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  1. Barry Allen (2003). The Abyss of Contingency: Purposiveness and Contingency in Darwin and Kant. History of Philosophy Quarterly 20 (4):373 - 391.
  2. William H. Baumer (1982). Kant's Rational Theology. Philosophical Topics 13 (Supplement):181-186.
  3. James DiCenso (2012). Kant's Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: A Commentary. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1. Introductory: religion through the lens of practical reason; 2. Kant's prefaces to the first and second editions; 3. Religion part one: concerning the indwelling of the evil principle alongside the good, or, of the radical evil in human nature; 4. Religion part two: concerning the battle of the good against the evil principle for dominion over the human being; 5. Religion part three: the victory of the good principle over the evil principle, and (...)
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  4. Bernd Dörflinger (2010). Kant Über Das Defizit der Physikotheologie Und Die Notwendigkeit der Idee Einer Ethikotheologie. In Norbert Fischer & Maximilian Forschner (eds.), Die Gottesfrage in der Philosophie Immanuel Kants. Herder.
  5. Corey W. Dyck, Beyond the Paralogisms: Kant on the Soul’'s Immortality in the Lectures on Metaphysics.
    Considered in light of the reader’s expectation of a thoroughgoing criticism of the pretensions of the rational psychologist, and of the wealth of discussions available in the broader 18th century context, which includes a variety of proofs that do not explicitly turn on the identification of the soul as a simple substance, Kant’s discussion of immortality in the Paralogisms falls lamentably short. However, outside of the Paralogisms (and the published works generally), Kant had much more to say about the arguments (...)
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  6. Mark Fisher (2007). Kant's Explanatory Natural History. In Philippe Huneman (ed.), Understanding Purpose: Kant and the Philosophy of Biology. University of Rochester Press. 8--101.
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  7. Paul Formosa (2011). Review: Anderson-Gold & Muchnik, Kant's Anatomy of Evil. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 16 (2):150-56.
  8. Hannah Ginsborg, Kant's Aesthetics and Teleology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    While Kant is perhaps best known for his writings in metaphysics and epistemology (in particular the Critique of Pure Reason of 1781, with a second edition in 1787) and in ethics (the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals of 1785 and the Critique of Practical Reason of 1788), he also developed an influential and much-discussed theory of aesthetics. This theory is presented in his Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, also translated as Critique of the Power of Judgment) of 1790, (...)
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  9. Paul Guyer (2002). Ends of Reason and Ends of Nature: The Place of Teleology in Kant's Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 36 (2-3):161-186.
  10. Allen Hance (1998). The Art of Nature: Hegel and the Critique of Judgment. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 6 (1):37 – 65.
    This essay examines the reasons for Hegel's frequently professed claim that Kant's Critique of Judgment simultaneously reveals the internal limits of critical philosophy and opens the door to his own system of speculative idealism. It evaluates Hegel's contention that the conceptions of aesthetic experience, organic purposiveness, and the intuitive intellect developed in the third Critique together conspire to undermine the epistemological and metaphysical foundations of the theories of nature and freedom advanced in the first and second Critiques . Finally it (...)
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  11. Stephen Houlgate (2011). Nature and History: Ultimate and Final Purpose. In Will Dudley & Kristina Engelhardt (eds.), Immanuel Kant: Key Concepts. Acumen. 184-199.
  12. Philippe Huneman (ed.) (2007). Understanding Purpose: Kant and the Philosophy of Biology. University of Rochester Press.
    A collection of essays investigating key historical and scientific questions relating to the concept of natural purpose in Kant's philosophy of biology.
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  13. Hans Werner Ingensiep (1994). Die Biologischen Analogien Und Die Erkenntnistheoretischen Alternativen in Kants Kritik der Reinen Vernunt B § 27. Kant-Studien 85 (4):381-393.
    The purpose of this work is to explain the meaning of the biological terms "generatio aequivoca, Epigenesis, Praformation" in Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason", Chapter 27, within the historical context, and to show Kant's intentions by using them. Kant used these terms as biological analogies to illustrate the different epistemological positions of Locke, Leibniz and Hume (sensualism, rational dogmatism, scepticism) to form a contrast to his own point of view: "Epigenesis" stands for apodicticity, apriority, spontaneity and productivity of the categories (...)
