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Summary Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy constitutes a philosophical system, a theory about the conditions for objective knowledge. Kant's approach to theoretical philosophy, in his pre-Critical and Critical works, is influenced heavily by his engagement with science, with mathematics, and with logic. Kant's views on these subjects have been widely influential, though they have been criticized widely as well. Appreciation of Kant's work in science, mathematics, and logic is philosophically productive at least two ways: (1) A contextual history of Kant's own work, emphasizing his responses to his predecessors and contemporaries, and (2) A systematic understanding of how the Kantian approach has been employed in these fields.
Key works One locus classicus for Kant's epistemological positions on reason, mathematics,  judgment, and objectivity is The Critique of Pure Reason. A recent translation and edition of Kant's work on science, including the Universal Natural History, can be found in Natural Science. Among the most significant of Kant's texts for his philosophy of science specifically are The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science and Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. This category also encompasses elements of Kant's theory of judgment, key texts for which include The Critique of Judgment and Lectures on Logic.
Introductions A general introduction to Kant's philosophy of science, with references to other texts, is found at Watkins 2008. A similar article for Kant's theory of judgment is Hanna 2008.
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Kant: Philosophy of Science
  1. T. P. A. (1971). Review of J. A. May, Kant's Concept of Geography. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 24 (3):545-545.
  2. Erich Adickes (1922). Zur Lehre von der Wärme von Fr. Bacon Bis Kant. Kant-Studien 27 (1-2):328-368.
  3. Erich Adickes (1897). Die bewegenden Kräfte in Kants philosophischer Entwicklung und die beiden Pole seines Systems. Zweiter Artikel. Kant-Studien 1 (1-3):161-196.
  4. Karl Ameriks (2001). Kant on Science and Common Knowledge. In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant and the Sciences. Oxford University Press. 31--52.
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  5. Abraham Anderson (1994). Metaphysics and Methods in Descartes and Kant. Philosophical Quarterly 44 (174).
    This essay is a review of Daniel Garber's "Descartes' Metaphysical Physics" (Chicago U P 1992) and Michael Friedman's "Kant and the Exact Sciences" (Harvard U P 1992). Garber's study of Descartes is scrupulous but his historicist assumptions result in a failure to grasp Descartes' originality or the unity and power of his thought. Friedman, by taking Kant's conception of science seriously, sheds great light on Kant's thought generally and implicitly raises important philosophical problems for the present day.
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  6. Nikolaos Avgelis (1991). Die Duhem-Quine-These unter dem Geltungsaspekt der erkenntnistheoretischen Fragestellung Kants. Kant-Studien 82 (3):285-302.
  7. Sidney Axinn (1960). A Kantian Definition of Degree of Rationality. Kant-Studien 51 (1-4):27-33.
  8. Roxana Baiasu, Graham Bird & A. W. Moore (eds.) (2012). Contemporary Kantian Metaphysics: New Essays on Time and Space. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  9. Edward G. Ballard (1961). A Kantian Interpretation of the Special Theory of Relativity. Kant-Studien 52 (1-4):401-410.
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  10. Johannes Balthasar (1979). Kant's Theory of Science. Philosophy and History 12 (2):137-138.
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  11. Gary Banham, Dynamics and the Reality of Force in Leibniz and Kant.
  12. Gary Banham, Kant's Transcendental Philosophy of Nature.
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  13. Gary Banham (2007). Kantian Realism and Scientific Essentialism. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (4):775 – 784.
    Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in British Journal for the History of Philosophy, published by and copyright Routledge.
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  14. Erik C. Banks (2005). Kant, Herbart and Riemann. Kant-Studien 96 (2):208-234.
    A look at the dynamical concept of space and space-generating processes to be found in Kant, J.F. Herbart and the mathematician Bernhard Riemann's philosophical writings.
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  15. Adrian Bardon (2011). Kant and the Conventionality of Simultaneity. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (5):845-856.
