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Summary The nature of the human mind is a central concern in all of Kant's major works. His view of the mind is shaped by two fundamental distinctions: (1) activity vs. passivity and (2) form vs. matter. The paradigmatic activity of the mind, for Kant, is judgment, which involves the unification of representations through concepts. This activity is directed at intuitions/sensations, which are distinguished by our passivity in receiving them. While both judgment and intuition involve certain forms, the latter is the source of all the matter of our experience. Judgments, for Kant, are essentially connected to self-consciousness. Kant gives broadly similar accounts of practical and aesthetic experience, in each case emphasizing forms that we actively apply to the passive elements of our mental lives.
Key works The Critique of Pure Reason is taken by most scholars as the definitive statement of Kant's philosophy of mind, especially the 1787 B edition. Many of Kant's later works provide useful elaborations, however, especially the introductions to the 1790 Critique of the Power of Judgment.
Introductions The secondary literature on Kant's philosophy of mind is vast. For an overview of issues concerning the nature of the mind and self-consciousness, see Brook 2008. For an overview of Kant's theory of judgment and how it fits into his larger project, see Hanna 2008. For an introductory discussion of how Kant's views of the mind relate to his early modern predecessors, see Kitcher 2006.
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  1. Theodor W. Adorno (2002). Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Polity..
    "This volume . . . provides wonderful insight into Adorno's understanding of Kant and also allows us to see more clearly the role Kant's thought played in ...
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  2. Alexander Aichele (2012). Ich denke was, was Du nicht denkst, und das ist Rot: John Locke und George Berkeley über abstrakte Ideen und Kants logischer Abstraktionismus. Kant-Studien 103 (1):25-46.
    The paper discusses Berkeley's classical critique of Locke's theory of generating concepts by abstraction, rebuts it, and shows that endorses Lockean abstractionism concerning the formation of empirical concepts.
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  3. Ermanno Bencivenga (1986). Understanding and Reason in the First Critique. History of Philosophy Quarterly 3 (2):195 - 205.
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  4. Jocelyn Benoist (1998). L'impensé de la Représentation: De Leibniz À Kant. Kant-Studien 89 (3):300-317.
  5. Michael Berman (2011). 'The Happy Accident': Merleau-Ponty and Kant on the Judgment of God. The European Legacy 16 (2):223-236.
    Kant's ideas about, questions, and challenges to the Western tradition of philosophy reverberate into the third century of the reception of his texts. The writings of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, the twentieth-century French existential and hermeneutic phenomenologist, are interlaced with engagements with Kant's ideas. Often these incidents are marked by Merleau-Ponty's critique, yet there is a noticeable recurrence of his efforts to contend with Kant's philosophy. In Merleau-Ponty's course notes, Nature (2002), he wrestles with Kant's version of nature in the Critique of (...)
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  6. J. M. Bernstein (2000). Judging Life: From Beauty to Experience. From Kant to Chaim Soutine. Constellations 7 (2):157-177.
  7. Jeffrey Bernstein (1997). Imagination and Lunacy in Kant's First Critique and Anthropology. Idealistic Studies 27 (3):143-154.
  8. Alessandro Bertinetto (2009). «Wäre ihm dies klar geworden, so wäre seine Ktk. W.L. geworden«: Fichte's Auseinandersetzung mit Kant in den Vorlesungen ueber Transzendentale Logik. Fichte-Studien 33:145-164.
  9. Karl Beth (1925). Das Erlebnis in Religion Und Magie. Kant-Studien 30 (1-2):381-408.
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  10. Jean-Marie Beyssade (2008). Descartes' "I Am a Thing That Thinks" Versus Kant's "I Think". In Daniel Garber & Béatrice Longuenesse (eds.), Kant and the Early Moderns. Princeton University Press.
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  11. Maurice Bitran (2012). Philological Remarks on the Term "Class" in §11 of Critique of Pure Reason. Kant-Studien 103 (2).
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  12. Daniel Dahlstrom (2010). The Critique of Pure Reason and Continental Philosophy: Heidegger's Interpretation of Transcendental Imagination. In Paul Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press.
  13. J. J. Delfour (1997). Enigmatic Ambiguity in the Fourth Paralogism of Kant's 'Kritik der Reinen Vernunft'-A Fine Line Between Reality and Effectivity. Kant-Studien 88 (3):280-310.
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  14. Steven M. Duncan, Mind, Body, Space, and Time.
    In this essay I explore some of the basic elements of consciousness from a substance dualist point of view, incorporating some elements of Kant's Transcendental Analytic into an overall account of the constitution of consciousness.
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  15. Sacha Golob (2013). Heidegger on Kant, Time and the 'Form' of Intentionality. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (2):345 - 367.
