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Summary Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy constitutes a philosophical system, a theory about the conditions for objective knowledge. Kant's approach to theoretical philosophy, in his pre-Critical and Critical works, is influenced heavily by his engagement with science, with mathematics, and with logic. Kant's views on these subjects have been widely influential, though they have been criticized widely as well. Appreciation of Kant's work in science, mathematics, and logic is philosophically productive at least two ways: (1) A contextual history of Kant's own work, emphasizing his responses to his predecessors and contemporaries, and (2) A systematic understanding of how the Kantian approach has been employed in these fields.
Key works One locus classicus for Kant's epistemological positions on reason, mathematics,  judgment, and objectivity is The Critique of Pure Reason. A recent translation and edition of Kant's work on science, including the Universal Natural History, can be found in Natural Science. Among the most significant of Kant's texts for his philosophy of science specifically are The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science and Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. This category also encompasses elements of Kant's theory of judgment, key texts for which include The Critique of Judgment and Lectures on Logic.
Introductions A general introduction to Kant's philosophy of science, with references to other texts, is found at Watkins & Stan 2014. A similar article for Kant's theory of judgment is Hanna 2008.
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  1. R. A. (1956). Kant's Metaphysics and Theory of Science. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 9 (4):707-707.
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  2. R. Lanier Anderson (2004). Containment Analyticity and Kant's Problem of Synthetic Judgment. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 25 (2):161-204.
  3. Sidney Axinn (1958). Kant, Logic, and the Concept of Mankind. Ethics 68 (4):286-291.
  4. Y. Bar-Hillel (1967). Bernard Bolzano. In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York, Macmillan. 2--337.
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  5. J. Berg (forthcoming). Bolzano, the Prescient Encyclopedist: In His Wissenschaftslehre Bernard Bolzano Tried to Lay Down a Logically Satisfactory Foundation of Mathematics and Theory of Probability. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  6. J. Berg (1987). Is Russell's Antinomy Derivable in Bolzano's Logic? In Bolzano-Studien. Philosophia Naturalis 24 (4):406-413.
  7. K. Berka (1998). Bolzano's" Theory of Science Proper". Filosoficky Casopis 46 (6):931-947.
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  8. K. Berka (1976). Contemporary State of Research on Bolzano. Filosoficky Casopis 24 (5):705-720.
  9. Karel Berka (1981). Bernard Bolzano. Horizont.
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  10. Arianna Betti (2012). Bolzano's Universe Metaphysics, Logic, and Truth. In Lila Haaparanta & Heikki Koskinen (eds.), Categories of Being: Essays on Metaphysics and Logic. Oxford University Press, Usa. 167.
  11. Arianna Betti (1998). De Veritate: Another Chapter the Bolzano-Leśniewski Connection. In Katarzyna Kijania-Placek & Jan Woleński (eds.), The Lvov-Warsaw School and Contemporary Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 115--137.
  12. Giacomo Borbone (2011). Mary Domski and Michael Dickson, Eds. , Discourse on a New Method. Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science . Reviewed By. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 31 (4):264-266.
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  13. Johannes L. Brandl, Marian David, Maria E. Reicher & Leopold Stubenberg (2012). Bolzano & Kant. Rodopi.
    Inhaltsverzeichnis/Table of ContentsThemenschwerpunkt/Special Topic: Bolzano & KantGastherausgeber/Guest Editor: Sandra LapointeSandra Lapointe: IntroductionSandra Lapointe: Is Logic Formal? Bolzano, Kant and the Kantian LogiciansNicholas F. Stang: A Kantian Reply to Bolzano’s Critique of Kant’s Analytic-Synthetic DistinctionClinton Tolley: Bolzano and Kant on the Place of Subjectivity in a WissenschaftslehreTimothy Rosenkoetter: Kant and Bolzano on the Singularity of IntuitionsWaldemar Rohloff: From Ordinary Language to Definition in Kant and BolzanoWeitere Artikel/Further ArticlesChristian Damböck: Wilhelm Diltheys empirische Philosophie und der rezente Methodenstreit in der analytischen PhilosophieBernd Prien: (...)
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  14. Manuel Bremer (2007). Transcendental Logic's New Clothes. In Jean-Yves Béziau & Alexandre Costa-Leite (eds.), Perspectives on Universal Logic. 101.
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  15. Gordon G. Brittan (1989). Gottfried Martin., Arithmetic and Combinatorics: Kant and His Contemporaries. International Studies in Philosophy 21 (1):100-101.
