The writings of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, the twentieth-century French existential and hermeneutic phenomenologist, are interlaced with engagements with Kant's ideas. Often these incidents are marked by Merleau-Ponty's critique, yet there is a noticeable recurrence of his efforts to contend with Kant's philosophy. In Merleau-Ponty's course notes, Nature (2002), he wrestles with Kant's version of nature in the Critique of (...)
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  11. J. M. Bernstein (2000). Judging Life: From Beauty to Experience. From Kant to Chaim Soutine. Constellations 7 (2):157-177.
  12. Jeffrey Bernstein (1997). Imagination and Lunacy in Kant's First Critique and Anthropology. Idealistic Studies 27 (3):143-154.
  13. Alessandro Bertinetto (2009). «Wäre ihm dies klar geworden, so wäre seine Ktk. W.L. geworden«: Fichte's Auseinandersetzung mit Kant in den Vorlesungen ueber Transzendentale Logik. Fichte-Studien 33:145-164.
  14. Karl Beth (1925). Das Erlebnis in Religion und Magie. Kant-Studien 30 (1-2):381-408.
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  15. Jean-Marie Beyssade (2008). Descartes' "I Am a Thing That Thinks" Versus Kant's "I Think". In Daniel Garber & Béatrice Longuenesse (eds.), Kant and the Early Moderns. Princeton University Press
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  16. Maurice Bitran (2012). Philological Remarks on the Term "Class" in §11 of Critique of Pure Reason. Kant-Studien 103 (2).
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  17. S. Bokil (2004). Kant's Rejection of the Substentiality of Human Soul. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 31 (1-4):97.
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  18. Bernard Bolzano (1982). An Appendix Concerning the Kant Doctrine on the Construction of Concepts by Means of Intuitions. Filosoficky Casopis 30 (1):144-149.
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  19. C. D. Broad (1925). Kant's First and Second Analogies of Experience. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 26:189 - 210.
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  20. Jill Vance Buroker (2016). Lucy Allais, Manifest Reality: Kant’s Idealism and His Realism Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015 Pp. Xii + 329 9780198747130 £40.00. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 21 (2):313-318.
  21. Robert E. Butts (1993). Historical Pragmatics Philosophical Essays.
  22. Robert E. Butts (1971). On Buchdahl's and Palter's Papers. Synthese 23 (1):63 - 74.
  23. Joseph John Califano (1968). The Problem of Kant's Schemata in Regard to the Speculative Sciences. Dissertation, St. John's University (New York)
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  24. Mirella Capozzi (1987). Kant on Logic, Language and Thought. In Dino Buzzetti & Maurizio Ferriani (eds.), Speculative Grammar, Universal Grammar and Philosophical Analysis of Language. Benjamins 97-147.
  25. James F. Caron (1999). Beatrice Longuenesse, Kant and the Capacity to Judge Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 19 (1):37-38.
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  26. Lauchlan Chipman (1972). Kant’s Categories and Their Schematism. Kant-Studien 63 (1-4).
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  27. Andrea Christofidou (2012). Self, Reason, and Freedom: A New Light on Descartes' Metaphysics. Routledge.
    Freedom and its internal relation to reason is fundamental to Descartes’ philosophy in general, and to his _Meditations on First Philosophy_ in particular. Without freedom his entire enquiry would not get off the ground, and without understanding the rôle of freedom in his work, we could not understand what motivates key parts of his metaphysics. Yet, not only is freedom a relatively overlooked element, but its internal relation to reason has gone unnoticed by most studies of his philosophy. Self, Reason, (...)
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  28. F. H. Cleobury (1952). Post-Kantian Idealism and Modern Analysis. Mind 61 (243):359-365.
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  29. James Cleve (1987). Comments on Paul Guyer's “the Failure of the B-Deduction”. Southern Journal of Philosophy 25 (S1):85-87.
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  30. Dario S. Compagno (2009). I Am Link's Transcendental Will : Freedom From Hyrule to Earth. In Luke Cuddy (ed.), The Legend of Zelda and Philosophy: I Link Thereforei Am. Open Court
  31. Vincent M. Cooke (1988). Kant's Godlike Self. International Philosophical Quarterly 28 (3):313-323.
  32. Vincent M. Cooke (1987). What Can We Learn From Kant. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 62 (4):358-368.