    Kant’s three Analogies of Experience, in his Critique of Pure Reason, represent a highly condensed attempt to establish the metaphysical foundations of Newtonian physics. His strategy is to show that the organization of experience in terms of a world of enduring substances undergoing mutual causal interaction is a necessary condition of the temporal ordering even of one’s own subjective states, and thus of coherent experience itself. In his Third Analogy—an examination of the necessary conditions of judgments of simultaneous existence—he argues (...)
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  16. Bruno Bauch (1914). Über den Begriff des Naturgesetzes. Kant-Studien 19 (1-3):303-337.
  17. Bruno Bauch (1912). Immanuel Kant und sein Verhältnis zur Naturwissenschaft. Kant-Studien 17 (1-3):9-27.
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  18. Lewis White Beck (1981). Kant on the Uniformity of Nature. Synthese 47 (3):449 - 464.
  19. Friedrich Becker (1964). Galilei und die astronomie seiner zeit. Kant-Studien 55 (1-4):129-142.
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  20. Frederick Beiser (2006). Kant and Naturphilosophie. In Michael Friedman & Alfred Nordmann (eds.), NA. Mit Press.
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  21. J. Benrubi (1930). Kant und die gegenwärtige kritik der naturwissenschaften in frankreich. Kant-Studien 35 (1-4):273-288.
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  22. Hein Berg (2011). Kant's Conception of Proper Science. Synthese 183 (1):7-26.
    Kant is well known for his restrictive conception of proper science. In the present paper I will try to explain why Kant adopted this conception. I will identify three core conditions which Kant thinks a proper science must satisfy: systematicity, objective grounding, and apodictic certainty. These conditions conform to conditions codified in the Classical Model of Science. Kant’s infamous claim that any proper natural science must be mathematical should be understood on the basis of these conditions. In order to substantiate (...)
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  23. Hugo Bergmann (1928). Über einige philosophische argumente gegen die relativitätstheorie. Kant-Studien 33 (1-2):387-404.
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  24. Ludwig Bertalanffy (1929). Zum Problem Einer Theoretischen Biologie. Kant-Studien 34 (1-4):374-390.
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  25. Karl Beurlen (1936). Der zeitbegriff in der modernen naturwissenschaft und Das kausalitätsprinzip. Kant-Studien 41 (1):16-37.
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  26. Francesca Biagioli (2014). What Does It Mean That “Space Can Be Transcendental Without the Axioms Being So”? Journal for General Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-21.
    In 1870, Hermann von Helmholtz criticized the Kantian conception of geometrical axioms as a priori synthetic judgments grounded in spatial intuition. However, during his dispute with Albrecht Krause (Kant und Helmholtz über den Ursprung und die Bedeutung der Raumanschauung und der geometrischen Axiome. Lahr, Schauenburg, 1878), Helmholtz maintained that space can be transcendental without the axioms being so. In this paper, I will analyze Helmholtz’s claim in connection with his theory of measurement. Helmholtz uses a Kantian argument that can be (...)
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  27. Graham Bird (2014). Michael Friedman, Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013). Xix +624. £70.00 Hb. [REVIEW] Philosophical Investigations 37 (2):173-178.
  28. Graham Bird (ed.) (2006). A Companion to Kant. Blackwell Pub..
    This Companion provides an authoritative survey of the whole range of Kant’s work, giving readers an idea of its immense scope, its extraordinary achievement, and its continuing ability to generate philosophical interest. Written by an international cast of scholars. Covers all the major works of the critical philosophy, as well as the pre-critical works. Subjects covered range from mathematics and philosophy of science, through epistemology and metaphysics, to moral and political philosophy.
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  29. Graham Bird (1998). Kantian Themes in Contemporary Philosophy: Graham Bird. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):131–152.
