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Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
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  1. Robert Ackermann (1985). Popper and German Social Philosophy. In Gregory Currie & Alan Musgrave (eds.), Popper and the Human Sciences. Distributors for the United States and Canada, Kluwer Academic Publishers 165--183.
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  2. J. Agassi (1985). Book Reviews : Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists. By David Stove. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981. Pp. VIII + 116. $9.50 Paper. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 15 (3):368-369.
  3. Joseph Agassi, Karl Raimund Popper (1902-1994).
    Karl R. Popper is “the outstanding philosopher of the twentieth century” (Bryan Magee), even “the greatest thinker of the [twentieth] century” (Gellner). He felt affinity with thinkers of the Age of Reason and developed a new version of rationalism: critical rationalism. As a champion of science and of democracy he was the most influential philosopher of the post-WWII era. He was a close follower of Bertrand Russell and of Albert Einstein in that all three advocated problem-oriented fallibilism (during the peak (...)
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  4. Joseph Agassi (2010). In Wittgenstein's Shadow. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 40 (2):325-339.
    Marc Lange offers a stale anthology that reflects the sad state of affairs in the camp of analytic philosophy. It is representative in a few respects, even in its maltreatment of Russell, Wittgenstein, and Popper. Despite its neglect of Wittgenstein, it shows again that Wittgenstein is the patron saint of the analytic school despite the fact that it does not abide by his theory of metaphysics as inherently meaningless.
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  5. Joseph Agassi (2008). A Philosopher’s Apprentice: In Karl Popper’s Workshop. Rodopi.
    Both a Popper biography and an autobiography, Agassi's A Philosopher's Apprentice tells the riveting story of his intellectual formation in 1950s London, a young brilliant philosopher struggling with an intellectual giant - father, mentor, and rival, all at the same time. His subsequent rebellion and declaration of independence leads to a painful break, never to be completely healed. No other writer has Agassi's psychological insight into Popper, and no other book captures like this one the intellectual excitement around the Popper (...)
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  6. Joseph Agassi (1999). The Notion of the Modern Nation-State: Popper and Nationalism. In I. C. Jarvie & Sandra Pralong (eds.), Popper's Open Society After Fifty Years: The Continuing Relevance of Karl Popper. Routledge
  7. Joseph Agassi (1998). Knowledge Personal or Social. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 28 (4):522-551.
    Karl Popper's methodology can be seen as the situational logic of research. Popper called his method "Epistemology without a Knowing Subject." It was dismissed as metaphysical by those who refuse to give up an ideal knowing subject (a perfect human inductive processor). This article surveys the failure of modem discussions of this ideal, from the earliest (the writings of Sir Francis Bacon) to the latest (Kripke). The knowing subject exits at last, but leaves behind interesting results. The ideal knowing subject (...)
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  8. Joseph Agassi (1991). Wittgenstein and Physicalism. Grazer Philosophische Studien 41:67-97.
    In the light of a sketch of the history of modem Anti-Metaphysics up from Francis Bacon Wittgenstein's position - the refusal of the possibility of metaphysical assertions - is compared with the views of Mach, of Camap and Neurath and of Popper. Analysing the notions of 'nonsense', 'meaninglessness' and 'Scheinproblem', their interrelations and connections to physicalism three variants of Anti-Metaphysics are distinguished: the Enlightenment view, the positivistMachian view and the linguistic Wittgensteinian view. The present day actuality of these views is (...)
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  9. Joseph Agassi (1986). III. Refutation a la Popper: A Rejoinder. Philosophia 16 (2):245-247.
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  10. Joseph Agassi (1986). On Hugo Bergman's Contribution to Epistemology. In Abraham Zvie Bar-On (ed.), Grazer Philosophische Studien. Distributed in the U.S.A. By Humanities Press 47-58.
    Approximationism — science approximates the truth as an ideal — is the view of science implicit in all of Einstein's major works, heralded by Hugo Bergman in Hebrew in 1940 and expressed by Karl Popper in 1954 and 1956. Yet Bergman was not sufficiently clear about it, and even Popper is not - as shown by their not giving up certain remnants of the older views which approximationism replaces, even when these remnants are inconsistent with approximationism. Norare the approximationist theories (...)
