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Summary Kant's Antinomy of Pure Reason is the heart of the Transcendental Dialectic of the Critique of Pure Reason. There, he demonstrates that claims to cognize the duration of the world in time and the extent of its divisibility in space lead to contradictions that are insoluble so long as the metaphysician does not adopt the perspective of transcendental idealism. Kant also takes himself to demonstrate that transcendental freedom is not inconsistent with the claim that events in space and time are causally determined.
Key works Influential treatments (in English) of the individual antinomies can be found in Bennett 1974, Guyer 1987Watkins 2005, while Grier 2001 and Allison 2004 present Kant's Antinomy chapter in the context of the general account of error and illusion in the DIalectic.
Introductions In addition to the above key works, ʻAẓm 1972 attempts to trace Kant's arguments in the individual antinomies to issues arising in the course of the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. The individual antinomies (particularly the third) have also been the subject of extensive discussion in their own right, with a helpful overview (as well as some broader context) provided in Wood 2010.
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  1. S. J. Al-Azm (1968). Absolute Space and Kant's First Antinomy of Pure Reason. Kant-Studien 59 (1-4):151-164.
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  2. Gary Banham, Corporeal Substances and Physical Monads in Kant and Leibniz.
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  3. Conor Barry (2010). The Drama of Reason: Hume's Dialogue Concerning Natural Religion and the Antinomies of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Analecta Hermeneutica 2 (2).
  4. C. W. Berenda (1968). Phonons--The Quantization of Sound (And Kant's Second Antinomy. Philosophy of Science 35 (2):179 - 184.
    The recent extension of quantum theory to sound waves in solids is briefly outlined and then discussed from a specific philosophic (Kantian) perspective.
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  5. C. W. Berenda (1968). Phonons--The Quantization of Sound (and Kant's Second Antinomy). Philosophy of Science 35 (2):179-184.
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  6. Carlton W. Berenda (1964). On the Cosmological Indeterminacy Principle of Mccrae. Philosophy of Science 31 (3):265-270.
    A recent proposal by Dr. W. H. McCrae, cosmologist and mathematician, to the effect that decisions between such cosmogonies as those of Hoyle and of Gamow are experimentally impossible by virtue of a general cosmological indeterminacy principle, is here examined and elaborated upon. Some comments on the "antinomies" in Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason" are made in reference to this principle as well as to the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle. If McCrae's principle is accepted, we will have moved a long way (...)
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  7. Omri Boehm (2011). The First Antinomy and Spinoza. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (4):683 - 710.
    Scholars commonly assume that Kant never seriously engaged with Spinoza or Spinozism. However, in his later writings Kant argues several times that Spinozism is the most consistent form of transcendental realism. In the first part of the paper, I argue that the first Antinomy, debating the age and size of the world, already reflects Kant's confrontation with Spinozist metaphysics. Specifically, the position articulated in the Antithesis ? according to which the world is infinite and uncreated ? is Spinozist, not Leibnizian, (...)
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  8. C. D. Broad (1954). Kant's Mathematical Antinomies: The Presidential Address. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 55:1 - 22.
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  9. Charlie Dunbar Broad (1955). Kant's Mathematical Antinomies. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 40:1--22.
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  10. Paul Carus (1915). Kant's Antinomies and Their Solution. The Monist 25 (4):627-632.
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  11. Brian Chance (2011). Sensibilism, Psychologism, and Kant's Debt to Hume. Kantian Review 16 (3):325-349.
    Hume’s account of causation is often regarded a challenge Kant must overcome if the Critical philosophy is to be successful. But from Kant’s time to the present, Hume’s denial of our ability to cognize supersensible objects, a denial that relies heavily on his account of causation, has also been regarded as a forerunner to Kant’s critique of metaphysics. After identifying reasons for rejecting Wayne Waxman’s recent account of Kant’s debt to Hume, I present my own, more modest account of this (...)
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  12. Charles W. Cobb (1917). The First Antinomy of Kant. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 14 (25):688-690.
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  13. James Collins (1984). "Kant's Theory of Form: An Essay on the Critique of Pure Reason," by Robert B. Pippin; "Kant's Antinomies of Reason: Their Origin and Their Resolution," by Victoria S. Wike. The Modern Schoolman 61 (3):204-205.
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  14. Vincent M. Cooke (1985). Kant's Antinomies. International Philosophical Quarterly 25 (2):219-221.
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  15. William Lane Craig (1979). Kant's First Antinomy and the Beginning of the Universe. Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 33 (4):553 - 567.
