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Summary In the Paralogisms of Pure Reason, Kant undertakes to expose the illusory basis of the rational psychologist's claim to offer cognition of the nature and existence of the soul and its condition after the death of the body. In doing so, Kant has in his crosshairs not only the views on the soul of Descartes and Leibniz but also those of his rationalist contemporaries such as Christian Wolff (who claims to have invented the discipline of rational psychology), Martin Knutzen (one of Kant's teachers and author of a number of texts on the topic), and Moses Mendelssohn (author of the influential Phaedo or on the Immortality of the Soul).
Key works One of the most provocative discussions of Kant's Paralogisms can be found in Strawson 1975Ameriks 2000, in its efforts to extract a moderate rational psychology from Kant's discussion in the chapter has also been very influential, and Powell 1990 is another useful book-length treatment. Other discussions of Kant's Paralogisms, with particular attention to its significance with respect to Kant's theory of the self can be found in Kitcher 1994, Brook 1994, and Kitcher 2011.
Introductions Hatfield 1992 contains a helpful discussion of the various forms of psychology at issue in the Paralogisms, Grier 1993 connects Kant's criticism in the chapter with the doctrine of illusion elaborated throughout the Dialectic, and Dyck 2014 presents the immediate context of Kant's criticism in the chapter.
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  1. Henry E. Allison (1995). On Naturalizing Kant's Transcendental Psychology. Dialectica 49 (2‐4):335-356.
  2. Henry E. Allison (1989). Kant's Refutation of Materialism. The Monist 72 (2):190-208.
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  3. Karl Ameriks (2000). Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. Oxford University Press.
    This seminal contribution to Kant studies, originally published in 1982, was the first to present a thorough survey and evaluation of Kant's theory of mind. Ameriks focuses on Kant's discussion of the Paralogisms in the Critique of Pure Reason, and examines how the themes raised there are treated in the rest of Kant's writings. Ameriks demonstrates that Kant developed a theory of mind that is much more rationalistic and defensible than most interpreters have allowed.
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  4. James G. Anderson (1980). Kant's Paralogism of Personhood. Grazer Philosophische Studien 10:73-86.
    Jonathan Bennett's two interpretations of Kant's Third Paralogism are shown to be inadequate. The Third Paralogism attempts to show that rational psychology provides an inadequate basis for the application of the concepts of "personhood" and "substance". The criteria for the application of "personhood" and "substance" must be empirical, and in the case of "personhood" they are bodily criteria. These criteria are available to each of us but only upon pains of abandoning what Bennett calls the Cartesian basis, i.e. rational psychology.
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  5. Richard E. Aquila (2004). The Singularity and the Unity of Transcendental Consciousness in Kant. History of European Ideas 30 (3):349-376.
    Transcendental consciousness is described by Kant as 'the one single thing' in which 'as in the transcendental subject, our perceptions must be encountered.' The unity of that subject depends on intellectual functions. I argue that its singularity is just the same as that of Kant's pre-intellectual 'form' of spatiotemporal 'intuition.' This may seem excluded by Kant's claim that it is through intellect that 'space or time are first given as intuitions.' But while preintellectual form is insufficient for space and time (...)
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  6. Richard E. Aquila (1997). Self as Matter and Form: Some Reflections on Kant’s View of the Soul. In David Klemm and Zöller (ed.), Figuring the Self. SUNY Press.
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  7. Richard E. Aquila (1996). Kant and the Mind. International Studies in Philosophy 28 (4):105-107.
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  8. Richard E. Aquila (1979). Personal Identity and Kant's “Refutation of Idealism”. Kant-Studien 70 (1-4):259-278.
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  9. Ralf M. Bader (2012). The Role of Kant's Refutation of Idealism. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 94 (1):53-73.
    This paper assesses the role of the Refutation of Idealism within the Critique of Pure Reason, as well as its relation to the treatment of idealism in the First Edition and to transcendental idealism more generally. It is argued that the Refutation is consistent with the Fourth Paralogism and that it can be considered as an extension of the Transcendental Deduction. While the Deduction, considered on its own, constitutes a 'regressive argument', the Refutation allows us to turn the Transcendental Analytic (...)