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  11. Joseph Agassi (1986). Popper in Basic English. Philosophia 15 (4):409-419.
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  12. Joseph Agassi (1983). Theoretical Bias in Evidence: A Historical Sketch. Philosophica 31 (1):7-24.
    The studies of theoretical bias in evidence are these days developed by many clever psychologists, social psychologists, and philosophers. It therefore comes as a surprise to realize that most of the material one can find in the up-to -date literature repeats discoveries which are due to the heroes of the present sketch, namely Galileo Galilei, Sir Francis Bacon, and Robert Boyle; William Whewell, Pierre Duhem, and Karl Popper. We may try to raise scholarly standards by familiarizing ourselves with their ideas (...)
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  13. Joseph Agassi (1976). The Lakatosian Revolution. In R. S. Cohen, P. K. Feyerabend & M. Wartofsky (eds.), Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos. Reidel 9--21.
  14. Joseph Agassi (1969). Popper on Learning From Experience'. In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg 162--71.
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  15. Joseph Agassi (1968). The Novelty of Popper's Philosophy of Science. International Philosophical Quarterly 8 (3):442-463.
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  16. Joseph Agassi, Let a Thousand Flowers Bloom: Popper's Popular Critics.
    Two suggestions are at the back of the present talk. First, toleration is obligatory, not criticism. So do not try to make people critically-minded: do not force them in any way to try to offer or accept criticism, to learn to participate effectively in the game of critical discussion. If they refuse, then they are within their right. Also, they will easily ad vance excuses for their refusal; admittedly some of these are unreasonable, but not all. Instead of trying to (...)
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  17. Joseph Agassi & Jerry Ravetz (1995). Obituary: Karl Popper, 1902-1994. Radical Philosophy 70.
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  18. Hans Albert (1995). Karl Popper (1902–1994). Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 26 (2):207 - 225.
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  19. Stefan Amsterdamski (1996). The Significance of Popper's Thought: Proceedings of the Conference Karl Popper: 1902-1994. March 10-12, 1995. Graduate School for Social Research Warsaw. [REVIEW] Rodopi.
    Contents: KARL POPPER'S THREE WORLDS. John WATKINS: World 1, World 2 and the Theory of Evolution. Adam GROBLER: World 3 and the Cunning of Reason. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AS ETHICS. Joseph AGASSI: Towards Honest Public Relations of Science. Stefan AMSTERDAMSKI: Between Relativism and Absolutism: the Popperian Ideal of Knowledge. THE OPEN SOCIETY AND ITS PROSPECTS. Ernest GELLNER: Karl Popper — The Thinker and the Man. Jan WOLENSKI: Popper on Prophecies and Predictions.
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  20. G. Andersson (2009). Book Review: Catton, P., & Macdonald, G. (Eds.). (2004). Karl Popper: Critical Appraisals. London: Routledge. Pp. Xii + 235. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (1):115-119.
  21. G. Andersson (2009). Book Review: Keuth, H. (2005). The Philosophy of Karl Popper. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (2):324-332.
  22. Gunnar Andersson (1994). Criticism and the History of Science: Kuhn's, Lakatos's, and Feyrabend's Criticisms of Critical Rationalism. E.J. Brill.
    In "Criticism and the History of Science" Karl Popper's falsificationist conception of science is developed and defended against criticisms raised by Thomas ...
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  23. Douglas Io Anele (2011). Beyond Logic of Discovery and Paradigmatic Consensus: A Reanalysis of the Popper-Kuhn Debate in the Philosophy of Science. Philosophy Study 1 (1):52-66.
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  24. A. Anglberger, P. Brössel, N. Furlan, F. Greinecker, M. Karlegger, N. Pfeifer, M. Stefan & A. Ungar (2003). Rezension: Was wir Karl R. Popper und seiner Philosophie verdanken. Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 17 (1):23-27.
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  25. O'hear Anthony (1975). Rationality of Action and Theory-Testing in Popper. Mind 84 (1):273-276.
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  26. Karl-Otto Apel (1983). Comments on Farr's Paper (II) Some Critical Remarks on Popper's Hermeneutics. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 13 (2):183-193.