  33. Rebecca Elizabeth Copenhaver (2002). The Doors of Perception: Anti-Sensationalism and Direct Realism in Reid and Kant. Dissertation, Cornell University
    For Thomas Reid and Immanuel Kant, the problem of perceptual objectivity is not whether we're getting it right about the world, but whether we're getting at a world about which we can be right . This dissertation is an examination of one aspect of Reid and Kant's philosophy of mind: their theories of perception. Reid and Kant were less concerned about the truth, accuracy or justification of any particular perceptual states than they were with examining the conditions required for forming (...)
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  34. L. L. D. (1980). Discovering the Mind, Goethe, Kant and Hegel. Review of Metaphysics 34 (2):389-390.
  35. Daniel Dahlstrom (2010). The Critique of Pure Reason and Continental Philosophy: Heidegger's Interpretation of Transcendental Imagination. In Paul Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press
  36. Daniel O. Dahlstrom (1994). The Completeness of Kant's Table of Judgments. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 48 (2):423-425.
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  37. Karin G. de Boer (2011). Ideal Embodiment: Kant's Theory of Sensibility. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 7 (2):236-240.
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  38. Graciela De Pierris (1987). Kant and Innatism. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 68 (3/4):285.
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  39. Gilles Deleuze, Hugh Tomlinson & Barbara Habberjam (1987). Kant's Critical Philosophy. Philosophical Review 96 (4):615-617.
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  40. J. J. Delfour (1997). Enigmatic Ambiguity in the Fourth Paralogism of Kant's 'Kritik der Reinen Vernunft'-A Fine Line Between Reality and Effectivity. Kant-Studien 88 (3):280-310.
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  41. George Di Giovanni (1998). Hume, Jacoby, and Common Sense:An Episode in the Reception of Hume in Germany at the Time of Kant. Kant-Studien 89 (1):44-58.
  42. Steven M. Duncan, Mind, Body, Space, and Time.
    In this essay I explore some of the basic elements of consciousness from a substance dualist point of view, incorporating some elements of Kant's Transcendental Analytic into an overall account of the constitution of consciousness.
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  43. S. Engstrorn (2006). Sensibility and Understanding. Inquiry 49:2-25.
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  44. Charles Ess (1996). Karl Ameriks and Dieter Sturma, Eds., The Modern Subject: Conceptions of the Self in Classical German Philosophy Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 16 (4):236-238.
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  45. Antonino Falduto (2014). The Faculties of the Human Mind and the Case of Moral Feeling in Kant's Philosophy. De Gruyter.
  46. J. A. Faris & Edward G. Ballard (1956). Tulane Studies in Philosophy, Volume III: A Symposium on Kant. Philosophical Quarterly 6 (23):183.
  47. Alfredo Ferrarin (2016). Reason in Kant and Hegel. Kant Yearbook 8 (1).
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant Yearbook Jahrgang: 8 Heft: 1 Seiten: 1-16.
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  48. Samuel Fleischacker (1999). Part II: The Politics of Judgment. In A Third Concept of Liberty: Judgment and Freedom in Kant and Adam Smith. Princeton University Press 89-240.
  49. Sacha Golob (2013). Heidegger on Kant, Time and the 'Form' of Intentionality. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (2):345 - 367.
    Between 1927 and 1936, Martin Heidegger devoted almost one thousand pages of close textual commentary to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. This article aims to shed new light on the relationship between Kant and Heidegger by providing a fresh analysis of two central texts: Heidegger’s 1927/8 lecture course Phenomenological Interpretation of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason and his 1929 monograph Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics. I argue that to make sense of Heidegger’s reading of Kant, one must resolve two (...)
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  50. John Hund (1998). Hegel's Break with Kant: The Leap From Individual Psychology to Sociology. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 28 (2):226-243.
    The author calls attention to and discusses certain basic but neglected and/or obscured features of Hegel's idealism. He treats these features as paradigmati cally sociological and uses them as a baseline with which to chart Hegel's critique of, and against which to measure, Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Section 1 introduces Hegel's criticism of Kant's idealism; in contrast to his own objective idealism, transcendental idealism is individualistic. This criticism is elaborated in section 2, issuing in the quasi-Wittgensteinian indictment that Kant (...)
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