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  10. Gary Banham (2005). Kant's Transcendental Imagination. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The role and place of transcendental psychology in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason has been a source of some contention. This work presents a detailed argument for restoring transcendental psychology to a central place in the interpretation of Kant's Analytic, in the process providing a detailed response to more "austere" analytic readings.
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  11. Edward A. Beach (2008). The Postulate of Immortality in Kant: To What Extent is It Culturally Conditioned? Philosophy East and West 58 (4):pp. 492-523.
    Kant's noncognitive argument based on practical reason claims that moral considerations alone suffice to justify the idea of personal immortality as a postulate. Some recent objections are considered here that have charged him with overstepping his own distinction between phenomenon and noumenon. After examining the arguments, Kant is exonerated of having violated his own principles. More troubling, however, is the peculiarity involved in postulating an infinite progression toward a goal whose attainment, by hypothesis, would undermine the very foundations of morality (...)
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  12. Graham H. Bird (2000). The Paralogisms and Kant's Account of Psychology. Kant-Studien 91 (2):129-145.
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  13. Archibald A. Bowman (1916). Kant's View of Metaphysics. Mind 25 (97):1-24.
  14. Ernest G. Braham (1926). Personality and Immortality in Post-Kantian Thought. London, G. Allen & Unwin, Ltd..
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  15. Eva Brann (2001). Ameriks, Karl. Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. Review of Metaphysics 55 (2):374-376.
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  16. George Sidney Brett (1912/1998). A History of Psychology. Thoemmes Press.
    'the whole work is remarkably fresh, vivid and attractively written psychologists will be grateful that a work of this kind has been done ... by one who has the scholarship, science, and philosophical training that are requisite for the task' - Mind This renowned three-volume collection records chronologically the steps by which psychology developed from the time of the early Greek thinkers and the first writings on the nature of the mind, through to the 1920s and such modern preoccupations as (...)
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  17. Edgar Sheffield Brightman (1925). Immortality in Post-Kantian Idealism. Harvard University Press.
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  18. Klaus Brinkmann (2005). Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Modern Self. History of the Human Sciences 18 (4):27-48.
    The concept of the self is embedded in a web of relationships of other concepts and phenomena such as consciousness, self-consciousness, personal identity and the mind–body problem. The article follows the ontological and epistemological roles of the concept of selfconsciousness and the structural co-implication of consciousness and self-consciousness from Descartes and Locke to Kant and Sartre while delineating its subject matter from related inquiries into the relationship between the mind and the body, personal identity, and the question whether consciousness is (...)
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  19. Andrew Brook, Kant's View of the Mind and Consciousness of Self. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  20. Andrew Brook (1994). Kant and the Mind. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant made a number of highly original discoveries about the mind - about its ability to synthesise a single, coherent representation of self and world, about the unity it must have to do so, and about the mind's awareness of itself and the semantic apparatus it uses to achieve this awareness. The past fifty years have seen intense activity in research on human cognition. Even so, Kant's discoveries have not been superseded, and some of them have not even been assimilated (...)
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  21. Karl Bühler (1926). Die Krise der Psychologie. Kant-Studien 31 (1-3):455-526.
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  22. Andrew N. Carpenter (1998). Review: Shell, The Embodiment of Reason: Kant on Spirit, Generation and Community. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 2 (1):134-143.
  23. Andrew Norris Carpenter (1998). Kant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    In 1747, Kant believed that the mind/body problem presupposed several false and interrelated assumptions that fell under the general view that the essential force of body is vis motrix, namely that bodies act only by causing changes of motion, that bodies can be acted upon only by being moved, and that souls and bodies do not share a common force. He argued in Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces that the traditional vis motrix view, which was defended by (...)
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  24. Howard Caygill (2007). Soul and Cosmos in Kant : A Commentary on 'Two Things Fill the Mind ...'. In Diane Morgan & Gary Banham (eds.), Cosmopolitics and the Emergence of a Future. Palgrave Macmillan.
  25. Ruth F. Chadwick (1994). Kant, Thought Insertion, and Mental Unity. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 1 (2):105-113.
  26. Brian Chance (2011). Sensibilism, Psychologism, and Kant's Debt to Hume. Kantian Review 16 (3):325-349.
    Hume’s account of causation is often regarded a challenge Kant must overcome if the Critical philosophy is to be successful. But from Kant’s time to the present, Hume’s denial of our ability to cognize supersensible objects, a denial that relies heavily on his account of causation, has also been regarded as a forerunner to Kant’s critique of metaphysics. After identifying reasons for rejecting Wayne Waxman’s recent account of Kant’s debt to Hume, I present my own, more modest account of this (...)