    Between 1927 and 1936, Martin Heidegger devoted almost one thousand pages of close textual commentary to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. This article aims to shed new light on the relationship between Kant and Heidegger by providing a fresh analysis of two central texts: Heidegger’s 1927/8 lecture course Phenomenological Interpretation of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason and his 1929 monograph Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics. I argue that to make sense of Heidegger’s reading of Kant, one must resolve two (...)
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  16. John Hund (1998). Hegel's Break with Kant: The Leap From Individual Psychology to Sociology. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 28 (2):226-243.
    The author calls attention to and discusses certain basic but neglected and/or obscured features of Hegel's idealism. He treats these features as paradigmati cally sociological and uses them as a baseline with which to chart Hegel's critique of, and against which to measure, Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Section 1 introduces Hegel's criticism of Kant's idealism; in contrast to his own objective idealism, transcendental idealism is individualistic. This criticism is elaborated in section 2, issuing in the quasi-Wittgensteinian indictment that Kant (...)
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  17. Charles Larmore (2003). Back to Kant? No Way. Inquiry 46 (2):260 – 271.
  18. Kenton F. Machina (1972). Kant, Quine, and Human Experience. Philosophical Review 81 (4):484-497.
  19. Antonio-Maria Nunziante & Alberto Vanzo (2009). Representing Subjects, Mind-Dependent Objects: Kant, Leibniz, and the Amphiboly. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (1):133-151.
    This paper compares Kant’s and Leibniz’s views on the relation between knowing subjects and known objects. Kant discusses Leibniz’s philosophy in the ‘Amphiboly’ section of the first Critique. According to Kant, Leibniz’s main error is mistaking objects in space and time for mind-independent things in themselves, that is, for monads. The paper argues that, pace Kant, Leibniz regards objects in space and time as mind-dependent. A deeper divergence between the two philosophers concerns knowing subjects. For Leibniz, they are substances. For (...)
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  20. L. M. Palmer (2004). The Systematic Constitution of the Universe, the Constitution of the Mind and Kants Copernican Analogy. Kant-Studien 95 (2):171-181.
  21. H. J. Paton (1956). Kant's First Critique. Philosophical Quarterly 6 (24):260-265.
  22. Derk Pereboom (1988). Kant on Intentionality. Synthese 77 (3):321 - 352.
  23. Paul M. Pietroski (1996). Experiencing the Facts (Critical Notice of McDowell). Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26:613-36.
    The general topic of "Mind and World", the written version of John McDowell's 1991 John Locke Lectures, is how `concepts mediate the relation between minds and the world'. And one of the main aims is `to suggest that Kant should still have a central place in our discussion of the way thought bears on reality' (1).1 In particular, McDowell urges us to adopt a thesis that he finds in Kant, or perhaps in Strawson's Kant: the content of experience is conceptualized; (...)
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  24. Suma Rajiva (2006). Is Hypothetical Reason a Precursor to Reflective Judgment? Kant-Studien 97 (1):114-126.
  25. Mark Sacks (2000). Objectivity and Insight. Oxford University Press.
    The first two parts of Objectivity and Insight explore the prospects for objectivity on the standard ontological conception, and find that they are not good. In Part I, under the heading of subject-driven scepticism, Sacks addresses the problem of securing epistemic reach that extends beyond subjective content. In so doing, he considers models of mind proposed by Locke, Hume, Kant, James, and Bergson. Part II, under the heading of world-driven scepticism, discusses the scope for universality of normative structure-a problem which (...)
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  26. Hubert Schwyzer (1973). Thought and Reality: The Metaphysics of Kant and Wittgenstein. Philosophical Quarterly 23 (92):193-206.
  27. Kieran Setiya (2004). Transcendental Idealism in the 'Aesthetic'. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (1):63–88.
    In the "Transcendental Aesthetic" of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant offers an argument for transcendental idealism. This argument is one focus of the longstanding controversy between "one-world" and "two-world" interpretations of the distinction between things in themselves and things as they appear. I present an interpretation of the argument of the "Aesthetic" that supports a novel "one-world" interpretation. On this interpretation, Kant is concerned with the mind-dependence of spatial and temporal properties; and with the idea that space and time (...)
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  28. Lionel Stefan Shapiro (2001). “The Transition From Sensibility to Reason in Regressu”: Indeterminism in Kant's Reflexionen. Kant-Studien 92 (1):3-12.
    In a remarkable series of Critical-period Reflexionen (5611-4, 5616-9), Kant sketches a defense of the possibility of freedom that differs radically from his usual compatibilism by incorporating an indeterministic account of the phenomena. Anticipating Łukasiewicz, Kant reconciles universal causal determination with an open future by positing a lower temporal bound for the infinite regress of prior determining causes issuing in a contingent action. However, Kant concedes that on this account the unity of experience "cannot fully obtain in the case of (...)