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  16. Wolfgang Ertl (2002). Hume's Antinomy and Kant's Critical Turn. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (4):617-640.
    The aim of this paper is to confirm that it was Hamann's translation of Hume's "Treatise" (I.4.7) which triggered Kant's critical turn in 1768/69. If this is indeed so, then Kant's inaugural dissertation must be reassessed, in particular the doctrine, to be found there, that we have cognitive access to the intelligible world. This doctrine is part of a strategy for tackling the problem highlighted by Hume; that there may be conflicting principles at work in the human mind, i.e., an (...)
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  17. Michaël Foessel (2007). Kant Et l'Équivoque du Monde. Cnrs.
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  18. J. William Forgie (1993). Kant on the Relation Between the Cosmological and Ontological Arguments. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 34 (1):1 - 12.
  19. Milton Fried (1940). Kant's First Antinomy: A Logical Analysis. Mind 49 (194):204-218.
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  20. Gerhard Funke (forthcoming). La Théorie Des Antinomies Dans la Critique de Kant Par Hegel. Les Études Philosophiques.
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  21. Alexander Gebharter & Alexander Mirnig (2010). From a Mereotopological Point of View. Kriterion 23:78-90.
    In his Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant presents four antinomies. In his attempt to solve the first of these antinomies he examines and analyzes thesis and antithesis more thoroughly and employs the terms `part', `whole' and `boundary' in his argumentation for their validity. According to Kant, the whole problem surrounding the antinomy was caused by applying the concept of the world to nature and then using both terms interchangeably. While interesting, this solution is still not that much more than (...)
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  22. A. C. Genova (1986). Kant's Antinomies of Reason. International Studies in Philosophy 18 (3):111-112.
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  23. J. L. Gorman (1988). The Origins of Kant's Arguments in the Antinomies. Philosophical Books 29 (4):202-204.
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  24. Kyriaki Goudeli (2002). Challenges to German Idealism: Schelling, Fichte, and Kant. Palgrave.
    This book offers an important reappraisal of Schelling's philosophy and his relationship to German Idealism. Focusing on Schelling's self-critique in early identity philosophy the author rejects those criticisms of Schelling made by both Hegel and Heidegger. This work significantly redraws the boundaries of metaphysical thinking, arguing for a dialogue between rational philosophy, mythology and cosmology.
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  25. M. S. Gram (1967). Kant's First Antinomy. The Monist 51 (4):499-518.
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  26. John D. Greenwood (1990). Kant's Third Antinomy. International Philosophical Quarterly 30 (1):43-57.
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  27. Michelle Grier (1998). Transcendental Illusion and Transcendental Realism in Kant's Second Antinomy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 6 (1):47 – 70.
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  28. Andree Hahmann (2009). Die reaktion der spekulativen weltweisheit: Kant und die kritik an den einfachen substanzen. Kant-Studien 100 (4):454-475.
    In the second half of the 18th century the voices criticizing the concept of simple substances as proposed by Leibniz and Wolff became increasingly louder. In response, Kant altered his theory of substances as first proposed in the 1750s. So for example, while his notion of substance in the Monadologia physica is simple and not merely in space, but fills space entirely, the Kantian position in the 1760s and early 1770s is quite different. This essay examines the solution Kant offers (...)
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  29. W. T. Harris (1894). Kant's Third Antinomy and His Fallacy Regarding the First Cause. Philosophical Review 3 (1):1-13.
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  30. Heinz Heimsoeth (1966). Zum kosmotheologischen ursprung der kantischen freiheitsantinomie. Kant-Studien 57 (1-4):206-229.
  31. Heinz Heimsoeth (1960). Vernunftantinomie und transzendentale dialektik in der geschichtlichen situation Des kantischen lebenswerkes. Kant-Studien 51 (1-4):131-141.
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  32. W. Michael Hoffman (1975). An Interpretation of Kant's Solution to the Third Antinomy. Southern Journal of Philosophy 13 (2):173-185.
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  33. Dale Jacquette (1993). Kant's Second Antinomy and Hume's Theory of Extensionless Indivisibles. Kant-Studien 84 (1):38-50.
  34. Martin G. Kalin (1978). Idealism Against Realism in Kant's Third Antinomy. Kant-Studien 69 (1-4):160-169.
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  35. Mark A. Kaplowitz (2012). Maimonides on Creation, Kants First Antinomy, and Hermann Cohen. Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 20 (2):147-171.
