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Summary In addition to its positive account of synthetic a priori cognition in mathematics and natural science, The Critique of Pure Reason also had the goal of exposing the fraudulent basis for the putatively synthetic a priori cognition contained in the doctrines of traditional metaphysics, namely, rational psychology, general cosmology, and natural theology. Kant has long been judged particularly successful in achieving this latter goal, to the extent that Moses Mendelssohn dubbed him the 'all destroying Kant.' 
Key works Grier 2001 brought renewed attention to Kant's doctrine of illusion and its systematic role in his criticism of metaphysics. Other discussions of Kant's general criticism of traditional metaphysics can be found in Bennett 1974, Allison 2004, and Bird 2006.
Introductions Useful introductions to Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics can be found in Ameriks' contribution to Guyer 1992, and in Grier's SEP entry on the topic
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  1. Albert Albert (1896). Kants transcendentale Logik. Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 10:496.
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  2. İlyas Altuner (2012). Critique of Metaphysics in the Philosophy of Ghazali and Kant. Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 5 (1):22-30.
    Our study aims to deal with different and similar conditions between Ghazali and Kant, as characters that can show two different thinking forms and two different cultural structures in their thoughts, in context of the same subject. We will deal with why and how that the approaches of both thinkers to the subject transcendental dialectic occur by passing through which stages and try to display that both cultural world incline to this subject by which aim.Çalışmamız iki ayrı düşünme biçimi ve (...)
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  3. R. Lanier Anderson (2015). The Poverty of Conceptual Truth: Kant's Analytic/Synthetic Distinction and the Limits of Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.
    R. Lanier Anderson presents a new account of Kant's distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments, and provides it with a clear basis within traditional logic. He reconstructs compelling claims about the syntheticity of elementary mathematics, and re-animates Kant's arguments against traditional metaphysics in the Critique of Pure Reason.
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  4. Andreas Arndt (2003). Hegels Begriff der Dialektik im Blick auf Kant. Hegel-Studien 38.
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  5. Brian A. Chance (2012). Scepticism and the Development of the Transcendental Dialectic. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (2):311-331.
    Kant's response to scepticism in the Critique of Pure Reason is complex and remarkably nuanced, although it is rarely recognized as such. In this paper, I argue that recent attempts to flesh out the details of this response by Paul Guyer and Michael Forster do not go far enough. Although they are right to draw a distinction between Humean and Pyrrhonian scepticism and locate Kant's response to the latter in the Transcendental Dialectic, their accounts fail to capture two important aspects (...)
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  6. Andrew Chignell (forthcoming). Knowledge, Discipline, System, Hope: The Fate of Metaphysics in the Doctrine of Method. In O'Shea James (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press
  7. Edgard José Jorge Filho (2013). Error and Transcendental Illusion in Kant. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 165-176.
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  8. Courtney D. Fugate (2014). Alexander Baumgarten on the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Philosophica 44.
    This paper defends the Principle of Sufficient Reason, taking Baumgarten as its guide. The primary aim is not to vindicate the principle, but rather to explore the kinds of resources Baumgarten originally thought sufficient to justify the PSR against its early opponents. The paper also considers Baumgarten's possible responses to Kant's pre-Critical objections to the proof of the PSR. The paper finds that Baumgarten possesses reasonable responses to all these objections. While the paper notes that in the absence of a (...)
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  9. Courtney D. Fugate (2014). Chapter 5 Teleology in the Transcendental Dialectic. In The Teleology of Reason: A Study of the Structure of Kant's Critical Philosophy. De Gruyter 201-240.
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  10. Hans Friedrich Fulda (1987). Hegels Dialektik un die transzendentale Dialektik Kants. Giornale di Metafisica 9 (2):265.
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  11. Terry F. Godlove (2013). The Objectivity of Regulative Principles in Kant’s Appendix to the Dialectic. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 129-140.
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  12. Michelle Grier (2007). Kant's Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion. Cambridge University Press.
    This major study of Kant provides a detailed examination of the development and function of the doctrine of transcendental illusion in his theoretical philosophy. The author shows that a theory of 'illusion' plays a central role in Kant's arguments about metaphysical speculation and scientific theory. Indeed, she argues that we cannot understand Kant unless we take seriously his claim that the mind inevitably acts in accordance with ideas and principles that are 'illusory'. Taking this claim seriously, we can make much (...)
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  13. Paul Guyer (1989). The Unity of Reason: Pure Reason as Practical Reason in Kant’s Early Conception of the Transcendental Dialectic. The Monist 72 (2):139-167.
  14. Benett Jonathan (1975). Kants Dialectic. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 37 (3):538-539.
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  15. F. Kaulbach (1973). Dialektik und Theorie der philosophischen Methode bei Kant. Zum Kant-Kommentar von H. Heimsoeth. Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 64 (3):395.
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  16. F. Kaulbach (1968). Kants Theorie der Dialektik. Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 59 (2):240.
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  17. Joachim Kopper (1975). J. Bennett, Kant’s Dialectic. Kant-Studien 66 (1-4).
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  18. James Kreines (forthcoming). Fundamentality Without Metaphysical Monism. Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain.
