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Summary The major works of Immanuel Kant span nearly 60 years (from 1747-1800), though he is perhaps best know for his “critical" philosophy as espoused in his three Critiques: the Critique of Pure Reason (1781, 1787), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), and the Critique of Judgment (1790). Kant's views changed considerably from his "pre-critical" period to his "critical" period, and there is some debate whether his late work, particularly his unpublished work on physics and chemistry (the so called Opus Postumum), constitutes a "post-critical" period. The entries in this category reflect not only Kant's work and changes or developments in his views from one work to the next, but also the publication and editorial history of the works themselves.
Key works Kant's major works include the pre-critical works establishing his status as a major philosophical figure in Germany and the later works of the critical philosophy, which established him as a major philosopher of the enlightenment. Key translated works include:  Kant 1992Kant 1996Kant 1998Kant 2000Kant 2002Kant 2007Kant 1992Kant 1997Kant 2012Kant 1993
Introductions Good overviews of Kant's philosophical works include: Rohlf 2010 and Grier 2008
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Kant's Works in Pre-Critical Philosophy
  1. Uygar Abaci (2014). Kant's Only Possible Argument and Chignell's Real Harmony. Kantian Review 19 (1):1-25.
    Andrew Chignell recently proposed an original reconstruction of Kant's for the existence of God. Chignell claims that what motivates the of Kant's proof, , is the requirement that the predicates of a really possible thing must be , i.e. compatible in an extra-logical or metaphysical sense. I take issue with Chignell's reconstruction. First, the pre-Critical Kant does not present as a general condition of real possibility. Second, the real harmony requirement is not what motivates the of the proof. Instead, this (...)
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  2. Erich Adickes (1897). Die bewegenden Kräfte in Kants philosophischer Entwicklung und die beiden Pole seines Systems. Zweiter Artikel. Kant-Studien 1 (1-3):161-196.
  3. L. W. Beck E. T. al (ed.) (1986). Kant's Latin Writings: Translations, Commentaries and Notes. P. Lang.
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  4. Henry E. Allison (2007). Comments on Guyer. Inquiry 50 (5):480 – 488.
    Guyer argues for four major theses. First, in his early, pre-critical discussions of morality, Kant advocated a version of rational egoism, in which freedom, understood naturalistically as a freedom from domination by both one's own inclinations and from other people, rather than happiness, is the fundamental value. From this point of view, the function of the moral law is to prescribe rules best suited to the preservation and maximization of such freedom, just as on the traditional eudaemonistic account it is (...)
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  5. Hans-Werner Bartz & Lothar Kreimendahl (2000). Bericht über Band II der Akademie-Ausgabe der Schriften Kants auf der Grundlage einer Untersuchung der Schrift - Der einzig mögliche Beweisgrund zu einer Demonstration des Daseins Gottes. Kant-Studien 91 (s1):17-19.
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  6. Peter Baumanns (1984). The Ontotheology of Kant in His Pre-Critical Period. Philosophy and History 17 (1):42-43.
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  7. Baumgarten (2009). Alexander Baumgarten: Metaphysics (1739). In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Background Source Materials. Cambridge University Press
  8. Michael Beaney (2002). Kant and Analytic Methodology. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (3):455 – 466.
  9. Lewis White Beck (1984). Plurality of Worlds. The Origins of the Extra-Terrestrial Life Debate From Democritus to Kant. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 22 (3):365-366.
  10. Lewis White Beck (1969/1999). Early German Philosophy: Kant and His Predecessors. St. Augustine's Press.
  11. Lewis White Beck (1969). Lambert und Hume in Kants Entwicklung von 1769-1772. Kant-Studien 60 (2):123-130.
  12. Lewis White Beck (1955). Sir David Ross on Duty and Purpose in Kant. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 16 (1):98-107.
  13. Graham Bird (2002). Review: Schönfeld, Hinske, Louden, Klemme & Kuehn, Ameriks, Kuehn. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (2):295 – 306.