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  16. María Jesús Soto Bruna (1991). El Significado de la Monadología Leibniciana En Christian Wolff. Anuario Filosófico 24 (2):349-368.
    Christian Wolff's understanding of Leibniz's monadology, framed out from his own underlying philosophical principles, had a definite and direct influence on the 18th century new elaboration of the "physical monad" theory.
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  17. Gerd Buchdahl (1969). Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science the Classical Origins: Descartes to Kant. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
  18. Gerd Buchdahl & R. S. Woolhouse (1988). Metaphysics and Philosophy of Science in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Essays for Gerd Buchdahl. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  19. Paola Cantù (2013). Geometry and Measurement in Otto Hölder's Epistemology. Philosophia Scientiæ 17 (17-1):131-164.
    L’article a pour but d’analyser la conception de la géométrie et de la mesure présentée dans Intuition et Raisonnement [Hölder 1900], « Les axiomes de la grandeur et la théorie de la mensuration » [Hölder 1901] et La Méthode mathématique [Hölder 1924]. L’article examine les relations entre a) la démarcation introduite par Hölder entre géométrie et arithmétique à partir de la notion de ‘concept donné’, b) sa position philosophique par rapport à l’apriorisme kantien et à l’empirisme et c) le choix (...)
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  20. Charles Castonguay (1976). Church's Theorem and the Analytic-Synthetic Distincion in Mathematics. Philosophica 18.
  21. John J. Cleary (2000). El Papel de Las Matemáticas En la Teología de Proclo. Anuario Filosófico 33 (66):67-86.
    In this paper the author discusses the complex question of whether Proclus regards theology as a demonstrative science along the lines of Euclidean geometry, or as a different kind of science that follows the dialectical model of Plato's Parmenides. This question is focused by considering the applicability to the Elements of Theology of the Euclidean model of science, while examining the limitations of this hermeneutical approach.
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  22. Jerzy Dadaczyński (2008). Bernard Bolzano i idea logicyzmu. Ruch Filozoficzny 2 (2).
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  23. Jerzy Dadaczyński (2001). Filozofia matematyki Kanta w oczach młodego Bolzano. Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce 29.
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  24. Laura Nuño De La Rosa & Arantza Etxeberria (2009). ¿ Fue Darwin El «Newton de la Brizna de Hierba»? La Herencia de Kant En la Teoría Darwinista de la Evolución. Endoxa 24.
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  25. Juan Cano De Pablo (2008). Transition From Critical Ontology to Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Pensamiento 64 (240):345-362.
  26. Max Deutscher (2012). In Sensible Judgment. Symposium: Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 16 (1):203-225.
    The article focuses on the support to the position of Hannah Arendt that taste and feelings have roles in having sensible judgment. It mentions the pleasure that are derived from judgment such as aesthetic judgment and judging what is right. It states that Arendt argues that judgment should be used to defeat moral epithets.
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  27. Albert Einstein (2005). Non-Euclidean Geometry and Physics (1926). Scientiae Studia 3 (4):677-681.
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  28. Julio Esteves (2008). Kant's Theories of Geometry. In Valerio Hrsg V. Rohden, Ricardo Terra & Guido Almeida (eds.), Recht Und Frieden in der Philosophie Kants. 1--173.
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  29. P. Faggiotto (1990). Note on the Kantian Distinction Between Natural Judgment (Reflecting) and Transcendental Judgment (Determining). Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):3-11.
  30. A. Fagot-Largeault (2000). Evaluating and Judging—Bionorms Vs. Human Judgment. Bioethics and Biolaw 1:27-39.
  31. Brigitte Falkenburg (1987). Die Form der Materie Zur Metaphysik der Natur Bei Kant Und Hegel.
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  32. Jacinto S. Ruiz Fernández (2004). A Vindication of Kantian Euclidean Space. Teorema: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 23 (1):105.
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  33. D. Foellesdal (forthcoming). Bolzano's Legacy Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) Was an Original and Independent Thinker, Who Left a Lasting Legacy in Several Areas of Philosophy. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  34. Dagfin Føllesdal (1997). Bolzano's Legacy. Grazer Philosophische Studien 53:1-11.
    Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) was an original and independent thinker, who left a lasting legacy in several areas of philosophy. Four such areas are singled for special attention: political philosophy, ethics and theology, logics and semantics, and mathematics. In all these areas he was far ahead of his time. He had pioneering ideas in political philosophy and in ethics and philosophy of religion, and he argued for them in a brilliantly clear way. In logic and semantics he anticipated Frege, Carnap and (...)
