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  1. Gary Banham (2001). Transcendental Philosophy and Artificial Life. CultureMachine 3.
  2. Bruno Bauch (1914). Über den Begriff des Naturgesetzes. Kant-Studien 19 (1-3):303-337.
  3. Lewis White Beck (1988). The Extraterrestrial Life Debate. 1750-1900. The Idea of a Plurality of Worlds From Kant to Lowell. Journal of the History of Philosophy 26 (2):324-326.
  4. Claus Beisbart (2009). Kant's Characterization of Natural Ends. Kant Yearbook 1 (1).
    What is it to judge something to be a natural end? And what objects may properly be judged natural ends? These questions pose a challenge, because the predicates “natural” and “end” seemingly can not be instantiated at the same time – at least given some Kantian assumptions. My paper defends the thesis that Kant’s “Critique of Teleological Judgment”, nevertheless, provides a sensible account of judging something a natural end. On the account, a person judges an object O a natural end, (...)
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  5. Paul Bommersheim (1927). Der vierfache Sinn der inneren Zweckmäßigkeit in Kants Philosophie des Organischen. Kant-Studien 32 (1-3):290-309.
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  6. Angela Breitenbach (2013). Kant on Biology and the Experience of Life. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 19-30.
  7. Angela Breitenbach (2009). Umweltethik nach Kant. Ein analogisches Verständnis vom Wert der Natur. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 57 (3):377-395.
    Kant is often characterised as the chief exponent of an anthropocentric ethics that can ascribe to nature only a purely instrumental value. By contrast, this paper argues that Kant′s teleological conception of nature provides the basis for a promising account of environmental ethics. According to this account we can attribute to nature a value that is independent of its usefulness to human beings without making this value independent from the judgment of the rational valuer.
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  8. Angela Breitenbach (2009). Teleology in Biology: A Kantian Perspective. Kant Yearbook 1 (1).
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  9. Angela Breitenbach (2008). Two Views on Nature: A Solution to Kant's Antinomy of Mechanism and Teleology. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (2):351 – 369.
  10. Robert E. Butts (1990). Teleology and Scientific Method in Kant's Critique of Judgment. Noûs 24 (1):1-16.
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  11. Luigi Caranti (2005). Logical Purposiveness and the Principle of Taste. Kant-Studien 96 (3):364-374.
    In both Introductions to the Critique of Judgment Kant seems to identify the a priori principle at the basis of aesthetic judgments with the principle that guides reflective judgment in its cognitive inquiry of nature, i.e. the purposiveness of nature or systematicity. For instance Kant writes.
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  12. F. Chiereghin (1990). Finality and the Idea of Life-the Hegelian Reception of the Teleology of Kant. Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):127-229.
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  13. Alix Cohen (2006). Kant on Epigenesis, Monogenesis and Human Nature. Studies in History and Philosophy of the Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):675-693.
    The aim of this paper is to show that for Kant, a combination of epigenesis and monogenesis is the condition of possibility of anthropology as he conceives of it and that moreover, this has crucial implications for the biological dimension of his account of human nature. More precisely, I begin by arguing that Kant’s conception of mankind as a natural species is based on two premises: firstly the biological unity of the human species ; and secondly the existence of ‘seeds’ (...)
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  14. Alix Cohen (2004). Kant's Antinomy of Reflective Judgment: A Re-Evaluation. Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 23 (1):183.
    The aim of this paper is to show that there is a genuine difficulty in Kant’s argument regarding the connection between mechanism and teleology. But this difficulty is not the one that is usually underlined. Far from consisting in a contradiction between the first and the third Critique, I argue that the genuine difficulty is intrinsic to the antinomy of reflective judgement: rather than having any hope of resolving anything, it consists in an inescapable conflict. In order to support this (...)
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  15. Alix A. Cohen (2007). A Kantian Stance on Teleology in Biology. South African Journal of Philosophy 26 (2):109 - 121.
    The aim of this paper is to show firstly why Kant believes we should hang on to teleology, and, secondly, that his views on the matter are still relevant to contemporary epistemology despite the fact that theories of evolution now allow purely mechanical explanations of organic processes. By considering Kant’s account in light of that of Daniel Dennett, I elucidate what I believe to be the strength of Kant’s theory, namely, the pragmatic role it assigns to reflective teleological principles. (edited).
