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Summary      Kant’s Philosophy of Religion has both negative and positive components; and one can see this duality in his famous statement in the B-Preface of the Critique of Pure Reason that he sought out the limits to knowledge [Wissen] in order to make room for faith [Glaube] (Bxxx).  It is in light of this anthem that his critique of the traditional proofs for God's existence should be understood.  They do not reflect the essence of Kant's Philosophy of Religion, but are rather just small pieces of a far richer position.  Echoing Kant’s Lutheran upbringing, he wants to remove religion from the “monopoly of the schools” and set it on a footing suitable to “the common human understanding” (Bxxxii).  He achieves this through an appeal to our shared human need for "a special point of reference for the unification of all ends" (6:5).  This "point of reference" is the Highest Good, an ideal state of affairs in which there is a distribution of happiness in accordance with moral worth. However, because the Highest Good can neither be realized by us nor within the order of nature, Kant postulates God and Immortality.  These are all objects of faith [Glaube] for Kant, and faith, he maintains, is an intersubjectively valid, legitimate mode of assent.  That is, Kant quite sternly and repeatedly argues that faith is not the same as "wishful thinking" or rooted in grounds that have "mere private validity".  Rather, faith is, despite its practical grounding, a mode of conviction [Überzeugung] that affirms its object as true (and certain). Beyond the Highest Good and its Postulates, Kant's positive Philosophy of Religion expands quite broadly into doctrines related to the nature of sin and salvation, miracles, Providence, Ecclesiology, and Eschatology.  While the Highest Good and the Postulates serve as their common foundation, Kant articulates these doctrines in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, as components of what he there calls the "Pure Rational System of Religion". 
Key works "The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God" (1763) "Inquiry into the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morality" (1764) Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787) "What does it Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking" (1786) Critique of Practical Reason (1788) Critique of Judgment (1790) "On the Miscarriage of all Philosophical Trials in Theodicy" (1791) Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1793) "The End of All Things" (1794) The Conflict of the Faculties (1798)
Introductions Stephen Palmquist, "Does Kant Reduce Religion to Morality?" Kant-Studien, 83:2 (1992), 129-148 Lawrence Pasternack, “The Development and Scope of Kantian Belief: The Highest Good, the Practical Postulates, and the Fact of Reason” Kant-Studien, 102:3 (2011), 290-315 Lawrence Pasternack, “Kant on the Debt of Sin” Faith and Philosophy, 29:1 (2012), 30-52 Lawrence Pasternack, Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: an Interpretation and Defense (Routledge, 2013) Allen Wood, Kant's Moral Religion (Cornell, 1970)
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  1. Uygar Abaci (2008). Kant's Theses on Existence. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (3):559 – 593.
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  2. Hendrik Adriaanse (2003). Religie En Ethiek Bij Kant. de Uil Van Minerva 19:3-18.
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  3. Michael Albrecht (1978). Kant und der Katholizismus. International Studies in Philosophy 10:167-174.
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  4. Sharon Anderson-Gold (1984). Kant's Rejection of Devilishness. Idealistic Studies 14 (1):35-48.
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  5. Sharon Anderson-Gold & Pablo Muchnik (eds.) (2009). Kant's Anatomy of Evil. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant infamously claimed that all human beings, without exception, are evil by nature. This collection of essays critically examines and elucidates what he must have meant by this indictment.
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  6. Camille Atkinson (2007). Kant on Human Nature and Radical Evil. Philosophy and Theology 19 (1/2):215-224.
    Are human beings essentially good or evil? Immanuel Kant responds, “[H]e [man] is as much the one as the other, partly good, partly bad.” Given this, I’d like to explore the following: What does Kant mean by human nature and how is it possible to be both good and evil? What is “original sin” and does it place limits on free will? In what respect might Kant ’s views be significant for non-believers? More specifically, is Kant saying that human beings (...)
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  7. Dennis Vanden Auweele (2015). Kant on Religious Moral Education. Kantian Review 20 (3):373-394.