  14. Stefanie Buchenau (2011). Notions directrices et architectonique de la métaphysique. La critique kantienne de Wolff en 1763. Astérion 9.
    Cet article cherche à reconstituer la thèse de Christian Wolff sur l’évidence (Deutlichkeit) des principes métaphysiques, dans un article de 1729 sur les « Notions directrices et le véritable usage de la première science », qui offre une référence centrale (et méconnue aujourd’hui) aux répondants du concours de 1762-1763, dont Kant. Wolff affirme en effet que la métaphysique est susceptible d’une certitude égale voire supérieure à celle des mathématiques et qu’elle diffuse cette certitude à travers toutes les autres disciplines ; (...)
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  15. Jeremy Byrd (2008). Kant's Compatibilism in the New Eludication of the First Principles of Metaphysical Cognition. Kant-Studien 99 (1):68-79.
    1. Introduction It is generally assumed that, during his early pre-critical phase, Kant accepted a Leibnizian account of freedom according to which we are free to do otherwise than we do even though our actions are determined. This assumption is false. Far from endorsing such an account, Kant explicitly argues in the New Elucidation of the First Principle of Metaphysical Cognition that there is no relevant sense in which we can do otherwise than we do. Nevertheless, he is equally convinced (...)
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  16. M. S. C. (1982). Review: Findlay, Kant and the Transcendental Object: A Hermenueutic Study. Review of Metaphysics 35 (3):602-604.
  17. Luigi Caranti (2004). The Problem of Idealism in Kants Pre-Critical Period. Kant-Studien 95 (3):283-303.
  18. Andrew N. Carpenter (2001). Review: Schönfeld, The Philosophy of the Young Kant: The Precritical Project. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 5 (1):147-153.
  19. Andrew N. Carpenter (2001). Review: Schönfeld, The Philosophy of the Young Kant: The Precritical Project. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 5 (1):147-153.
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  20. Andrew N. Carpenter (2001). Review: Schönfeld, The Philosophy of the Young Kant: The Precritical Project. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 5:147.
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  21. Andrew N. Carpenter (1998). Review: Shell, The Embodiment of Reason: Kant on Spirit, Generation and Community. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 2 (1):134-143.
  22. Emily Carson (2006). Locke and Kant on Mathematical Knowledge. In Emily Carson & Renate Huber (eds.), Intuition and the Axiomatic Method. Springer 3--19.
  23. Claudio Cesa (2009). Paola Rumore, L'ordine delle idee. La genesi del concetto di rappresentazione in Kant attraverso le sue fonti wolffiane. [REVIEW] Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 4:862.
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  24. Andrew Chignell (2014). Kant and the 'Monstrous' Ground of Possibility. Kantian Review 19 (1):53-69.
    I reply to recent criticisms by Uygar Abaci and Peter Yong, among others, of my reading of Kant's pre-Critical of God's existence, and of its fate in the Critical period. Along the way I discuss some implications of this debate for our understanding of Kant's modal metaphysics and modal epistemology generally.
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  25. Andrew Chignell (2009). Kant, Modality, and the Most Real Being. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 91 (2):157-192.
    Kant's speculative theistic proof rests on a distinction between “logical” and “real” modality that he developed very early in the pre-critical period. The only way to explain facts about real possibility, according to Kant, is to appeal to the properties of a unique, necessary, and “most real” being. Here I reconstruct the proof in its historical context, focusing on the role played by the theory of modality both in motivating the argument (in the pre-critical period) and, ultimately, in undoing it (...)
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  26. Robert R. Clewis (2014). Kant’s Empiricist Rationalism of the Mid-1760s. Eighteenth-Century Thought 5:179-225.
  27. Juan Manuel Navarro Cordón (1974). Método y Metafísica en el Kant precrítico. Logos 9 (9):75-122.
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  28. D. O. D. (1960). Kant's Pre-Critical Ethics. Second Edition. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 14 (1):178-178.