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  16. Willem A. deVries (1991). The Dialectic of Teleology. Philosophical Topics 19 (2):51-70.
    An analysis of Hegel's chapter on teleology in the Science of Logic. Hegel argues that the 'intentional model' of teleology assumed by Kant actually presupposes a natural or organic teleology more like along Aristotelian lines.
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  17. Igor Eterović (2011). Kant's Teleology as the Basis for Orientation in Ecology. Filozofska Istrazivanja 31 (2):299-309.
  18. Ido Geiger (2009). Is Teleological Judgement (Still) Necessary? Kant's Arguments in the Analytic and in the Dialectic of Teleological Judgement. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (3):533 – 566.
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  19. Hannah Ginsborg (2014). Oughts Without Intentions: A Kantian Approach to Biological Functions. In Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.), Kant's Theory of Biology. De Gruyter 259-274.
  20. Hannah Ginsborg (2006). Kant's Biological Teleology and Its Philosophical Significance. In A Companion to Kant. Blackwell Publishing
    The article surveys Kant’s treatment of biological teleology in the ’Critique of Judgment’, with special attention to the question of whether the notion of natural teleology is coherent. It argues that our entitlement to regard nature as teleological is not established by the argument of the ’Antinomy’, but rather results from our entitlement to regard the workings of our own cognitive faculties in normative terms. This implies a view of the relation between biological teleology and the representational character of mind (...)
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  21. Hannah Ginsborg (2004). Two Kinds of Mechanical Inexplicability in Kant and Aristotle. Journal of the History of Philosophy 42 (1):33-65.
    I distinguish two senses in which organisms are mechanically inexplicable for Kant. Mechanical inexplicability in the first sense is shared with artefacts, and consists in their exhibiting regularities irreducible to the regularities of matter. Mechanical inexplicability in the second sense is peculiar to organisms, consisting in the reciprocal causal dependence of an organism's parts. This distinction corresponds to two strands of thought in Aristotle, one supporting a teleological conception of organisms, the other supporting a conception of organisms as natural. Recognizing (...)
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  22. Hannah Ginsborg (2001). Kant on Understanding Organisms as Natural Purposes. In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant and the Sciences. Oxford University Press 231--58.
  23. Paul Guyer (2009). CHAPTER 5: Systematicity, Taste, and Purpose. In Knowledge, Reason, and Taste: Kant's Response to Hume. Princeton University Press 198-254.
  24. Stephen Houlgate (2011). Nature and History: Ultimate and Final Purpose. In Will Dudley & Kristina Engelhardt (eds.), Immanuel Kant: Key Concepts. Acumen 184-199.
  25. Dilek Huseyinzadegan (2013). Teleology and Its Risks for Reason: A Closer Look at the Antinomy of Teleological Judgment. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 899-910.
  26. Luca Illetterati (2008). Being-For: Purposes and Functions in Artefacts and Living Beings. In Purposiveness: Teleology Between Nature and Mind. Ontos Verlag
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  27. Luca Illetterati (2008). Purposiveness: Teleology Between Nature and Mind. Ontos Verlag.
    Since the rise of modern thought and natural science, teleological discourses have been banished as explanatory tools in natural investigations. The various contributions to this volume embrace the task of rethinking natural purposiveness in accordance with natural science. They set out from the issue of whether, and in which form, it is possible to talk of purposes in nature, without resorting to an account requesting some intentional agent. The legitimacy of such a notion as that of internal teleology has been (...)
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  28. Patrick Paul Kain (1999). Review: Reath, Herman, Korsgaard (Ed), Reclaiming the History of Ethics: Essays for John Rawls. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 3 (1):114-122.
  29. Immanuel Kant (1928). Kant's Critique of Teleological Judgement. Oxford, the Clarendon Press.
  30. Daniel Kolb (1992). Kant, Teleology, and Evolution. Synthese 91 (1-2):9 - 28.
    This essay examines Kant's idea of organic teleology. The first two sections are devoted to Kant's analysis and justification of teleological conceptions in biology. Both the idea of teleology and Kant's anti-reductionism are derived from basic elements of his critical treatment of the human intellect. The third section discusses the limitations Kant places on accounts of origins in the life world. It is argued that the limitations Kant places on accounts of the origins of species do not follow from his (...)