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  27. James Van Cleve (1986). Kant's First and Second Paralogisms. The Monist 69 (3):483 - 488.
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  28. James Collins (1968). Transzendentale Dialektik: Ein Kommentar Zu Kants Kritik der Reinen Vernunft. Parts I and II. By Heinz Heimsoeth. Modern Schoolman 46 (1):89-89.
  29. John Davenport, Kant's Refutation of Idealism and Fourth Paralogism: A Response to Vogel.
    I will discuss Kant's arguments in these section in three parts. In Part I, I will try to show how we can make sense of the obviously close relations in theme and content between the Refutation of Idealism and the two version of the Fourth Paralogism, as well as the second Postulate of Empirical Thought. This will serve as a kind of introduction, since on a cursory first reading, the connections might be far from apparent. In the process, I (...)
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  30. J. J. Delfour (1997). Enigmatic Ambiguity in the Fourth Paralogism of Kant's 'Kritik der Reinen Vernunft'-A Fine Line Between Reality and Effectivity. Kant-Studien 88 (3):280-310.
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  31. Manfred Durner (1996). Immateriality of Matter: Theorien der Materie Bei Priestley, Kant Und Schopenhauer. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 103 (2):294-322.
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  32. Klaus Düsing (1983). Constitution and Structure of Self-Identity: Kant's Theory of Apperception and Hegel's Criticism. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 8 (1):409-431.
  33. Corey W. Dyck (forthcoming). Beyond the Paralogisms: Kant on the Soul’'s Immortality in the Lectures on Metaphysics. In Robert Clewis (ed.), Reading Kant's Lectures. De Gruyter.
    Considered in light of the reader’s expectation of a thoroughgoing criticism of the pretensions of the rational psychologist, and of the wealth of discussions available in the broader 18th century context, which includes a variety of proofs that do not explicitly turn on the identification of the soul as a simple substance, Kant’s discussion of immortality in the Paralogisms falls lamentably short. However, outside of the Paralogisms (and the published works generally), Kant had much more to say about the arguments (...)
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  34. Corey W. Dyck (2014). Kant and Rational Psychology. Oxford University Press.
    In this monograph, I argue that the received conception of the aim and results of Kant’s Paralogisms must be revised in light of a proper understanding of the rational psychology that is the most proximate target of Kant’s attack. Introduction. Chapter 1: The Marriage of Reason and Experience: Wolff’s Rational Psychology. Chapter 2: From Wolff to Kant: Rational Psychology in the 18th Century. Chapter 3: The Divorce of Reason and Experience: Pure Rational Psychology and the Substantiality of the Soul. Chapter (...)
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  35. Corey W. Dyck (2011). A Wolff in Kant's Clothing: Christian Wolff's Influence on Kant's Accounts of Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and Psychology. Philosophy Compass 6 (1):44-53.
    In attempts to come to grips with Kant’s thought, the influence of the philosophy of Christian Wolff (1679-1754) is often neglected. In this paper, I consider three topics in Kant’s philosophy of mind, broadly construed, where Wolff’s influence is particularly visible: consciousness, self-consciousness, and psychology. I argue that we can better understand Kant’s particular arguments and positions within this context, but also gain a more accurate sense of which aspects of Kant’s accounts derive from the antecedent traditions and which constitute (...)
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  36. Corey W. Dyck (2010). The Aeneas Argument: Personality and Immortality in Kant's Third Paralogism. Kant Yearbook 2 (1):95-122.
    In this paper, I challenge the assumption that Kant’s Third Paralogism has to do, first and foremost, with the question of personal identity.
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  37. Corey W. Dyck (2009). The Divorce of Reason and Experience: Kant's Paralogisms of Pure Reason in Context. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):pp. 249-275.
    I consider Kant's criticism of rational psychology in the Paralogisms of Pure Reason in light of his German predecessors. I first present Wolff's foundational account of metaphysical psychology with the result that Wolff's rational psychology is not comfortably characterized as a naïvely rationalist psychology. I then turn to the reception of Wolff's account among later German metaphysicians, and show that the same claim of a dependence of rational upon empirical psychology is found in the publications and lectures of Kant's pre-Critical (...)