  27. Horacio Arló-Costa & Richmond H. Thomason (2001). Iterative Probability Kinematics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (5):479-524.
    Following the pioneer work of Bruno De Finetti [12], conditional probability spaces (allowing for conditioning with events of measure zero) have been studied since (at least) the 1950's. Perhaps the most salient axiomatizations are Karl Popper's in [31], and Alfred Renyi's in [33]. Nonstandard probability spaces [34] are a well know alternative to this approach. Vann McGee proposed in [30] a result relating both approaches by showing that the standard values of infinitesimal probability functions are representable as Popper functions, and (...)
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  28. Massimo Baldini (1998). Karl Popper E Sherlock Holmes l'Epistemologo, Il Detective, Il Medico, Lo Storico E Lo Scienziato.
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  29. David Balduzzi, Information, Learning and Falsification.
    There are (at least) three approaches to quantifying information. The first, algorithmic information or Kolmogorov complexity, takes events as strings and, given a universal Turing machine, quantifies the information content of a string as the length of the shortest program producing it [1]. The second, Shannon information, takes events as belonging to ensembles and quantifies the information resulting from observing the given event in terms of the number of alternate events that have been ruled out [2]. The third, statistical learning (...)
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  30. D. J. Balestra (1979). Non-Falsifiability: An Inductivist Perspective. International Logic Review 19:118.
  31. K. Ballestrem & A. McCarthy (1972). Thesen Zur Begründung Einer Kritischen Theorie der Gesellschaft. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 3 (1):49-62.
    Summary In this article the authors seek to broaden the scope of the methodological debates now underway in Germany between proponents of a critical theory of society — principally the late T. W. Adorno and J. Habermas — on the one side and proponents of an analytical theory of social science — principally Karl Popper and Hans Albert — on the other. An attempt is made to formulate and systematize some of the fundamental epistemological and methodological principles which are basic (...)
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  32. A. Baltas & K. Gavroglu (1980). A Modification of Popper's Tetradic Schema and the Special Relativity Theory. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 11 (2):213-237.
    Summary The present paper constitutes an elaboration of a previous work by one of us which, among other things, proposed some modifications of Popper's tetradic schema. Here, in the first part, we consider critically and develop further these modifications and elaborate on methods which prove more satisfactory for the mapping of the problem solving processes in Physics. We also find the opportunity to make some comments on Physics and on its relation to Mathematics. In the second part, there is an (...)
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  33. Renford Bambrough (1967). Plato, Popper and Politics: Some Contributions to a Modern Controversy. New York, Barnes & Noble.
  34. Greg Bamford (2002). From Analysis/Synthesis to Conjecture/Analysis: A Review of Karl Popper’s Influence on Design Methodology in Architecture. [REVIEW] Design Studies 23 (3):245 - 61.
    The two principal models of design in methodological circles in architecture—analysis/synthesis and conjecture/analysis—have their roots in philosophy of science, in different conceptions of scientific method. This paper explores the philosophical origins of these models and the reasons for rejecting analysis/synthesis in favour of conjecture/analysis, the latter being derived from Karl Popper’s view of scientific method. I discuss a fundamental problem with Popper’s view, however, and indicate a framework for conjecture/analysis to avoid this problem.
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  35. Greg Bamford (1996). Popper and His Commentators on the Discovery of Neptune: A Close Shave for the Law of Gravitation? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (2):207-232.
    Knowledge of residual perturbations in Uranus's orbit led to Neptune's discovery in 1846 rather than the refutation of Newton's law of gravitation. Karl Popper asserts that this case is untypical of science and that the law was at least prima facie falsified. I argue that these assertions are the product of a false, a priori methodological position, 'Weak Popperian Falsificationism' (WPF), and that on the evidence the law was not, and was not considered, prima facie false. Many of Popper's commentators (...)
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  36. Greg Bamford (1989). Popper, Refutation and 'Avoidance' of Refutation. Dissertation, The University of Queensland
    Popper's account of refutation is the linchpin of his famous view that the method of science is the method of conjecture and refutation. This thesis critically examines his account of refutation, and in particular the practice he deprecates as avoiding a refutation. I try to explain how he comes to hold the views that he does about these matters; how he seeks to make them plausible; how he has influenced others to accept his mistakes, and how some of the ideas (...)