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  31. James Kreines (2008). The Logic of Life: Hegel's Philosophical Defense of Teleological Explanation of Living Beings. In The Cambridge Companion to Hegel and Nineteenth-Century Philosophy. Cambridge Univ Pr
    Kant argues that we necessarily conceive of living beings in irreducibly teleological terms, but that we cannot know that living beings themselves truly satisfy the implications of teleological judgment. Hegel argues in response that we can know that living beings are teleological systems. Both Kant and Hegel here advocate positions distinct from those most popular today. And although much of the biological science of their time is now outdated, each has philosophical arguments of lasting interest and import. I focus on (...)
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  32. Gerhard Lehmann (1962). Kant und der evolutionismus. Zur thematik der Kantforschung Paul menzers. Kant-Studien 53 (1-4):389-410.
  33. Brandon C. Look (2006). Blumenbach and Kant on Mechanism and Teleology in Nature: The Case of the Formative Drive. In Justin E. H. Smith (ed.), The Problem of Animal Generation in Early Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press
  34. Shidan Lotfi (2010). The 'Purposiveness' of Life. The Monist 93 (1):123 - 134.
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  35. Richard N. Manning (2011). A Spinozistic Deduction of the Kantian Concept of a Natural End. Philo 14 (2):176-200.
    Kant distinguishes “natural ends” as exhibiting a part-whole reciprocal causal structure in virtue of which we can only conceive them as having been caused through a conception, as if by intelligent design. Here, I put pressure on Kant’s position by arguing that his view of what individuates and makes cognizable material bodies of any kind is inadequate and needs supplementation. Drawing on Spinoza, I further urge that the needed supplement is precisely the whole-part reciprocal causal structure that Kant takes to (...)
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  36. Bruce Matthews (2015). Schelling in the Anthropocene: A New Mythology of Nature. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 19 (1):94-105.
    I explore how the "synthesis of history and nature" that defines the Anthropocene might signal the advent of the “new mythology” Schelling hoped would emerge from his Naturphilosophie. The epistemological dimension of this new mythology is to be understood through Schelling’s idea of Mitwissenschaft, in which humanity is the essential active agent in the reflexive system of the world. Such an inquiry derives not from a sentimental longing for an enchanted world, but from the impending “annihilation of nature” Schelling foresaw (...)
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  37. John D. McFarland (1970). Kant's Concept of Teleology. [Edinburgh]University of Edinburgh Press.
  38. Peter McLaughlin (1990). Kant's Critique of Teleology in Biological Explanation: Antinomy and Teleology. E. Mellen Press.
  39. Dalia Nassar (2015). Sensibility and Organic Unity: Kant, Goethe, and the Plasticity of Cognition. Intellectual History Review 25 (3):311-326.
    In this paper, I trace a ‘leading thread’ from Kant’s Critique of Judgment to Goethe that involves a shift from a conceptual framework, in which a priori concepts furnish necessity and thereby science, to a framework in which sensible experience plays a far more significant and determining role in the formation of knowledge. Although this shift was not enacted by Kant himself, his elaboration of organic unity or organisms paved the way for this transformation. By considering both the methodological difficulties (...)
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  40. Dalia Nassar (2014). Pure Versus Empirical Forms of Thought: Schelling's Critique of Kant's Categories and the Beginnings of Naturphilosophie. Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (1):113-134.
    The Origins of Schelling’s Naturphilosophie and its relation to his transcendental philosophy have for a long time intrigued historians of philosophy.1 When did Schelling’s interest in the philosophy of nature commence,2 and what inspired this apparent transition in his thought?3 How did his Naturphilosophie figure into his later departure from Fichte, and in what ways did his early commitments influence this departure?4 These have been the overarching questions of the debate, and they have been answered from varying angles. However, by (...)
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  41. Lawrence Pasternack (2011). Regulative Principles and ‘the Wise Author of Nature’. Religious Studies 47 (4):411-429.