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  29. J. G. Shurman (1899). Kant's Theory of the a Priori Forms of Sense: II. Philosophical Review 8 (2):113-127.
  30. R. Theis (1985). The Transcendental Illusion Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason'. Kant-Studien 76 (2):119-137.
  31. Giuseppe Varnier (2000). Unity of the Mental and 'Logical' Identity: After Kant and Hegel. Topoi 19 (2):157-178.
  32. Falk Wunderlich (2004). Review of Otfried Hoeffe, Kants Kritik der Reinen Vernunft. Die Grundlegung der Modernen Philosophie. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (9).
Kant: Apperception and Self-Consciousness
  1. Rolf Ahlers (2009). Review: Bondeli, Apperzeption und erfahrung: Kants transzendentale deduktion im spannungsfeld der frühen rezeption und kritik. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):pp. 475-476.
  2. Henry E. Allison (1993). Apperception and Analyticity in the B-Deduction. Grazer Philosophische Studien 44:233-252.
    This paper defends the thesis of the analyticity of the principle of apperception, as developed in the first part of the B-Deduction, against recent criticisms by Paul Guyer and Patricia Kitchen The first part presents these criticisms, the most important of which being that the analyticity thesis is incompatible with both the avowed goal of which being that the Deduction of establishing the validity of the categories and Üie account of apperception in the A-Deduction. The second part argues that Kant's (...)
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  3. Henry E. Allison (1987). Reflections on the B-Deduction. Southern Journal of Philosophy 25 (S1):1-15.
  4. Karl Ameriks (1994). Review: Powell, Kant's Theory of Self-Consciousness. [REVIEW] International Studies in Philosophy 26 (2):143-144.
  5. Karl Ameriks (1983). Kant and Guyer on Apperception. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 65 (2):174-186.
  6. Richard E. Aquila (1997). Unity of Apperception and the Division of Labour in the Transcendental Analytic. Kantian Review 1:17-52.
  7. Richard E. Aquila (1988). Self-Consciousness, Self-Determination, and Imagination in Kant. Topoi 7 (1):65-79.
    I argue for a basically Sartrean approach to the idea that one's self-concept, and any form of knowledge of oneself as an individual subject, presupposes concepts and knowledge about other things. The necessity stems from a pre-conceptual structure which assures that original self-consciousness is identical with one's consciousness of objects themselves. It is not a distinct accomplishment merely dependent on the latter. The analysis extends the matter/form distinction to concepts. It also requires a distinction between two notions of consciousness: one (...)
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  8. Hermann Ulrich Asemissen (1959). Egologische Reflexion. Kant-Studien 50 (1-4):262-272.
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  9. Lewis Baldacchino (1980). Kant's Theory of Self-Consciousness. Kant-Studien 71 (1-4):393-405.
    There is a widespread misinterpretation of kant according to which an analytic judgment is one that follows from a definition. Through a study of kant's theory of definition, And the role in knowledge that he ascribes to definition, It is shown that this is indeed a misinterpretation. Much criticism of kant's theory of analytic judgments is vitiated by substituting a modern definition of "analytic" for the one kant gave.
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  10. Gary Banham, Apperception and Spontaneity.
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  11. Manfred Baum (1989). Kant on Cosmological Apperception. International Philosophical Quarterly 29 (3):281-289.
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  12. José Luis Bermúdez (1994). The Unity of Apperception in the Critique of Pure Reason. European Journal of Philosophy 2 (3):213-240.
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  13. Sven Bernecker (2006). Kant on Moral Self-Awareness. Kant-Studien 97 (2):163-183.
  14. Sven Bernecker (2006). Kant zur moralischen Selbsterkenntnis. Kant Studien 97 (2):163-183.
  15. Matthew Boyle (forthcoming). Kant and the Significance of Self-Consciousness. Philosophy.
    Human beings who have mastered a natural language are self-conscious creatures: they can think, and indeed speak, about themselves in the first person. This dissertation is about the significance of this capacity: what it is and what difference it makes to our minds. My thesis is that the capacity for self-consciousness is essential to rationality, the thing that sets the minds of rational creatures apart from those of mere brutes. This, I argue, is what Kant was getting at in a (...)
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  16. Daniel Breazeale (2008). Review: Henrich, Between Kant and Hegel. Lectures on German Idealism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (2):pp. 330-331.
  17. William F. Bristow (2001). Review: Keller, Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 110 (2):272-275.
  18. Andrew Brook, Kant's View of the Mind and Consciousness of Self. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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