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Summary      Kant’s Philosophy of Religion has both negative and positive components; and one can see this duality in his famous statement in the B-Preface of the Critique of Pure Reason that he sought out the limits to knowledge [Wissen] in order to make room for faith [Glaube] (Bxxx).  It is in light of this anthem that his critique of the traditional proofs for God's existence should be understood.  They do not reflect the essence of Kant's Philosophy of Religion, but are rather just small pieces of a far richer position.  Echoing Kant’s Lutheran upbringing, he wants to remove religion from the “monopoly of the schools” and set it on a footing suitable to “the common human understanding” (Bxxxii).  He achieves this through an appeal to our shared human need for "a special point of reference for the unification of all ends" (6:5).  This "point of reference" is the Highest Good, an ideal state of affairs in which there is a distribution of happiness in accordance with moral worth. However, because the Highest Good can neither be realized by us nor within the order of nature, Kant postulates God and Immortality.  These are all objects of faith [Glaube] for Kant, and faith, he maintains, is an intersubjectively valid, legitimate mode of assent.  That is, Kant quite sternly and repeatedly argues that faith is not the same as "wishful thinking" or rooted in grounds that have "mere private validity".  Rather, faith is, despite its practical grounding, a mode of conviction [Überzeugung] that affirms its object as true (and certain). Beyond the Highest Good and its Postulates, Kant's positive Philosophy of Religion expands quite broadly into doctrines related to the nature of sin and salvation, miracles, Providence, Ecclesiology, and Eschatology.  While the Highest Good and the Postulates serve as their common foundation, Kant articulates these doctrines in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, as components of what he there calls the "Pure Rational System of Religion". 
Key works "The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God" (1763) "Inquiry into the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morality" (1764) Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787) "What does it Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking" (1786) Critique of Practical Reason (1788) Critique of Judgment (1790) "On the Miscarriage of all Philosophical Trials in Theodicy" (1791) Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1793) "The End of All Things" (1794) The Conflict of the Faculties (1798)
Introductions Stephen Palmquist, "Does Kant Reduce Religion to Morality?" Kant-Studien, 83:2 (1992), 129-148 Lawrence Pasternack, “The Development and Scope of Kantian Belief: The Highest Good, the Practical Postulates, and the Fact of Reason” Kant-Studien, 102:3 (2011), 290-315 Lawrence Pasternack, “Kant on the Debt of Sin” Faith and Philosophy, 29:1 (2012), 30-52 Lawrence Pasternack, Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: an Interpretation and Defense (Routledge, 2013) Allen Wood, Kant's Moral Religion (Cornell, 1970)
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  1. Uygar Abaci (2014). Kant's Only Possible Argument and Chignell's Real Harmony. Kantian Review 19 (1):1-25.
    Andrew Chignell recently proposed an original reconstruction of Kant's for the existence of God. Chignell claims that what motivates the of Kant's proof, , is the requirement that the predicates of a really possible thing must be , i.e. compatible in an extra-logical or metaphysical sense. I take issue with Chignell's reconstruction. First, the pre-Critical Kant does not present as a general condition of real possibility. Second, the real harmony requirement is not what motivates the of the proof. Instead, this (...)
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  2. Uygar Abaci (2008). Kant's Theses on Existence. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (3):559 – 593.
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  3. A. V. Akhutin (1991). Sophia and the Devil: Kant in the Face of Russian Religious Metaphysics. Russian Studies in Philosophy 29 (4):59-89.
  4. Sharon Anderson-Gold (1984). Kant's Rejection of Devilishness. Idealistic Studies 14 (1):35-48.
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  5. Sharon Anderson-Gold & Pablo Muchnik (eds.) (2010). Kant's Anatomy of Evil. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant infamously claimed that all human beings, without exception, are evil by nature. This collection of essays critically examines and elucidates what he must have meant by this indictment.
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  6. Camille Atkinson (2007). Kant on Human Nature and Radical Evil. Philosophy and Theology 19 (1/2):215-224.
    Are human beings essentially good or evil? Immanuel Kant responds, “[H]e [man] is as much the one as the other, partly good, partly bad.” Given this, I’d like to explore the following: What does Kant mean by human nature and how is it possible to be both good and evil? What is “original sin” and does it place limits on free will? In what respect might Kant’s views be significant for non-believers? More specifically, is Kant saying that human beings need (...)
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  7. Dennis Vanden Auweele (2010). Atheism, Radical Evil, and Kant. Philosophy and Theology 22 (1/2):155-176.