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  14. Immanuel Kant (2007/2005). Critique of Judgement. Oxford University Press.
    In the Critique of Judgement, Kant offers a penetrating analysis of our experience of the beautiful and the sublime. He discusses the objectivity of taste, aesthetic disinterestedness, the relation of art and nature, the role of imagination, genius and originality, the limits of representation, and the connection between morality and the aesthetic. He also investigates the validity of our judgements concerning the degree in which nature has a purpose, with respect to the highest interests of reason and enlightenment. The work (...)
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  15. Immanuel Kant (2007/1991). Critique of Pure Reason. In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell Pub. Ltd..
    One of the cornerstone books of Western philosophy, Critique of Pure Reason is Kant's seminal treatise, where he seeks to define the nature of reason itself and builds his own unique system of philosophical thought with an approach known as transcendental idealism. He argues that human knowledge is limited by the capacity for perception and attempts a logical designation of two varieties of knowledge: a posteriori, the knowledge acquired through experience; and a priori, knowledge not derived through experience. This accurate (...)
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  16. Immanuel Kant (2004). Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Present Itself as a Science: With Two Early Reviews of the Critique of Pure Reason. Oxford University Press.
    This accessible and practical edition of Kant's best introduction to his own work is designed especially for students. Assuming no prior knowledge of the Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, esteemed scholar Gunter Zoller provides an extensive introduction that covers Kant's life, the origin and reception of the Prolegomena, the organization of the work, its principal arguments, and its philosophical significance. Detailed notes, a chronology, a glossary, an annotated bibliography, and two reviews of the Critique of Pure Reason--which establishes the specific (...)
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  17. Immanuel Kant (2003). Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics: With Two Early Reviews of the Critique of Pure Reason. OUP Oxford.
    Two hundred years after his death, Kant remains one of the most important modern philosophers. The Prolegomena is the ideal introduction to Kant's unique account of the nature human knowledge, according to which we actively shape the world as we know it. -/- This new edition of Kant's own summary of his philosophy is designed specially for students. Guenter Zoeller assumes no prior knowledge of the Prolegomena and provides an extensive and comprehensive introduction which explores Kant's life, the origin and (...)
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  18. Immanuel Kant (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment. Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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  19. Immanuel Kant (1978). The Critique of Judgement: (Containing Kant's `Critique of Aesthetic Judgement' and `Critique of Teleological Judgement'). OUP Oxford.
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  20. Immanuel Kant (1931). Kant's Critique of Judgement. London, Macmillan.
  21. Immanuel Kant (1928). Kant's Critique of Teleological Judgement. Oxford, the Clarendon Press.
  22. Immanuel Kant (1892/2000). The Critique of Judgment. Prometheus Books.
    This edition contains the Critique of Aesthetic Judgement and Critique of Teleological Judgement. The introductions and notes that accompanied the translations in the original two volumes have now been dropped in order to make the translations available in a single volume.
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  23. Immanuel Kant (1790/2005). Critique of Judgment. Barnes & Noble Books.
    Kant's attempt to establish the principles behind the faculty of judgment remains one of the most important works on human reason.
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  24. Justin Le Saux, Darwin Verses Kant.
    The more philosophically and scientifically profound aspect of the Copernican revolution, instead of being just a matter of taking the other end of the stick and orienting things in the opposite way, is that whereas before the Earth was looked upon as the centre of the universe (with the human race occupying an equally prime and important place in the existence of things), now it is looked upon as just one insignificant planet circle ling a smallish star amongst countless billions (...)
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  25. Jonathan Loesberg (2007). Kant, Hume, Darwin, and Design: Why Intelligent Design Wasn't Science Before Darwin and Still Isn't. Philosophical Forum 38 (2):95–123.