    While scholars are slowly coming to realize that Kants reflections on religion in parts II and III of Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason interpret religion specifically as one aspect of moral education, namely moral ascetics. After first clearly distinguishing between a cognitive and a conative aspect of moral education, I show how certain historical religious practices serve to provide the conative aspect of moral education. Kant defines this aspect of moral education as practices that render the human agent. (...)
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  8. Dennis Vanden Auweele (2010). Atheism, Radical Evil, and Kant. Philosophy and Theology 22 (1/2):155-176.
    This paper investigates the link between (radical) evil and the existence of God. Arguing with contemporary atheist thinkers, such as Richard Dawkins and Victor Stenger, I hold that one can take the existence of evil as a sign of the existence of God rather than its opposite. The work of Immanuel Kant, especially his thought on evil, is a fertile source to enliven this intuition. Kant implicitly seems to argue that because man is unable to overcome evil by himself, there (...)
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  9. John Baillie (1931). England's Kant's Conception of God. Journal of Philosophy 28:558.
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  10. William H. Baumer (1982). Kant's Rational Theology. Philosophical Topics 13 (Supplement):181-186.
  11. Michael Baur (2000). Kant's “Moral Proof”. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 74:141-161.
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  12. Julian Bayart (1933). God : A Critique of Kant's Objections. Modern Schoolman 11 (1):11-14.
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  13. Karl Beth (1925). Das Erlebnis in Religion und Magie. Kant-Studien 30 (1-2):381-408.
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  14. Robert F. Brown (1984). The Transcendental Fall In Kant and Schelling. Idealistic Studies 14 (1):49-66.
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  15. Charles A. Bruehl (1927). Kant's Philosophy of Religion. New Scholasticism 1 (3):272-275.
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  16. Peter Byrne (2007). Kant on God. Ashgate Pub Co.
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  17. Matthew Caswell (2006). The Value of Humanity and Kant's Conception of Evil. Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (4):635-663.
    Matthew Caswell - The Value of Humanity and Kant's Conception of Evil - Journal of the History of Philosophy 44:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 44.4 635-663 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents The Value of Humanity and Kant's Conception of Evil Matthew Caswell Recent years have seen the development of a powerful reinterpretation of Kant's basic approach in ethical thought. Kant, it is argued, should not be read as defending the stark, metaphysics-laden formalism for which his theory is (...)
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  18. Andrew Chignell (2010). The Devil, The Virgin, and the Envoy: Symbols of Moral Struggle in Religion II.2. In Otfried Hoeffe (ed.), Klassiker Auslegen: Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen. Akademie Verlag
    Part of a group commentary on Kant's Religion book. -/- .
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  19. Andrew Chignell (2009). 'As Kant Has Shown:' Analytic Theology and the Critical Philosophy. In M. Rea & O. Crisp (eds.), Analytic Theology. Oxford University Press 116--135.
    On why Kant may not have shown what modern theologians often take him to have shown. -/- .
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  20. Robert C. Coburn (1966). Animadversions on Plantinga's Kant. Journal of Philosophy 63 (19):546-548.
  21. Vincent M. Cooke (1988). Kant's Godlike Self. International Philosophical Quarterly 28 (3):313-323.
  22. Vincent M. Cooke (1987). What Can We Learn From Kant. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 62 (4):358-368.
  23. Charlotte Cope (2004). Freedom, Responsibility, and the Concept of Anxiety. International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (4):549-566.
    While the concept of sin plays a pivotal role in the ethico-religious philosophies of Kierkegaard and Kant, both struggle to provide an adequate account of the nature of sin. Kant’s ethical interpretation improves signifi cantly on the traditional theological account by introducing the notion of individual responsibility, but it ultimately fails to provide an explanation of the psychological mechanisms of the fall. Kierkegaard tries to unite the Kantian conception of responsibility with an essentially Hegelian interpretation of the fall, using the (...)
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  24. Clayton Crockett (2001). A Theology of the Sublime. Routledge.
