About this topic
Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
  Show all references
Related categories
Subcategories:
1452 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Order:
1 — 50 / 1452
Material to categorize
  1. Joseph Agassi (1983). Theoretical Bias in Evidence: A Historical Sketch. Philosophica 31 (1):7-24.
    The studies of theoretical bias in evidence are these days developed by many clever psychologists, social psychologists, and philosophers. It therefore comes as a surprise to realize that most of the material one can find in the up-to -date literature repeats discoveries which are due to the heroes of the present sketch, namely Galileo Galilei, Sir Francis Bacon, and Robert Boyle; William Whewell, Pierre Duhem, and Karl Popper. We may try to raise scholarly standards by familiarizing ourselves with their ideas (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2. Joseph Agassi (1976). The Lakatosian Revolution. In R. S. Cohen, P. K. Feyerabend & M. Wartofsky (eds.), Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos. Reidel 9--21.
  3. Joseph Agassi (1969). Popper on Learning From Experience'. In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg 162--71.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  4. Joseph Agassi (1968). The Novelty of Popper's Philosophy of Science. International Philosophical Quarterly 8 (3):442-463.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  5. W. W. Bartley (1976). The Philosophy of Karl Popper. Philosophia 6 (3-4):463-494.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  6. Charles A. Baylis (1954). Review: K. R. Popper, William Kneale, A. J. Ayer, Symposium: What Can Logic Do for Philosophy? [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (4):290-290.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7. Mátyás Brendel, Carnap, Popper, Gödel: Can Unity Be Refuted by Incompleteness?
    In this paper all the “acting” philosophers play their classical role: Gödel is present with his incompleteness theorems. Carnap is present with the positivist view of unity of science, and specifically with the thesis about a universal language. Finally, Popper tries to refute Carnap’s thesis with the help of Gödel’s. Unfortunately this debate did not take place in real, only one claim and reponse was made in Shilpp’s volume. I attempt to clarify this question in the present paper. The main (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8. Mátyás Brendel, Et Tu Mi Fili, Thomas?!
    Abstract: In this paper I use or refer to a lot of metaphors, like "Brutus" for Kuhn, "Trojan Horse" for the Structure, "adopted sons" for Quine and Popper, "battlefield" for parts of philosophy. These are however only illustrations to possible theses or questions I investigate: "Did Kuhn refute logical positivism?", Why was Carnap so tolerating so much Popper, Quine and Kuhn?", "Why did logical positivism go away?". I will argue that a complex view should be developed abut these questions synthesising (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9. Harold I. Brown (2011). Van Fraassen Meets Popper: Logical Relations and Cognitive Abilities. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):381-385.
    Van Fraassen, like Popper before him, assumes that confirmation and disconfirmation relations are logical relations and thus hold only among abstract items. This raises a problem about how experience, for Popper, and observables, for van Fraassen, enter into epistemic evaluations. Each philosopher offers a drastic proposal: Popper holds that basic statements are accepted by convention; van Fraassen introduces his “pragmatic tautology.” Another alternative is to reject the claim that all evaluative relations are logical relations. Ayer proposed this option in responding (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10. Harold I. Brown (1991). Epistemic Concepts: A Naturalistic Approach. Inquiry 34 (3 & 4):323 – 351.
    Several forms of naturalism are currently extant. Proponents of the various approaches disagree on matters of strategy and detail but one theme is common: we have not received any revelations about the nature of the world -- including our own nature. Whatever knowledge we have has been acquired through a fallible process of conjecture and revision. This common theme will bring to mind the writings of Karl Popper and, in many respects, Popper is the father of contemporary naturalism. Along with (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  11. James M. Brown (1987). Popper and After. Philosophical Studies 31:356-361.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. James M. Brown (1984). Popper Had a Brand New Bag. Philosophy 59 (230):512 - 515.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13. James Robert Brown (1985). Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists David Stove Oxford: Pergamon, 1982. Pp. 116. $9.95 Paper. [REVIEW] Dialogue 24 (1):177.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. James Robert Brown (1984). Vintage Popper: The Postscript, After Fifty Years. Dialogue 23 (4):677-682.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15. Bartosz Brożek (2002). Popper wobec semantycznej teorii prawdy [dyskusje i polemiki]. Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce 31.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16. Mario Bunge (1973). Miguel A. Quintanilla, "Idealismo y Filosofía de la Ciencia: Introducción a la Epistemología de Karl R. Popper". [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 3 (4):399.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17. Mario Bunge (1966). The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy: Essays in Honor of Karl R. Popper. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 27 (1):134-135.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  18. Mario Augusto Bunge & Karl Raimund Popper (1964). The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy. Free Press of Glencoe.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  19. Mario Augusto Bunge & Karl Raimund Popper (1964). The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy. Edited by Mario Bunge in Honor of Karl R. Popper. Free Press of Glencoe.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20. T. E. Burke (1983). The Philosophy of Popper. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  21. A. Burms (1975). „Zelfbepaling is niet genoeg” Popper over vrijheid en determinisme. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 37 (2):277 - 293.