  29. Monique David-Ménard (2000). Kant's "An Essay on the Maladies of the Mind" and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime. Hypatia 15 (4):82 - 98.
    David-Ménard examines the problem of the genesis of Kant's moral philosophy. The separation between Kantian practical reason and the inclinations of sense which it regulates is shown by the author to originate in Kant's attempt to regulate his own tendency to hypochondria. Her argument links the themes from two of Kant's precritical works which attest to this tendency-"An Essay on the Maladies of the Mind" and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime-to the final form of the (...)
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  30. Monique David-Ménard & Alison Ross (2000). Kant's "An Essay on the Maladies of the Mind" and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime. Hypatia 15 (4):82-98.
    David-Ménard examines the problem of the genesis of Kant's moral philosophy. The separation between Kantian practical reason and the inclinations of sense which it regulates is shown by the author to originate in Kant's attempt to regulate his own tendency to hypochondria. Her argument links the themes from two of Kant's pre-critical works which attest to this tendency--"An Essay on the Maladies of the Mind" and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime--to the final form of the (...)
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  31. Steven M. Duncan, Kant's Pre-Critical Proof for God's Existence.
    In his Beweisgrund (1762), Kant presents a sketch of "the only possible basis" for a proof of God's existence. In this essay, I attempt to present that proof as a valid and sound argument for the existence of God.
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  32. Corey W. Dyck (forthcoming). Tetens as a Reader of Kant's Inaugural Dissertation. In Violetta L. Waibel & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Akten des 12. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses “Natur und Freiheit” in Wien vom 21.–25. September 2015.
    In this paper I consider Tetens' reaction to Kant's Inaugural Dissertation in his two most important philosophical works, the essay “Über die allgemeine speculativische Philosophie” of 1775 and the two-volume Philosophische Versuche of 1777. In particular, I focus on Tetens’ critical discussion of Kant's account of the acquisition of concepts of space and time.
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  33. Corey W. Dyck (forthcoming). Spontaneity Before the Critical Turn: Crusius, Tetens, and the Pre-Critical Kant on the Spontaneity of the Mind. Journal of the History of Philosophy.
    Kant’s introduction in the Kritik der reinen Vernunft (KrV) of a spontaneity proper to the understanding is often thought to be one of the central innovations of his Critical philosophy. As I show in this paper, however, a number of thinkers within the 18th century German tradition in the time before the KrV (including the pre-Critical Kant himself) had already developed a robust conception of the spontaneity of the mind, a conception which, in many respects lays the groundwork for Kant’s (...)
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  34. Corey W. Dyck (2009). The Divorce of Reason and Experience: Kant's Paralogisms of Pure Reason in Context. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):pp. 249-275.
    I consider Kant's criticism of rational psychology in the Paralogisms of Pure Reason in light of his German predecessors. I first present Wolff's foundational account of metaphysical psychology with the result that Wolff's rational psychology is not comfortably characterized as a naïvely rationalist psychology. I then turn to the reception of Wolff's account among later German metaphysicians, and show that the same claim of a dependence of rational upon empirical psychology is found in the publications and lectures of Kant's pre-Critical (...)
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  35. John Earman (1971). Kant, Incongruous Counterparts, and the Nature of Space. Ratio 13:1--18.
  36. Achim Engstler (1990). Transcendental Idealism. Kant's Doctrine of the Subjectivity of Intuition in the Dissertation of 1770 and in the “Critique of Pure Reason”. Philosophy and History 23 (1):43-45.
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  37. Stephen Engstrom (1987). Kant's Latin Writings: Translations, Commentaries, and Notes. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 41 (2):374-375.
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  38. Wolfgang Ertl (1999). David Hume und die Dissertation von 1770. Peter Lang.
    I pursue a suggestion by Kreimendahl according to which it was Hamann's translation of Section I.4.7 of Hume's "Treatise" which triggered Kant's critical turn in 1768/69. In the section Hume put forward the idea that the principles at work in the human mind might be radically at odds with each other, i.e., that there might be an "antinomy" in the original meaning of the word. My claims are (i) that in his dissertation Kant attempted to solve the problem of antinomy (...)