    Crockett develops a constructive radical theology from the philosophy of Kant. Reading The Critique of Judgment back into The Critique of Pure Reason, Crockett draws upon the insights of such continental philosophers as Heidegger, Derrida, Lyotard and Deleuze. This book shows how existential notions of self, time and imagination are interrelated in Kantian thinking, and demonstrates their importance for theology. An original theology of the sublime emerges as a connection is made between the Kantian sublime of the Third Critique and (...)
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  25. R. Nicol Cross (1947). Shall We Reason with God? Hibbert Journal 46:125.
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  26. Don Cupitt (1982). Kant and the Negative Theology. In Donald MacKenzie MacKinnon, Brian Hebblethwaite & Stewart R. Sutherland (eds.), The Philosophical Frontiers of Christian Theology: Essays Presented to D.M. Mackinnon. Cambridge University Press
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  27. Adina Davidovich (1994). How to Read Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone. Kant-Studien 85 (1):1-14.
  28. Paul Davies (1998). Sincerity and the End of Theodicy: Three Remarks on Levinas and Kant. Research in Phenomenology 28 (1):126-151.
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  29. Ramiro de Meneses (2008). Sentido da Offenbarung Em Kant Nos Limites da Vernunft. Información Filosófica 5 (11):12-37.
    I define the sense of Revelation that was a very important element in the making of Kant’s Philosophy of Religion. Naturally, the Prussian philosopher analyzed Christian doctrines searching for some theoretical inspiration. However, he asserts that relevant ideas of his thought or religion were in fact inspired by the reading of the Bible ideas such as those of revelation, and radical evil. Christian faith is highly appreciated by Kant among the world’s religions, because historically it has been a formidable promoter (...)
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  30. H. J. de Vleeschauwer (1943). Les Differenciations Nationales Dans la Philosophie Europeenne. Kant-Studien 42 (1-2):64-105.
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  31. Regina O. M. Dell'oro (1994). From Existence to the Ideal Continuity and Development in Kant's Theology.
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  32. Lara Denis (2003). Kant's Criticism of Atheism. Kant-Studien 94 (2):198-219.
    Although Kant argues that morality is prior to and independent of religion, Kant nevertheless claims that religion of a certain sort (“moral theism”) follows from morality, and that atheism poses threats to morality. Kant criticizes atheism as morally problematic in four ways: atheism robs the atheist of springs for moral action, leads the atheist to moral despair, corrupts the atheist’s moral character, and has a pernicious influence on the atheist’s community. I argue that Kant is right to say that moral (...)
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  33. Michel Despland & Immanuel Kant (1973). Kant on History and Religion with a Translation of Kant's "on the Failure of All Attempted Philosophical Theodicies".
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  34. James DiCenso (2007). Kant, Freud, and the Ethical Critique of Religion. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 61 (3):161 - 179.
    This paper engages Freud’s relation to Kant, with specific reference to each theorist’s articulation of the interconnections between ethics and religion. I argue that there is in fact a constructive approach to ethics and religion in Freud’s thought, and that this approach can be better understood by examining it in relation to Kant’s formulations on these topics. Freud’s thinking about religion and ethics participates in the Enlightenment heritage, with its emphasis on autonomy and rationality, of which Kant’s model of practical (...)
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  35. George R. Dodson (1911). Review: Cushman, Protestant Thought Before Kant. [REVIEW] Ethics 22 (1):113-.
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  36. Daniel A. Dombrowski (2012). Malone-France, Derek. Deep Empiricism: Kant, Whitehead, and the Necessity of Philosophical Theism. Review of Metaphysics 66 (2):375-376.
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  37. Will Dudley & Kristina Engelhard (2014). Immanuel Kant: Key Concepts. Routledge.
    Immanuel Kant is among the most pivotal thinkers in the history of philosophy. His transcendental idealism claims to overcome the skepticism of David Hume, resolve the impasse between empiricism and rationalism, and establish the reality of human freedom and moral agency. A thorough understanding of Kant is indispensable to any philosopher today. The significance of Kant's thought is matched by its complexity. His revolutionary ideas are systematically interconnected and he presents them using a forbidding technical vocabulary. A careful investigation of (...)