    This paper investigates the link between (radical) evil and the existence of God. Arguing with contemporary atheist thinkers, such as Richard Dawkins and Victor Stenger, I hold that one can take the existence of evil as a sign of the existence of God rather than its opposite. The work of Immanuel Kant, especially his thought on evil, is a fertile source to enliven this intuition. Kant implicitly seems to argue that because man is unable to overcome evil by himself, there (...)
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  8. William H. Baumer (1982). Kant's Rational Theology. Philosophical Topics 13 (Supplement):181-186.
  9. Martin A. Bertman (1986). Augustine on Time, with Reference to Kant. Journal of Value Inquiry 20 (3):223-234.
  10. Karl Beth (1925). Das Erlebnis in Religion Und Magie. Kant-Studien 30 (1-2):381-408.
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  11. Robert F. Brown (1984). The Transcendental Fall In Kant and Schelling. Idealistic Studies 14 (1):49-66.
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  12. Matthew Caswell (2006). The Value of Humanity and Kant's Conception of Evil. Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (4):635-663.
  13. Andrew Chignell (2012). Introduction: On Defending Kant at the AAR. Faith and Philosophy 29 (2):144-150.
    I briefly describe the unusually contentious author-meets-critics session that was the origin of the book symposium below. I then try to situate the present symposium within broader contemporary scholarship on Kant. -/- .
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  14. Andrew Chignell (2010). The Devil, The Virgin, and the Envoy: Symbols of Moral Struggle in Religion II.2. In Otfried Hoeffe (ed.), Klassiker Auslegen: Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen. Akademie Verlag.
    Part of a group commentary on Kant's Religion book. -/- .
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  15. Andrew Chignell (2009). 'As Kant Has Shown:' Analytic Theology and the Critical Philosophy. In M. Rea & O. Crisp (eds.), Analytic Theology. Oxford University Press. 116--135.
    On why Kant may not have shown what modern theologians often take him to have shown. -/- .
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  16. Robert C. Coburn (1966). Animadversions on Plantinga's Kant. Journal of Philosophy 63 (19):546-548.
  17. Charlotte Cope (2004). Freedom, Responsibility, and the Concept of Anxiety. International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (4):549-566.
    While the concept of sin plays a pivotal role in the ethico-religious philosophies of Kierkegaard and Kant, both struggle to provide an adequate account of the nature of sin. Kant’s ethical interpretation improves signifi cantly on the traditional theological account by introducing the notion of individual responsibility, but it ultimately fails to provide an explanation of the psychological mechanisms of the fall. Kierkegaard tries to unite the Kantian conception of responsibility with an essentially Hegelian interpretation of the fall, using the (...)
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  18. Clayton Crockett (2001). A Theology of the Sublime. Routledge.
    Crockett develops a constructive radical theology from the philosophy of Kant. Reading The Critique of Judgment back into The Critique of Pure Reason, Crockett draws upon the insights of such continental philosophers as Heidegger, Derrida, Lyotard and Deleuze. This book shows how existential notions of self, time and imagination are interrelated in Kantian thinking, and demonstrates their importance for theology. An original theology of the sublime emerges as a connection is made between the Kantian sublime of the Third Critique and (...)
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  19. Don Cupitt (1982). Kant and the Negative Theology. In Donald MacKenzie MacKinnon, Brian Hebblethwaite & Stewart R. Sutherland (eds.), The Philosophical Frontiers of Christian Theology: Essays Presented to D.M. Mackinnon. Cambridge University Press.
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  20. Adina Davidovich (1994). How to Read Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone. Kant-Studien 85 (1):1-14.
  21. Paul Davies (1998). Sincerity and the End of Theodicy: Three Remarks on Levinas and Kant. Research in Phenomenology 28 (1):126-151.
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  22. H. J. de Vleeschauwer (1943). Les Differenciations Nationales Dans la Philosophie Europeenne. Kant-Studien 42 (1-2):64-105.
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  23. Lara Denis (2003). Kant's Criticism of Atheism. Kant-Studien 94 (2):198-219.
    Although Kant argues that morality is prior to and independent of religion, Kant nevertheless claims that religion of a certain sort (“moral theism”) follows from morality, and that atheism poses threats to morality. Kant criticizes atheism as morally problematic in four ways: atheism robs the atheist of springs for moral action, leads the atheist to moral despair, corrupts the atheist’s moral character, and has a pernicious influence on the atheist’s community. I argue that Kant is right to say that moral (...)
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  24. James DiCenso (2007). Kant, Freud, and the Ethical Critique of Religion. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 61 (3):161 - 179.
    This paper engages Freud’s relation to Kant, with specific reference to each theorist’s articulation of the interconnections between ethics and religion. I argue that there is in fact a constructive approach to ethics and religion in Freud’s thought, and that this approach can be better understood by examining it in relation to Kant’s formulations on these topics. Freud’s thinking about religion and ethics participates in the Enlightenment heritage, with its emphasis on autonomy and rationality, of which Kant’s model of practical (...)