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  39. Lorne Falkenstein (1991). Kant, Mendelssohn, Lambert, and the Subjectivity of Time. Journal of the History of Philosophy 29 (2):227-251.
  40. Mark Fisher & Eric Watkins (1998). Kant on the Material Ground of Possibility: From "The Only Possible Argument" to the "Critique of Pure Reason". Review of Metaphysics 52 (2):369 - 395.
  41. Werner Flach (1978). Force, Cosmos, Monads and Other Themes of Kant's Early Thought. Philosophy and History 11 (2):154-154.
  42. J. William Forgie (2008). Kant and Existence: Critique of Pure Reason A 600/B 628. Kant-Studien 99 (1):1-12.
    By whatever and by however many predicates we may think a thing – even if we completely determine it – we do not make the least addition to the thing when we further declare that this thing is. Otherwise, it would not be exactly the same thing that exists, but something more than we had thought in the concept; and we could not, therefore, say that the exact object of my concept exists.
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  43. Courtney D. Fugate (2014). Alexander Baumgarten on the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Philosophica 44.
    This paper defends the Principle of Sufficient Reason, taking Baumgarten as its guide. The primary aim is not to vindicate the principle, but rather to explore the kinds of resources Baumgarten originally thought sufficient to justify the PSR against its early opponents. The paper also considers Baumgarten's possible responses to Kant's pre-Critical objections to the proof of the PSR. The paper finds that Baumgarten possesses reasonable responses to all these objections. While the paper notes that in the absence of a (...)
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  44. Ernesto Maria Giusti (2005). Signo e sentido interno na filosofia da matemática pré-crítica. Doispontos 2 (2).
    Este artigo defende que, na Investigação sobre os princípios da teologia natural e da Moral, o conceito de “sentido interno” é central à reflexão kantiana sobre a matemática. Ele não deve ser entendido em sua acepção crítica, mas corresponde antes àquela derivada de Locke, pelo intermédio de Crusius, e se resume a uma reflexão mental sobre figuras e conceitos matemáticos. Ao incluir no sentido interno a dimensão simbólica do conhecimento matemático, Kant podia ainda ignorar um dos problemas centrais de sua (...)
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  45. Paul Guyer (2007). Naturalistic and Transcendental Moments in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Inquiry 50 (5):444 – 464.
    During the 1760s and 1770s, Kant entertained a naturalistic approach to ethics based on the supposed psychological fact of a human love for freedom. During the critical period, especially in the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant clearly rejected such an approach. But his attempt at a metaphysical foundation for ethics in section III of the Groundwork was equally clearly a failure. Kant recognized this in his appeal to the "fact of reason" argument in the Critique of Practical Reason, (...)
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  46. Bryan Hall (2007). Review: Watkins, Kant and the Metaphysics of Causality. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 12 (2):158-160.
  47. Noam Hoffer (2016). The Relation Between God and the World in the Pre-Critical Kant: Was Kant a Spinozist? Kantian Review 21 (2):185-210.
    Andrew Chignell and Omri Boehm have recently argued that Kant’s pre-Critical proof for the existence of God entails a Spinozistic conception of God and hence substance monism. The basis for this reading is the assumption common in the literature that God grounds possibilities by exemplifying them. In this article I take issue with this assumption and argue for an alternative Leibnizian reading, according to which possibilities are grounded in essences united in God’s mind (later also described as Platonic ideas intuited (...)
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  48. Ke Kaehler (1985). The Early Critique by Kant of the Doctrine of the Prastabilierte-Harmonie and its Relationship to Leibniz. Kant-Studien 76 (4):405-419.
  49. Imanuel Kant (2012). Pitanje, da li zemlja stari, fizikalno razmatrano. Theoria 55 (1):5-17.
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