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  35. Dagfin Føllesdal (1997). Bolzano's Legacy. Grazer Philosophische Studien 53:1-11.
    Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) was an original and independent thinker, who left a lasting legacy in several areas of philosophy. Four such areas are singled for special attention: political philosophy, ethics and theology, logics and semantics, and mathematics. In all these areas he was far ahead of his time. He had pioneering ideas in political philosophy and in ethics and philosophy of religion, and he argued for them in a brilliantly clear way. In logic and semantics he anticipated Frege, Carnap and (...)
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  36. E. Garroni (1989). Kant and the Aesthetic Problem. Filosofia 40 (1):3-15.
  37. R. George (2004). Intuitions: The Theories of Kant and Bolzano. In Mark Siebel & Mark Textor (eds.), Semantik Und Ontologie. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag. 319--53.
  38. Rolf George (2003). Intuitions. Philosophiques 30 (1):19-46.
    Kant imposa au public philosophique la distinction entre sensations, intuitions et concepts. Bolzano reprit la terminologie, mais pas la substance de cette dernière. Cet article examine la critique astucieuse et détaillée qu’adresse Bolzano à Kant et présente les grandes lignes de sa théorie. Tandis que ses célèbres propositions « en soi » lui permirent de traiter avec précision des notions de conséquence, d’équivalence, d’analyticité, etc., en évitant le psychologisme logique si commun à l’époque, les intuitions font figure d’exception. Elles sont (...)
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  39. C. U. Gieske (forthcoming). Bolzano's Notion of Testifying: The Notion of Testifying (or Testimony) is the Central Notion of Bolzano's Theory of Communication. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
  40. Carsten Uwe Gieske (1997). Bolzano's Notion of Testifying. Grazer Philosophische Studien 53:249-266.
    The notion of testifying (or testimony) is the central notion of Bolzano's theory of communication. In his Wissenschaftslehre (Theory of Science) Bolzano gives an analysis of this notion. It shows surprising parallels to Paul Grice's attempt to define "A meantNN something by x". I will begin with an explanation of some parts of the analysis and continue with an investigation of the relationship between Bolzano's analysis and that of Grice. In conclusion I would like to present some evidence supporting the (...)
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  41. Donald A. Gillies (1985). The Analytic/Synthetic Problem. Ratio 27 (2).
  42. George Bruce Halsted (1894). The Non-Euclidean Geometry Inevitable. The Monist 4 (4):483-493.
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  43. William Harper (1995). Kant and the Exact Sciences. Philosophical Review 104 (4):587-589.
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  44. Wilson Harris (1999). The Psyche of Space and Intuition of Otherness. Clr James Journal 7 (1):3-13.
  45. Alan Hausman (1976). Non-Euclidean Geometry and Relative Consistency Proofs. In Peter K. Machamer & Robert G. Turnbull (eds.), Motion and Time, Space and Matter. Ohio State University Press.
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  46. Jeremy Heis (2014). Kant's Construction of Nature. Philosophical Review 123 (3):342-354.
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  47. Otto Hölder (2013). Intuition and Reasoning in Geometry. Inaugural Academic Lecture Held on July 22, 1899. With Supplements and Notes. Philosophia Scientiæ 17 (17-1):15-52.
    The way in which geometrical knowledge has been obtained has always attracted the attention of philosophers. The fact that there is a science that concerns things outside our thinking and that proceeds inferentially appeared striking, and gave rise to specific theories of experience and space. Nonetheless, the geometrical method has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Philosophers who investigate the theory of knowledge discuss the question of whether geometry is an empirical science, but.
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  48. Otto Hölder (2013). Intuition and Reasoning in Geometry. Inaugural Academic Lecture Held on July 22, 1899. With Supplements and Notes. Philosophia Scientiæ 17 (17-1):15-52.
    The way in which geometrical knowledge has been obtained has always attracted the attention of philosophers. The fact that there is a science that concerns things outside our thinking and that proceeds inferentially appeared striking, and gave rise to specific theories of experience and space. Nonetheless, the geometrical method has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Philosophers who investigate the theory of knowledge discuss the question of whether geometry is an empirical science, but.
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  49. Otto Hölder (2013). Intuition and Reasoning in Geometry. Philosophia Scientiae 17 (1):15-52.
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  50. James H. Hyslop (1903). Kant's Treatment of Analytic and Synthetic Judgments. The Monist 13 (3):331-351.
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