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  37. Sorin Bangu (2013). Popper: Yet Again. [REVIEW] Metascience 22 (1):165-168.
    Popper: yet again Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-012-9669-y Authors Sorin Bangu, Department of Philosophy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  38. Michael C. Banner (1990). The Justification of Science and the Rationality of Religious Belief. Oxford University Press.
    In this critical examination of recent accounts of the nature of science and of its justification given by Kuhn, Popper, Lakatos, Laudan, and Newton-Smith, Banner contends that models of scientific rationality which are used in criticism of religious beliefs are in fact often inadequate as accounts of the nature of science. He argues that a realist philosophy of science both reflects the character of science and scientific justifications, and suggests that religious belief could be given a justification of the same (...)
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  39. Joe Barnhart (2006). Brightman and Popper on the Emergence of the Person: Implications for the Abortion Issue. The Pluralist 1 (2):57 - 67.
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  40. Joe E. Barnhart (1977). The Study of Religion and its Meaning New Explorations in Light of Karl Popper and Emile Durkheim. Mouton.
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  41. Pierluigi Barrotta (1998). Contemporary Philosophy of Science in Italy: An Overview. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 29 (2):327-345.
    The paper analyses the development of some themes in the contemporary philosophy of science in Italy. Section 1 reviews the dabate on the legacy of neopositivism. The spread of the philosophy of Popper is outlined in Section 2, with particular regard to the problem of the vindication of induction. Section 3 deals with the debate on the incommensurability thesis, while Section 4 examines its consequences on the possible relationships between historical and epistemological studies of science. The last section is devoted (...)
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  42. W. W. Bartley (1982). The Philosophy of Karl Popper Part III. Rationality, Criticism, and Logic. Philosophia 11 (1-2):121-221.
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  43. W. W. Bartley (1978). The Philosophy of Karl Popper. Philosophia 7 (3-4):463-494.
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  44. W. W. Bartley (1976). The Philosophy of Karl Popper. Philosophia 6 (3-4):463-494.
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  45. Nimrod Bar‐Am & Joseph Agassi (2005). Popper and the Establishment. Critical Review 17 (1-2):13-23.
    Abstract The central thesis of Karl Popper's philosophy is that intellectual and political progress are best achieved by not deferring to dogmatic authority. His philosophy of science is a plea for the replacement of classic dogmatic methodology with critical debate. His philosophy of politics, similarly, is a plea for replacing Utopian social and political engineering with a more fallibilist, piecemeal variety. Many confuse his anti?dogmatism with relativism, and his anti?authoritarianism with Cold War conservatism or even with libertarian politics. Not so: (...)
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  46. José de Lira Bautista (2008). Comprensión Hermenéutica y Análisis Situacional En Karl R. Popper. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:129-135.
    In this paper I expose the hermeneutic turn in Popperian philosophy of science. It is a milestone in the search of scientific rationality because permit us explain and understand both the method of deductive test of theories and the growth of knowledge. Especially, incorporating hermeneutics parameters, build up from Popper’s point of view, like situational logic, supported on the third world theory and the scientific tradition theory, open a door to another form of understand the scientific rationality. It expands the (...)
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  47. Charles A. Baylis (1954). Review: K. R. Popper, William Kneale, A. J. Ayer, Symposium: What Can Logic Do for Philosophy? [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (4):290-290.
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  48. L. B. Bazhenov (2002). Reflections on Reading Popper. Russian Studies in Philosophy 41 (2):7-22.
    An enormous amount of philosophical literature gets published nowadays. Some of it is good; some is fit only for pulping. We get into the habit not so much of reading as of glancing through the torrent that pours down on us. But sometimes special conditions arise. It so happened that I was forced to spend about a month in the hospital. I took with me the book Evolutionary Epistemology and the Logic of the Social Sciences: K. Popper and His Critics (...)
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  49. Can Materialism Be (1976). John C. Eccles. In G. Gordon, Grover Maxwell & I. Savodnik (eds.), Consciousness and the Brain: A Scientific and Philosophical Inquiry. Plenum
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  50. Emmette William Beauchamp (1975). The Kuhn-Popper Debate. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin
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