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  38. W. E. (1962). Reason and God. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 15 (4):680-680.
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  39. H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (2010). Moral Obligation After the Death of God: Critical Reflections on Concerns From Immanuel Kant, G.W.F. Hegel, and Elizabeth Anscombe. [REVIEW] In Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred Dycus Miller & Jeffrey Paul (eds.), Social Philosophy and Policy. Cambridge University Press 317-340.
    Once God is no longer recognized as the ground and the enforcer of morality, the character and force of morality undergoes a significant change, a point made by G.E.M. Anscombe in her observation that without God the significance of morality is changed, as the word criminal would be changed if there were no criminal law and criminal courts. There is no longer in principle a God's-eye perspective from which one can envisage setting moral pluralism aside. In addition, it becomes impossible (...)
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  40. Phil Enns (2007). Reason and Revelation: Kant and the Problem of Authority. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 62 (2):103 - 114.
    This paper explores the significance of authority for Kant’s understanding of the relationship between reason and revelation. Beginning with the separation of the faculties of Theology and Philosophy in Conflict, it will be shown that Kant sees a clear distinction between the authority of reason and that of revelation. However, when one turns to Religion, it is also clear that Kant sees an important, perhaps necessary, relationship between the two. Drawing on a variety of texts, in particular those concerning the (...)
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  41. C. Esposito (1995). The Crucial Place of the Philosophy of Religion in Kant Thought. Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 50 (2):277-311.
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  42. Nicholas Everitt (2008). Peter Byrne Kant on God. (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007). Pp. IX+183. £55.00 (Hbk), £16.99 (Pbk). ISBN 978 0 7546 4022 6 (Hbk), 978 0 7546 4023 3 (Pbk). [REVIEW] Religious Studies 44 (3):358-363.
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  43. P. Faggiotto (1998). Metaphysics and Faith in Kant. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 90 (3).
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  44. Gene Fendt (1990). For What May I Hope? Thinking with Kant and Kierkegaard. Peter Lang.
    This book exhibits the centrality of hope in Kant's critical philosophy, and brings into question the rationality of that hope, and how the question of that rationality can be raised. The question of the rationality of hope is further explored through Kierkegaard's writing.
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  45. Edgard José Jorge Filho (2007). Concerning Moral Faith in Kant. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 10:167-175.
    According to Kant, all finite rational beings are unconditionally bound to obey the moral law, expressed in the formula of the categorical imperative. The assent (the taking to be true) to this law is a practical knowledge, since its ground is objectively and subjectively sufficient. However, the immortality of the soul and the existence of God are not objects of practical knowledge but just objects of practical faith, of moral faith more precisely, for the assent to them has a barely (...)
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  46. Chris L. Firestone (2007). What Can Christian Theologians Learn From Kant? Philosophia Christi 9 (1):7-20.
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  47. Chris L. Firestone (1999). Kant and Religion: Conflict or Compromise? Religious Studies 35 (2):151-171.
    The standard reading of Kant presumes that 'the moral hypothesis' is a necessary and sufficient condition for understanding his philosophy of religion. This paper opens with the assumption -- taken from one of Kant's last works -- that philosophy and theology must always remain in conflict. Then, by way of an abductive comparison of the positions of Ronald M. Green and John Hick, I demonstrate that the moral hypothesis leads to religious compromises that contradict this assumption. To conclude, I argue (...)
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  48. J. William Forgie (1975). Kant and the Question "Is Existence a Predicate?". Canadian Journal of Philosophy 5 (4):563 - 582.
  49. Joseph S. Freedman (1979). Kant on History and Religion. Journal of the History of Philosophy 17 (1):104-105.
  50. Elizabeth Cameron Galbraith (1996). Kant and Theology: Was Kant a Closet Theologian? International Scholars Publications.
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