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  38. Corey W. Dyck (2006). Kant and the Leibnizian Conception of Mind. Dissertation, Boston College
    In what follows, I will detail Kant's criticism of the Leibnizian conception of mind as it is presented in key chapters of the Kritik der reinen Vernunft . Approaching Kant with such a focus goes against the current predominant in contemporary Kant scholarship. Kant's engagement with Leibniz in the KrV is often taken as limited to the refutation of the latter's relational theory of space and time in the Aesthetic and the general criticism presented in the Amphiboly chapter, inasmuch as (...)
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  39. Dirk Effertz (1993). Kant's Model of the Mind, by Wayne Waxman. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 16 (1):285-290.
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  40. Theodor Elsenhans (1915). Phänomenologie, Psychologie, Erkenntnistheorie. Kant-Studien 20 (1-3):224-275.
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  41. Dina Emundts (2006). Die Paralogismen und die Widerlegung des Idealismus in Kants „Kritik der reinen Vernunft“. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 54 (2/2006):295-309.
    Der Aufsatz beschäftigt sich mit Kants Paralogismen der Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Im ersten Teil wird die These entwickelt, dass Kants Kritik an der rationalen Psychologie wesentlich auf der Behauptung beruht, dass etwas, das nur in der Zeit und nicht im Raum gegeben ist, nicht anhand des Begriffs der Substanz bestimmt werden kann. Im zweiten Teil wird gefragt, ob und wie das Ich als Begleitvorstellung wahrgenommen werden kann.
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  42. W. Euler (2002). The Search for the" Soul Organ"-Kant's Philosophical Analysis of Soemmerring's Anatomical Discovery. Kant-Studien 93 (4):453-480.
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  43. J. D. G. Evans (1999). Kant's Analysis of the Paralogism of Rational Psychology in Critique of Pure Reason Edition B. Kantian Review 3 (1):99-105.
    One third of the transcendental dialectic in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is devoted to demolishing the pseudo-science of rational psychology. In this part of his work Kant attacks the idea that there is an ultimate subject of experience — the ‘I’ or Self — which can only be investigated and understood intellectually. The belief that such a study is possible is natural to human reason; but it is based on demonstrable error. Kant tries to exorcize our minds from falling (...)
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  44. Lorne Falkenstein (1998). A Double Edged Sword? Kant's Refutation of Mendelssohn's Proof of the Immortality of the Soul and its Implications for His Theory of Matter. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (4):561-588.
  45. S. Frank (1929). Zur Metaphysik der Seele. Kant-Studien 34 (1-4):351-373.
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  46. Bernard D. Freydberg (1996). Kant's Transcendental Psychology. History of European Ideas 22 (2):151-152.
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  47. Patrick Frierson (2011). Rational Faith: God, Immortality, Grace. In Immanuel Kant: Key Concepts. Acumen Publishing Limited.
    This article offers an explanation and analysis of Kant’s philosophy of religion. It starts with Kant’s criticisms of the ontological, cosmological, and physico-teleological arguments for the existence of God from the ’Critique of Pure Reason’. It then explains Kant’s moral arguments in the ’Critique of Practical Reason’ for the existence and nature of God and for humans’ personal immorality. Finally, it lays out the argument for the necessity of grace from Kant’s ’Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reaso.'.
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  48. Avery Goldman (2007). Critique and the Mind: Towards a Defense of Kant's Transcendental Method. Kant Studien 98 (4):403-417.
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  49. Garth W. Green (2007). Fichte's Critique of Kant's Doctrine of Inner Sense. Idealistic Studies 37 (3):157-178.
    In this paper, the thematic context for Fichte’s early concern with the character of the forms of intuition, and specifically inner intuition, is adumbrated. This context is provided by means of a brief exposition of Kant’s doctrine of time as the form of inner sense, and its dual role; its positive role in the “order of (synthetic) cognition” or ordo cognoscendi, and its negative role in the critique of Seelenlehre or “doctrine of the soul.” It is then argued, on this (...)
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  50. Michelle Gilmore Grier (1993). Illusion and Fallacy in Kant's First Paralogism. Kant-Studien 84 (3):257-282.
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