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  25. George R. Dodson (1911). Review: Cushman, Protestant Thought Before Kant. [REVIEW] Ethics 22 (1):113-.
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  26. H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (2010). Moral Obligation After the Death of God: Critical Reflections on Concerns From Immanuel Kant, G.W.F. Hegel, and Elizabeth Anscombe. [REVIEW] In Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred Dycus Miller & Jeffrey Paul (eds.), Moral Obligation. Cambridge University Press. 317-340.
    Once God is no longer recognized as the ground and the enforcer of morality, the character and force of morality undergoes a significant change, a point made by G.E.M. Anscombe in her observation that without God the significance of morality is changed, as the word criminal would be changed if there were no criminal law and criminal courts. There is no longer in principle a God's-eye perspective from which one can envisage setting moral pluralism aside. In addition, it becomes impossible (...)
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  27. Phil Enns (2007). Reason and Revelation: Kant and the Problem of Authority. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 62 (2):103 - 114.
    This paper explores the significance of authority for Kant’s understanding of the relationship between reason and revelation. Beginning with the separation of the faculties of Theology and Philosophy in Conflict, it will be shown that Kant sees a clear distinction between the authority of reason and that of revelation. However, when one turns to Religion, it is also clear that Kant sees an important, perhaps necessary, relationship between the two. Drawing on a variety of texts, in particular those concerning the (...)
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  28. Nicholas Everitt (2008). Peter Byrne Kant on God. (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007). Pp. IX+183. £55.00 (Hbk), £16.99 (Pbk). ISBN 978 0 7546 4022 6 (Hbk), 978 0 7546 4023 3 (Pbk). [REVIEW] Religious Studies 44 (3):358-363.
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  29. Chris L. Firestone (1999). Kant and Religion: Conflict or Compromise? Religious Studies 35 (2):151-171.
    The standard reading of Kant presumes that 'the moral hypothesis' is a necessary and sufficient condition for understanding his philosophy of religion. This paper opens with the assumption -- taken from one of Kant's last works -- that philosophy and theology must always remain in conflict. Then, by way of an abductive comparison of the positions of Ronald M. Green and John Hick, I demonstrate that the moral hypothesis leads to religious compromises that contradict this assumption. To conclude, I argue (...)
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  30. Joseph S. Freedman (1979). Kant on History and Religion. Journal of the History of Philosophy 17 (1):104-105.
  31. Elizabeth Cameron Galbraith (1996). Kant and Theology: Was Kant a Closet Theologian? International Scholars Publications.
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  32. Włodzimierz Galewicz (2004). Pokusy i grzechy wiary pragmatycznej. Immanuel Kant o wewnętrznym kłamstwie. Roczniki Filozoficzne 52 (2):111-120.
    The paper an analytical-interpretative commentary on several excerpts from I. Kant. The first one with an example of a doctor who thinks he knows his patient's illness deals with the concept of pragmatic faith. The author seeks to explicate this concept by giving three interpretations of Kantian example. In a further part of the paper the internal lie is defined as a sin which may fall part of any "believers not careful enough" of the titular faith. The first example is (...)
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  33. Balbir Singh Gauchhwal (1964). Moral Religion of Kant and Karmayoga of the Gītā. Kant-Studien 55 (1-4):394-409.
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  34. Jerry H. Gill (1967). Kant, Kierkegaard, and Religious Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 28 (2):188-204.
  35. Terry F. Godlove (1989). Religion, Interpretation, and Diversity of Belief: The Framework Model From Kant to Durkheim to Davidson. Cambridge University Press.
    Different religious traditions offer apparently very different pictures of the world. How are we to make sense of this radical diversity of religious belief? In this book, Professor Godlove argues that religions are alternative conceptual frameworks, the categories of which organise experience in diverse ways. He traces the history of this idea from Kant to Durkheim, and then proceeds to discuss two constraints on the diversity of all human judgment and belief: first that human experience is made possible by shared, (...)
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  36. Paul Gorner (2003). Review: Pringle-Patterson, The Development From Kant to Hegel. [REVIEW] Journal of Scottish Philosophy 1 (1):101-102.
  37. Robert Gressis (2010). Review: Sharon Anderson-Gold & Pablo Muchnik, Kant's Anatomy of Evil. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (7).
    In this book review, I assess the merits of the book as a whole (it's good!) while focusing in particular on chapters by Claudia Card, Patrick Frierson, Robert Louden, Pablo Muchnik, Jeanine Grenberg, and Allen Wood.