  26. Richard N. Manning (2011). A Spinozistic Deduction of the Kantian Concept of a Natural End. Philo 14 (2):176-200.
    Kant distinguishes “natural ends” as exhibiting a part-whole reciprocal causal structure in virtue of which we can only conceive them as having been caused through a conception, as if by intelligent design. Here, I put pressure on Kant’s position by arguing that his view of what individuates and makes cognizable material bodies of any kind is inadequate and needs supplementation. Drawing on Spinoza, I further urge that the needed supplement is precisely the whole-part reciprocal causal structure that Kant takes to (...)
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  27. Jacqueline Mariña (2001). Kant and the Problem of God, Gordon E. Michalson. [REVIEW] Modern Theology 17 (3):395-397.
  28. John D. McFarland (1970). Kant's Concept of Teleology. [Edinburgh]University of Edinburgh Press.
  29. Douglas R. McGaughey (2006). Kant on Religion and Science: Independence or Integration? Zygon 41 (3):727-746.
  30. Lara Ostaric (2010). Works of Genius as Sensible Exhibitions of the Idea of the Highest Good. Kant-Studien 101 (1):22-39.
    In this paper I argue that, on Kant's view, the work of genius serves as a sensible exhibition of the Idea of the highest good. In other words, the work of genius serves as a special sign that the world is hospitable to our moral ends and that the realization of our moral vocation in such a world may indeed be possible. In the first part of the paper, I demonstrate that the purpose of the highest good is not to (...)
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  31. Lara Ostaric (2009). Kant's Account of Nature's Systematicity and the Unity of Theoretical and Practical Reason. Inquiry 52 (2):155 – 178.
    In this paper I argue that if one is to do justice to reason's unity in Kant, then one must acknowledge that reason's practical ends are presupposed in every theoretical investigation of nature. Thus, contrary to some other commentators, I contend that the notion of the metaphysical ground of the unity of nature should not be attributed to the “dynamics of reason” and its “own practical purposes.” Instead, the metaphysical ground of the unity of nature is in fact an indispensable (...)
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  32. Stephen Palmquist (2008). Kant's Moral Panentheism. Philosophia 36 (1):17-28.
    Although Kant is often interpreted as an Enlightenment Deist, Kant scholars are increasingly recognizing aspects of his philosophy that are more amenable to theism. If Kant regarded himself as a theist, what kind of theist was he? The theological approach that best fits Kant’s model of God is panentheism, whereby God is viewed as a living being pervading the entire natural world, present ‘in’ every part of nature, yet going beyond the physical world. The purpose of Kant’s restrictions on our (...)
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  33. Lawrence Pasternack (2013). Kant's Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: An Interpretation and Defense. Routledge.
    This book offers a complete and internally cohesive interpretation of Religion. In contrast to the interpretations that characterize Religion as a litany of “wobbles”, fumbling between traditional Christianity and Enlightenment values, or a text that reduces religion into morality, the interpretation here offered defends the rich philosophical theology contained in each of Religion’s four parts and shows how the doctrines of the “Pure Rational System of Religion” are eminently compatible with the essential principles of Transcendental Idealism.
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  34. Lawrence Pasternack (2011). Regulative Principles and ‘the Wise Author of Nature’. Religious Studies 47 (4):411-429.
    There is much more said in the Critique of Pure Reason about the relationship between God and purposiveness than what is found in Kant's analysis of the physico-theological (design) argument. The ‘Wise Author of Nature’ is central to his analysis of regulative principles in the ‘Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic’ and also appears in the ‘Canon’, first with regards to the Highest Good and then again in relation to our theoretical use of purposiveness. This paper will begin with a brief (...)
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  35. Lawrence Pasternack (2011). The Development and Scope of Kantian Belief: The Highest Good, The Practical Postulates and The Fact of Reason. Kant-Studien 102 (3):290-315.
    This paper offers an account of the historical development of Kant's understanding of belief ( Glaube ) from its early ties to George Friedrich Meier's Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre through various stages of refinement. It will be argued that the Critique of Pure Reason reflects an important but not final stage in Kant's understanding of belief. Its structure is further refined and its scope narrowed in later works, including the Critique of Practical Reason and Critique of Judgment . After charting (...)