    This paper describes a “double move“ made by Maimonides, Kant, and Hermann Cohen when they simultaneously dismiss and resolve the cosmological problem of the origin of the universe in time in order to represent creation as a moral issue. Maimonides claims to lack a compelling metaphysical argument regarding creation. However, a reading of Maimonides inspired by the views of Hermann Cohen finds him to be a Platonist who accepts creation from absolute privation so as to establish a moral world in (...)
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  36. Peter Krausser (1988). On the Antinomies and the Appendix to the Dialectic in Kant's Critique and Philosophy of Science. Synthese 77 (3):375 - 401.
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  37. Ivor Leclerc (1966). Kant's Second Antinomy, Leibniz, and Whitehead. Review of Metaphysics 20 (1):25 - 41.
  38. B. Longuenesse (2003). Review: Grier, Kant's Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion. [REVIEW] Mind 112 (448):718-724.
  39. Zeljko Loparic (1990). The Logical Structure of the First Antinomy. Kant-Studien 81 (3):280-303.
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  40. Wolfgang Malzkorn (1998). Kant Über Die Teilbarkeit der Materie. Kant-Studien 89 (4):385-409.
    In this paper it is argued that the _Physical Monadology of 1756 has to be seen as an attempt to evade the same paradox as the one given in the second antinomy of the _Critique of Pure Reason. Since this attempt presupposes the claim that space rests upon relations between substances, it contradicts the thesis that it is a mere form of intuition, presented by Kant in his dissertation of 1770. Therefore, at least since 1770 the paradox of the divisibility (...)
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  41. Peter Mittelstaedt & Ingeborg Strohmeyer (1990). Die kosmologischen Antinomien in der Kritik der reinen Vernunft und die moderne physikalische Kosmologie. Kant-Studien 81 (2):145-169.
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  42. A. W. Moore (2011). Bird on Kant's Mathematical Antinomies. Kantian Review 16 (2):235-243.
  43. A. W. Moore (1992). A Note on Kant's First Antinomy. Philosophical Quarterly 42 (169):480-485.
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  44. Milton K. Munitz (1951). Kantian Dialectic and Modern Scientific Cosmology. Journal of Philosophy 48 (10):325-338.
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  45. Chris Naticchia (1994). Kant on the Third Antinomy: Is Freedom Possible in a World of Natural Necessity? History of Philosophy Quarterly 11 (4):393 - 403.
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  46. Carl Posy (2008). Intuition and Infinity: A Kantian Theme with Echoes in the Foundations of Mathematics. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83 (63):165-193.
    Kant says patently conflicting things about infinity and our grasp of it. Infinite space is a good case in point. In his solution to the First Antinomy, he denies that we can grasp the spatial universe as infinite, and therefore that this universe can be infinite; while in the Aesthetic he says just the opposite: ‘Space is represented as a given infinite magnitude’ (A25/B39). And he rests these upon consistently opposite grounds. In the Antinomy we are told that we can (...)
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  47. Michael Radner (1998). Unlocking the Second Antinomy: Kant and Wolff. Journal of the History of Philosophy 36 (3):413-441.
  48. Gustavo Sarmiento (2005). On Kant’s Definition of the Monad in the Monadologia Physica of 1756. Kant-Studien 96 (1):1-19.
    It is well known that the modern atomists assumed the ancient thesis that things are composed of simple entities. It is also known that Leibniz went beyond atomism, since he affirmed that the true substances on which things are founded, the so-called monads, cannot be divisible or extended, for they are souls. For Christian Wolff, the elements of bodies are not extended; these elements have no figure and no magnitude whatsoever, they fill no space and are indivisible. In the Monadologia (...)
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  49. Oscar Schmiege (2006). What is Kant's Second Antinomy About. Kant-Studien 97 (3):272-300.
    The central questions in this study are: (1) What does Kant consider the essence of the dispute between Rationalists and Realist Empiricists which he titles the “Second Conflict of the Transcendental Ideas?” (2) Why does he believe it supports such wider aims of the Critical Philosophy as: (a) showing the impossibility of a Transcendental Realist explanation of the spatiotemporal world, which amounts to an indirect proof of Transcendental Idealism (A 506/B 534); (b) being the only means for detecting the transcendental (...)
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  50. Oliver Schulte, Epistemology, Reliable Inquiry and Topology.
    From one perspective, the fundamental notions of point-set topology have to do with sequences (of points or of numbers) and their limits. A broad class of epistemological questions also appear to be concerned with sequences and their limits. For example, problems of empirical underdetermination–which of a collection of alternative theories is true–have to do with logical properties of sequences of evidence. Underdetermination by evidence is the central problem of Plato’s Meno [Glymour and Kelly 1992], of one of Sextus Empiricus’ many (...)
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