    There is much more said in the Critique of Pure Reason about the relationship between God and purposiveness than what is found in Kant's analysis of the physico-theological (design) argument. The ‘Wise Author of Nature’ is central to his analysis of regulative principles in the ‘Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic’ and also appears in the ‘Canon’, first with regards to the Highest Good and then again in relation to our theoretical use of purposiveness. This paper will begin with a brief (...)
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  42. Marcio Pires (2013). Sobre o Uso de Princípios Teleológicos Na Filosofia, de Kant. Trans/Form/Ação 36 (1):211-238.
    O conceito de memes surgiu em 1976 com Richard Dawkins, como um análogo cultural dos genes. Deveria ser possível estudar a cultura através do processo de evolução por seleção natural de memes, ou seja, de comportamentos, ideias e conceitos. O filósofo Daniel Dennett utilizou tal conceito como central em sua teoria da consciência e pela primeira vez divulgou para o grande público a possibilidade de uma ciência dos memes chamada "memética". A pesquisadora Susan Blackmore (1999) foi quem mais se aproximou (...)
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  43. Marcel Quarfood (2014). The Antinomy of Teleological Judgment: What It Is and How It Is Solved. In Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.), Kant's Theory of Biology. De Gruyter 167-184.
  44. Marcel Quarfood (2006). Kant on Biological Teleology: Towards a Two-Level Interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (4):735-747.
    Kant stresses the regulative status of teleological attributions, but sometimes he seems to treat teleology as a constitutive condition for biology. To clarify this issue, the concept of natural purpose and its role for biology are examined. I suggest that the concept serves an identificatory function: it singles out objects as natural purposes, whereby the special science of biology is constituted. This relative constitutivity of teleology is explicated by means of a distinction of levels: on the object level of biological (...)
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  45. Matthew Ratcliffe (2001). A Kantian Stance on the Intentional Stance. Biology and Philosophy 16 (1):29-52.
    I examine the way in which Daniel Dennett (1987, 1995) uses his 'intentional' and 'design' stances to make the claim that intentionality is derived from design. I suggest that Dennett is best understood as attempting to supply an objective, nonintentional, naturalistic rationale for our use of intentional concepts. However, I demonstrate that his overall picture presupposes prior application of the intentional stance in a preconditional, ineliminable,'sense-giving' role. Construed as such, Dennett's account is almost identical to the account of biological teleology (...)
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  46. Nils Roll-Hansen (1976). Critical Teleology: Immanuel Kant and Claude Bernard on the Limitations of Experimental Biology. Journal of the History of Biology 9 (1):59 - 91.
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  47. Alicia Juarrero Roqué (1985). Self-Organization: Kant's Concept of Teleology and Modern Chemistry. Review of Metaphysics 39 (1):107 - 135.
  48. Daniel Rothbart & Irmgard Scherer (1997). Kant's Critique of Judgment and the Scientific Investigation of Matter. Hyle 3 (1):65 - 80.
    Kant's theory of judgment establishes the conceptual framework for understanding the subtle relationships between the experimental scientist, the modern instrument, and nature's atomic particles. The principle of purposiveness which governs judgment has also a role in implicitly guiding modern experimental science. In Part 1 we explore Kant's philosophy of science as he shows how knowledge of material nature and unobservable entities is possible. In Part 2 we examine the way in which Kant's treatment of judgment, with its operating (...)
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  49. Thomas Teufel (2013). Merely Mechanistic Laws – Causal Mechanism and Kant’s Antinomy of the Teleological Power of Judgment. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 261-270.
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  50. Thomas Teufel (2011). Kant's Non -Teleological Conception of Purposiveness. Kant-Studien 102 (2):232-252.
    In this paper I argue, first, that Kant's technical definition of purposiveness in § 10 of the third Critique is designed to abstract from all forward-looking considerations (teleological, intentional, normative, etc.) that accompany the conventional understanding of the term. Kant seeks to establish a strictly backward-looking, etiological conception of purposiveness in order to capture the causal link connecting artifacts with their concepts. I argue, second, that he succeeds. Kant's etiological conception of purposiveness neither collapses into mere mechanism, nor smuggles normative (...)
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