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  38. Errol E. Harris (1977). Kant's Refutation of the Ontological Proof. Philosophy 52 (199):90 - 92.
  39. Christopher Insole (2008). The Irreducible Importance of Religious Hope in Kant's Conception of the Highest Good. Philosophy 83 (3):333-351.
    Kant is clear that the concept of the 'highest good' involves both a demand, that we follow the moral law, as well as a promise, that happiness will be the outcome of being moral. The latter element of the highest good has troubled commentators, who tend to find it metaphysically extravagant, involving, as it does, belief in God and an afterlife. Furthermore, it seems to threaten the moral purity that Kant demands: that we obey the moral law for its own (...)
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  40. Patrick Kain (2006). Realism and Anti-Realism in Kant's Second Critique. Philosophy Compass 1 (5):449–465.
    This critical survey of recent work on Kant's doctrine of the fact of reason and his doctrine of the practical postulates (of freedom, God, and immortality) assesses the implications of these doctrines for the debate about realism and antirealism in Kant's moral philosophy. Section 1 briefly surveys some salient considerations from the first Critique and Groundwork. In section 2, I argue that recent work on the role, content, "factual" nature, and epistemic status of the fact of reason does not support (...)
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  41. Patrick Kain (2005). Interpreting Kant's Theory of Divine Commands. Kantian Review 9 (1):128-149.
    Several interpretive disagreements about Kant's theory of divine commands (esp. in the work of Allen Wood and John E. Hare) can be resolved with further attention to Kant's works. It is argued that Kant's moral theism included (at least until 1797) the claim that practical reason, reflecting upon the absolute authority of the moral law, should lead finite rational beings like us to believe that there exists an omnipotent, omniscient and holy being who commands our obedience to the moral law (...)
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  42. A. Koutsouvilis (1973). Kant and the Christian Command. Heythrop Journal 14 (2):190–194.
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  43. Beryl Logan (1998). Hume and Kant on Knowing the Deity. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 43 (3):133-148.
  44. Jacqueline Mariña (2012). Kant, Religion, and Politics. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    A review of James Di Censo's book on Kant, religion, and politics.
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  45. Jacqueline Mariña (2001). The Religious Significance of Kant's Ethics. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 75 (2):179-200.
    In this paper I argue that an in-depth investigation into Kant’s categorical imperative reveals profound and surprising insights into the nature of persons and what specifically about them equips them for religious life. I examine the CI both in the context of the relation to God and to others and in so doing assess the implications of Kantian moral theory on theology’s understanding of the first and second great commandments. The first part of the paper explores what Kantian moral requirements (...)
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  46. Jean-Luc Marion (1992). Is the Ontological Argument Ontological? The Argument According to Anselm and its Metaphysical Interpretation According to Kant. Journal of the History of Philosophy 30 (2):201-218.
  47. Gordon E. Michalson (2004). Re-Reading the Post-Kantian Tradition with Milbank. Journal of Religious Ethics 32 (2):357 - 383.
    The essay explores the meaning and implications of Milbank's claim that the post-Kantian presuppositions of modern theology must be eradicated. After defining and locating the post-Kantian element in the context of Milbank's broader concerns, the essay employs a comparison between Milbank and Barth to draw out the differences between radical orthodoxy and neo-orthodoxy with respect to the Kantian ideal of "mediation" between theology and culture. The essay concludes with comparisons of Milbank's metanarrative concerning "modern" thought with those offered by Hans (...)
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  48. Gordon E. Michalson (1997). The Problem of Salvation in Kant's Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone. International Philosophical Quarterly 37 (3):319-328.
  49. Gordon E. Michalson (1990). Fallen Freedom: Kant on Radical Evil and Moral Regeneration. Cambridge University Press.
    This work offers a clear exposition of evil and moral regeneration as they appear in Kant's late work Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone. Michalson examines a doctrine of "radical evil" which he sees as strongly resembling the Christian doctrine of original sin. In the author's view, Kant compromises his position as a result of this throwback to the Christian tradition, which is at odds with some of the basic tenets of the Enlightenment. Kant is thus seen to be (...)
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  50. Pablo F. Muchnik (2006). On the Alleged Vacuity of Kant's Concept of Evil. Kant-Studien 97 (4):430-451.
    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in Kant's doctrine of radical evil, arising from as diverse quarters as philosophy, psychoanalysis and the social sciences. This interest has contributed to the revival of the notion of evil, which had been displaced from the center of philosophical discussion in the 20th century. A common trait in the recent literature is that it takes the relevance of the use of the concept of evil for granted. Yet, before understanding what Kant (...)
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