    [Michael Friedman] This paper considers the extent to which Kant's vision of a distinctively 'transcendental' task for philosophy is essentially tied to his views on the foundations of the mathematical and physical sciences. Contemporary philosophers with broadly Kantian sympathies have attempted to reinterpret his project so as to isolate a more general philosophical core not so closely tied to the details of now outmoded mathematical-physical theories (Euclidean geometry and Newtonian physics). I consider two such attempts, those of Strawson and McDowell, (...)
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  30. Michel Bitbol (2011). Traces of Objectivity: Causality and Probabilities in Quantum Physics. Diogenes 58 (4):30-57.
  31. Edward Blatnik (1994). Kant's Refutation of Anti-Realism. Journal of Philosophical Research 19:127-146.
    In Language, Logic, and Experience, Michael Luntley successfully employs a Kantian-style transcendental argument to refute Michael Dummett’s anti-realist view that we are incapable of grasping “recognition-transcendent” truth-conditions. But he also contends that his own purified version of antirealism is immune to thi s sort of attack. This version is purified because it is concerned solely with the question of whether a given statement possesses a determinate truth value, and thus with whether the reality it is about exists determinately. I show (...)
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  32. Giovanni Boniolo (2007). On Scientific Representations: From Kant to a New Philosophy of Science. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Scientific concepts, laws, theories, models and thought experiments are representations but uniquely different. In On Scientific Representation each is given a full philosophical exploration within an original, coherent philosophical framework that is strongly rooted in the Kantian tradition (Kant, Hertz, Vaihinger, Cassirer). Through a revisionist historical approach, Boniolo shows how the Kantian tradition can help us renew and rethink contemporary issues in epistemology and the philosophy of science.
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  33. Giovanni Boniolo (2001). Leggi trascendentali, metafisiche ed empiriche in Kant. In Giovanni Boniolo & Mauro Dorato (eds.), Leggi di natura: Analisi storico-critica di un concetto. McGraw-Hill. 101-153.
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  34. Edward Booth (1996). Kant's Critique of Newton. Kant-Studien 87 (2):149-165.
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  35. Angela Breitenbach (2008). Two Views on Nature: A Solution to Kant's Antinomy of Mechanism and Teleology. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (2):351 – 369.
  36. Angela Breitenbach (2006). Mechanical Explanation of Nature and its Limits in Kant's Critique of Judgment. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (4):694-711.
  37. Carolyn Brighouse (1999). Incongruent Counterparts and Modal Relationism. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 13 (1):53 – 68.
    Kant's argument from incongruent counterparts for substantival space is examined; it is concluded that the argument has no force against a relationist. The argument does suggest that a relationist cannot give an account of enantiomorphism, incongruent counterparts and orientability. The prospects for a relationist account of these notions are assessed, and it is found that they are good provided the relationist is some kind of modal relationist. An illustration and interpretation of these modal commitments is given.
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  38. Andrew Brook (2003). Kant and Cognitive Science. Teleskop.
    Some of Kant's ideas about the mind have had a huge influence on cognitive science, in particular his view that sensory input has to be worked up using concepts or concept-like states and his conception of the mind as a system of cognitive functions. We explore these influences in the first part of the paper. Other ideas of Kant's about the mind have not been assimilated into cognitive science, including important ideas about processes of synthesis, mental unity, and consciousness and (...)
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  39. Gerd Buchdahl (1971). The Conception of Lawlikeness in Kant's Philosophy of Science. Synthese 23 (1):24 - 46.
    A demarcation between kant's general metaphysics (transcendental principles) and his special metaphysics is attempted, through a discussion of kant's three accounts of lawlikeness, 'transcendental', 'empirical' and 'metaphysical'. the distinctions are defended via a number of 'indicators' in kant's writings, and the 'looseness of fit' between the different types of lawlikeness is discussed.
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  40. Gerd Buchdahl (1965). Causality, Causal Laws and Scientific Theory in the Philosophy of Kant. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 16 (63):187-208.