  19. Dmitri Nikulin (2010). Dialectic and Dialogue. Stanford University Press.
    This book considers the emergence of dialectic out of the spirit of dialogue and traces the relation between the two. It moves from Plato, for whom dialectic is necessary to destroy incorrect theses and attain thinkable being, to Cusanus, to modern philosophers—Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Schleiermacher and Gadamer, for whom dialectic becomes the driving force behind the constitution of a rational philosophical system. Conceived as a logical enterprise, dialectic strives to liberate itself from dialogue, which it views as merely accidental and (...)
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  20. Lawrence Pasternack (2010). Regulative Principles and ‘the Wise Author of Nature’: Lawrence Pasternack. Religious Studies 47 (4):411-429.
    There is much more said in the Critique of Pure Reason about the relationship between God and purposiveness than what is found in Kant's analysis of the physico-theological argument. The ‘Wise Author of Nature’ is central to his analysis of regulative principles in the ‘Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic’ and also appears in the ‘Canon’, first with regards to the Highest Good and then again in relation to our theoretical use of purposiveness. This paper will begin with a brief discussion (...)
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  21. G. Quaas (1989). Das Verhältnis von Dialektik, Logik und Erkenntnistheorie bei I. Kant und G. W. F. Hegel. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 37 (4):359.
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  22. W. Reinecke (1907). Fischer, Die geschichtlichen Vorlagen zur Dialektik in Kants Kr.d.r.V. Kant-Studien 12:135.
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  23. Eberth Eleutério dos Santos (2015). A metafísica freudiana: um estudo para a demarcação metodológica da filosofia freudiana a partir de Kant. Studia Kantiana 18:148-181.
    Da exposição oferecida por Kant em seu tratado Investigação sobre a evidência dos princípios da teologia natural e da moral, aproveitamos as observações acerca da forma metodológica adequada às investigações em filosofia, distinguindo-a daquela que é própria da construção do conhecimento matemático. Essas observações servirão de base para uma tentativa de aproximação entre a forma metodológica oferecida pela metafísica, entendida como ontologia, e a metapsicologia freudiana que poderá, então, ser concebida como uma ontologia funcionando no interior de sua psicologia. Nosso (...)
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  24. Dennis Schulting (2008). Wat is eigenlijk copernicaans aan Kants copernicaanse revolutie? Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 100 (1):41-66.
  25. Diego Kosbiau Trevisan (2014). Sentidos de metafísica na filosofia crítica de Kant. Studia Kantiana 17:104-125.
    O artigo tem por objetivo contribuir para a já antiga discussão sobre a relação de Kant com a metafísica expondo os diversos sentidos que esta disciplina assume na filosofia crítica. Orientada por um interesse sistemático e tendo por base o capítulo sobre a Arquitetônica da Razão Pura da Crítica da razão pura, a presente investigação procura esclarecer a reformulação por que passam na filosofia crítica kantiana as disciplinas tradicionais da metafísica racionalista, mais precisamente a metaphysica generalis e a metaphysica specialis, (...)
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  26. Anna Wehofsits (2016). 7. Der Moralische Schein. In Anthropologie Und Moral: Affekte, Leidenschaften Und Mitgefühl in Kants Ethik. De Gruyter 97-102.
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Kant: Rational Psychology
  1. Henry E. Allison (1995). On Naturalizing Kant's Transcendental Psychology. Dialectica 49 (2‐4):335-356.
  2. Henry E. Allison (1989). Kant's Refutation of Materialism. The Monist 72 (2):190-208.
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  3. Karl Ameriks (2000). Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. Oxford University Press.
    This seminal contribution to Kant studies, originally published in 1982, was the first to present a thorough survey and evaluation of Kant's theory of mind. Ameriks focuses on Kant's discussion of the Paralogisms in the Critique of Pure Reason, and examines how the themes raised there are treated in the rest of Kant's writings. Ameriks demonstrates that Kant developed a theory of mind that is much more rationalistic and defensible than most interpreters have allowed.
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  4. James G. Anderson (1980). Kant's Paralogism of Personhood. Grazer Philosophische Studien 10:73-86.
    Jonathan Bennett's two interpretations of Kant's Third Paralogism are shown to be inadequate. The Third Paralogism attempts to show that rational psychology provides an inadequate basis for the application of the concepts of "personhood" and "substance". The criteria for the application of "personhood" and "substance" must be empirical, and in the case of "personhood" they are bodily criteria. These criteria are available to each of us but only upon pains of abandoning what Bennett calls the Cartesian basis, i.e. rational psychology.
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  5. Richard E. Aquila (2004). The Singularity and the Unity of Transcendental Consciousness in Kant. History of European Ideas 30 (3):349-376.
    Transcendental consciousness is described by Kant as 'the one single thing' in which 'as in the transcendental subject, our perceptions must be encountered.' The unity of that subject depends on intellectual functions. I argue that its singularity is just the same as that of Kant's pre-intellectual 'form' of spatiotemporal 'intuition.' This may seem excluded by Kant's claim that it is through intellect that 'space or time are first given as intuitions.' But while preintellectual form is insufficient for space and time (...)