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  36. Lawrence Pasternack (2010). Kant’s Doctrinal Belief in God. In Oliver Thorndike (ed.), Rethinking Kant, Vol. 3.
    In the Canon of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant endorses both a Moral Belief in God as well as what he there calls Doctrinal Belief. The former mode of belief is well known and can be found throughout the Kantian Corpus. The latter, however, is far more obscure and thus far has not been carefully studied. Doctrinal Belief only appears explicitly in the Canon, but is related to a number of issues in the Transcendental Dialectic as well as the (...)
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  37. Derk Pereboom (1996). Kant on God, Evil, and Teleology. Faith and Philosophy 13 (4):508-533.
    In his mature period Kant maintained that human beings have never devised a theory that shows how the existence of God is compatible with the evil that actually exists. But he also held that an argument could be developed that we human beings might well not have the cognitive capacity to understand the relation between God and the world, and that therefore the existence of God might nevertheless be compatible with the evil that exists. At the core of Kant’s position (...)
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  38. Suma Rajiva (2009). Safely Satisfying Reason: The Metaphysics of Design in Kant's Teleology. Kant Yearbook 1 (1).
  39. Philip Rossi (1982). Kant's Doctrine of Hope. New Scholasticism 56 (2):228-238.
    Kant uses the term reason’s "interest" to designate human efforts to represent "the absolute totality of conditions for any conditioned thing" and the "unconditioned ground" for such totality. in the "critique of judgment" ("91), he identifies three such representations-the highest good, god, and immortality-as the only ones which can be called "things of faith"; one other-freedom-is accorded the unique status of a "fact" of reason. an analysis of the function of these representations in the answer kant gives to the question (...)
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  40. Robert Theis (2012). La Raison Et Son Dieu: Étude Sur la Théologie Kantienne. Librarie Philosophique J. Vrin.
    Early writings of year 1750 to the ultimate bundle of Opus Postumum Kant remained preoccupied by the question of God. The genetic reconstruction of the theoretical writings of philosophy shows a certain degree how dogmatically asserting the existence of God, first, turns on has its epistemic status to the assertion of an ideal of reason while held constant, as transcendental theology and as physico-theology reflechissante, as to its systematic function, namely to serve as a foundation. It shows how the other (...)
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  41. Christopher Ward (2002). Spinozism and Kant's Transcendental Ideal. Idealistic Studies 32 (3):221-236.
    Kant’s Transcendental Ideal (TI) is presented in a notoriously obscure section of the Critique of Pure Reason. Many readers know that Kant’s principal purpose in the TI is to show how reason fallaciously derives its concept of God from its idea of the world. But this argument is clothed in a language that is unfamiliar even to skilled commentators on Kant’s work. In this essay, I present the historical context of the proof, conduct a detailed exegesis of the proof, and (...)
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  42. Daniel Whistler (2013). Post-Established Harmony: Kant and Analogy Reconsidered. Sophia 52 (2):235-258.
    This essay is a response to John Milbank’s comparison of Kant and Aquinas’ theories of analogy in ‘A Critique of the Theology of Right’. A critique of Milbank’s essay forms the point of departure for my reconstruction of Kant’s actual theory of analogy. I show that the usual focus on the Prolegomena for this end is insufficient; in fact, the full extent of Kant’s theory of analogy only becomes clear in the Critique of Judgment. I also consider the significance of (...)
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  43. David A. White (1993). Kant on Plato and the Metaphysics of Purpose. History of Philosophy Quarterly 10 (1):67 - 82.
  44. Robert Wicks (2007). Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Kant on Judgment. Routledge.
    Kant’s Critique of Judgment is one of the most important texts in the history of modern aesthetics. This GuideBook discusses the third Critique section by section, and introduces and assesses: Kant's life and the background of the Critique of Judgment the ideas and text of the Critique of Judgment , including a critical explanation of Kant’s theories of natural beauty The continuing relevance of Kant’s work to contemporary philosophy and aesthetics This GuideBook is an accessible introduction to a notoriously difficult (...)
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  45. John Zammito (2009). Kant's Notion of Intrinsic Purposiveness in the Critique of Judgment. Kant Yearbook 1 (1).