  41. Jill Vance Buroker (1994). Book Review:Kant and the Exact Sciences Michael Friedman. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 61 (2):321-.
  42. A. V. Bushkovitch (1974). Models, Theories, and Kant. Philosophy of Science 41 (1):86-88.
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  43. Craig Callender (2005). Answers in Search of a Question: 'Proofs' of the Tri-Dimensionality of Space. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 36 (1):113-136.
    From Kant’s first published work to recent articles in the physics literature, philosophers and physicists have long sought an answer to the question, why does space have three dimensions. In this paper, I will flesh out Kant’s claim with a brief detour through Gauss’ law. I then describe Büchel’s version of the common argument that stable orbits are possible only if space is three-dimensional. After examining objections by Russell and van Fraassen, I develop three original criticisms of my own. These (...)
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  44. M. Carrier (2003). How to Tell Causes From Effects: Kant's Causal Theory of Time and Modern Approaches. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (1):59-71.
    I attempt a reconstruction of Kant's version of the causal theory of time that makes it appear coherent. Two problems are at issue. The first concerns Kant's reference to reciprocal causal influence for characterizing simultaneity. This approach is criticized by pointing out that Kant's procedure involves simultaneous counterdirected processes-which seems to run into circularity. The problem can be defused by drawing on instantaneous processes such as the propagation of gravitation in Newtonian mechanics. Another charge of circularity against Kant's causal theory (...)
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  45. Emily Carson (2013). Pure Intuition and Kant's Synthetic A Priori. In Stewart Duncan & Antonia LoLordo (eds.), Debates in Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings and Contemporary Responses. Routledge. 307.
  46. Quassim Cassam (2003). Can Transcendental Epistemology Be Naturalized? Philosophy 78 (2):181-203.
    Transcendental epistemology is an inquiry into conditions of human knowledge which reflect the structure of the human cognitive apparatus. The dependence thesis is the thesis that a proper investigation of such conditions must lean in important respects on the deliverances of science. I argue that Kant is right to object to the dependence thesis, but that the best objections to this thesis lead to the conclusion that the conditions of knowledge which Kant identifies are not, in any interesting sense, a (...)
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  47. Álvaro J. Peláez Cedrés (2007). Kant y Los Principios a Priori de la Ciencia Natural. Signos Filosóficos 60 (17):139-162.
    This paper considers the kantian statement that the natural science, the same as the mathematics, it contains synthetic a priori judgments as principles. However, a comparative study among the principles of both sciences, as well as of the foundations of their constitution, it throws the primary ..
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  48. Álvaro J. Peláez Cedrés (2006). Reconsiderando a Friedman, Richardson Y lo a priori constitutivo. Ideas Y Valores 55 (131):51-72.
    Las interpretaciones contemporáneas en torno a lo a priori en la filosofía de la ciencia han estado dominadas fundamentalmente por las concepciones semántica y pragmática. El aporte de estas concepciones ha sido significativo, pero han rechazado injustificadamente, a mi modo de ver, el sentido funda..
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  49. Andrew Chignell (2008). NeoKantian Philosophies of Science: Cassirer, Kuhn, and Friedman. Philosophical Forum 39 (2):253-262.
    A description and critique of aspects of Michael Friedman's latter day NeoKantian program in the philosophy of science. -/- .
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  50. Frederik Voetmann Christiansen (2006). Heinrich Hertz's Neo-Kantian Philosophy of Science, and its Development by Harald Høffding. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 37 (1):1 - 20.
    This article is an investigation of parallel themes in Heinrich Hertz's philosophy science and Kant's theory of schemata, symbols and regulative ideas. It is argued that Hertz's "pictures" bears close similarities to Kantian "schemata", that is, they are rules linking concepts to intuitions and provide them with their meaning. Kant's distinction between symbols and schemata is discussed and related to Hertz's three pictures of mechanics. It is argued that Hertz considered his own picture of mechanics (the "hidden mass" picture) as (...)
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