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  6. Richard E. Aquila (1997). Self as Matter and Form: Some Reflections on Kant’s View of the Soul. In David Klemm and Zöller (ed.), Figuring the Self. SUNY Press
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  7. Richard E. Aquila (1996). Kant and the Mind. International Studies in Philosophy 28 (4):105-107.
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  8. Richard E. Aquila (1979). Personal Identity and Kant's “Refutation of Idealism”. Kant-Studien 70 (1-4):259-278.
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  9. Ralf M. Bader (2012). The Role of Kant's Refutation of Idealism. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 94 (1):53-73.
    This paper assesses the role of the Refutation of Idealism within the Critique of Pure Reason, as well as its relation to the treatment of idealism in the First Edition and to transcendental idealism more generally. It is argued that the Refutation is consistent with the Fourth Paralogism and that it can be considered as an extension of the Transcendental Deduction. While the Deduction, considered on its own, constitutes a 'regressive argument', the Refutation allows us to turn the Transcendental Analytic (...)
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  10. Gary Banham (2005). Kant's Transcendental Imagination. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The role and place of transcendental psychology in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason has been a source of some contention. This work presents a detailed argument for restoring transcendental psychology to a central place in the interpretation of Kant's Analytic, in the process providing a detailed response to more "austere" analytic readings.
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  11. Edward A. Beach (2008). The Postulate of Immortality in Kant: To What Extent is It Culturally Conditioned? Philosophy East and West 58 (4):pp. 492-523.
    Kant's noncognitive argument based on practical reason claims that moral considerations alone suffice to justify the idea of personal immortality as a postulate. Some recent objections are considered here that have charged him with overstepping his own distinction between phenomenon and noumenon. After examining the arguments, Kant is exonerated of having violated his own principles. More troubling, however, is the peculiarity involved in postulating an infinite progression toward a goal whose attainment, by hypothesis, would undermine the very foundations of morality (...)
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  12. Graham H. Bird (2000). The Paralogisms and Kant's Account of Psychology. Kant-Studien 91 (2):129-145.
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  13. Martin Bondeli (2003). Apperzeption, Leben und Natur. Zur Subjekt- und Naturphilosophie bei Kant, Fichte und Hegel. Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 50 (3):537-554.
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  14. Archibald A. Bowman (1916). Kant's View of Metaphysics. Mind 25 (97):1-24.
  15. Ernest G. Braham (1926). Personality and Immortality in Post-Kantian Thought. London, G. Allen & Unwin, Ltd..
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  16. Eva Brann (2001). Ameriks, Karl. Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. Review of Metaphysics 55 (2):374-376.
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  17. George Sidney Brett (1912). A History of Psychology. Thoemmes Press.
    'the whole work is remarkably fresh, vivid and attractively written psychologists will be grateful that a work of this kind has been done ... by one who has the scholarship, science, and philosophical training that are requisite for the task' - Mind This renowned three-volume collection records chronologically the steps by which psychology developed from the time of the early Greek thinkers and the first writings on the nature of the mind, through to the 1920s and such modern preoccupations as (...)
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  18. Edgar Sheffield Brightman (1925). Immortality in Post-Kantian Idealism. Harvard University Press.
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  19. Klaus Brinkmann (2005). Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Modern Self. History of the Human Sciences 18 (4):27-48.
    The concept of the self is embedded in a web of relationships of other concepts and phenomena such as consciousness, self-consciousness, personal identity and the mind–body problem. The article follows the ontological and epistemological roles of the concept of selfconsciousness and the structural co-implication of consciousness and self-consciousness from Descartes and Locke to Kant and Sartre while delineating its subject matter from related inquiries into the relationship between the mind and the body, personal identity, and the question whether consciousness is (...)
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  20. Andrew Brook, Kant's View of the Mind and Consciousness of Self. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  21. Andrew Brook (1994). Kant and the Mind. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant made a number of highly original discoveries about the mind - about its ability to synthesise a single, coherent representation of self and world, about the unity it must have to do so, and about the mind's awareness of itself and the semantic apparatus it uses to achieve this awareness. The past fifty years have seen intense activity in research on human cognition. Even so, Kant's discoveries have not been superseded, and some of them have not even been assimilated (...)
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  22. Karl Bühler (1926). Die Krise der Psychologie. Kant-Studien 31 (1-3):455-526.
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  23. Luigi Caranti (2001). The Development of Kant's Refutation of Idealism. Dissertation, Boston University
    The dissertation analyzes Kant's arguments against Cartesian skepticism from the precritical period up to the "Reflexionen zum Idealismus" . It is argued that in the silent decade , the skeptical challenge leads Kant to reinterpret the foundation of his philosophy, namely, the distinction between appearances and things in themselves. Realizing the impossibility of refuting the skeptic through the identification of appearances with mental entities and the affirmation of the mind-independent existence of things in themselves as causes of the appearances , (...)
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  24. Andrew N. Carpenter (1998). Review: Shell, The Embodiment of Reason: Kant on Spirit, Generation and Community. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 2 (1):134-143.
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