    In this article I have pointed to some contradictions which appear in Popper's „Of Clouds and Clocks”. These contradictions are explained on two different levels. First, they are represented as the result of conceptual confusions. Secondly, they are connected with a paradox which is never explicitly stated by Popper, but which seems fundamental for a better understanding of what the freewill-controversy is about. The paradox is this : on the one hand freedom is usually and naturally considered as self-determination, i.e. (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22. Arnold Burms & Herman de Dijn (1979). Waarheidsliefde En Relativisme. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 41 (4):590 - 614.
    One can assign three different aims to the desire for knowledge : utility, pleasure, truth-for-truth's-sake. Whereas the first two aims have a concretely determinable content and therefore look evident, the third one has been looked upon as strange and problematic : it is not immediately clear what kind of value is defended in this case. Popper is one of the recent defenders of the traditional ideal of truth-for-truth's-sake. He wants to defend the ideal against three positions : a primitive taboo-ridden (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23. Marco Buzzoni (2011). Rethinking Popper and His Legacy. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (3):309-321.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24. reviewed John Wettersten (2006). I. C. Jarvie: The Republic of Science: The Emergence of Popper's Social View of Science 1935–1945,. Philosophy of Science 73 (1):108-121.
    I. C. Jarvie interprets Popper's philosophy of science as a theory of the institution of science, explains how the social aspect of his theory developed, and suggests that an updated version of Popper's social theory should be used to study both scientific and nonscientific societies today. Although (1) Jarvie's description of the emergence of Popper's theory suffers because he takes no account Popper's research conducted before Logik der Forschung (1994), (2) his portrayal of Popper's framework overlooks important problems, and (3) (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  25. H. K. Cakmak (2007). Review: Chaudhury, M. (2004). Bounds of Freedom: Popper, Liberty and Ecological Rationality. Rodopi: Amsterdam--New York. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (2):251-255.
  26. Bruce Caldwell (2009). A Skirmish in the Popper Wars: Hutchison Versus Caldwell on Hayek, Popper, Mises, and Methodology. Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (3):315-324.
    The paper is a reminiscence of T.W. Hutchison by way of a retrospective view of our debate over the relationship between the ideas of Karl Popper, F. A. Hayek, and Ludwig von Mises on methodology. Our dispute was part of a larger debate over the relevance of Popper's thought for economic methodology. Its place within the larger debate is also explored.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  27. S. Cannavo (1979). Ackerman on Popper. International Studies in Philosophy 11:141-145.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28. Mauro Cardoso Simões (2009). Epistemología, ética y política según Karl Popper. Enfoques 21 (2):5-14.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. James Cargile (1965). Review: David Kaplan, Richard Montague, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic: A Paradox Regained; Martin Gardner, The British Journal of Philosophy of Science: A New Prediction Paradox; K. R. Popper, The British Journal of Philosophy of Science:A Comment on the New Prediction Paradox. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 30 (1):102-103.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  30. J. Cat (1995). The Popper-Neurath Debate and Neurath's Attack on Scientific Method. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 26 (2):219-250.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  31. Jordi Cat (2003). Ian C. Jarvie, The Republic of Science: The Emergence of Popper's Social View of Science 1935–1945. [REVIEW] Metascience 12 (1):75-77.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32. Philip Catton & Graham Macdonald (eds.) (2004). Karl Popper: Critical Appraisals. Routledge.
    One of the most original thinkers of the century, Karl Popper's work has inspired generations of philosophers, historians, and politicians. This collection of papers, specially written for this volume, offers fresh philosophical examination of key themes in Popper's philosophy, including philosophy of knowledge, science and political philosophy. Drawing from some of Popper's most important works, contributors address Popper's solution to the problem of induction, his views on conventionalism and criticism in an open society and explore his unique position in twentieth (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  33. M. Cehelnik (2002). Karl R. Popper, Philosophical Quest for a Better World-An Intellectual Portrait of the Founder of Critical Rationalism, on the Occasion of His Centennial Birthday. Filozofia 57 (7):510-524.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34. M. Cehelník (2002). Karl R. Popper: A Philosophy of the Quest for a Better World. Filozofia 57:510-524.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35. Mahasweta Chaudhury (ed.) (2004). Bounds of Freedom: Popper, Liberty and Ecological Rationality. Rodopi.
    Dr Chaudhury is concerned to defend what is responsible and hopeful in contemporary ecological thinking, but to avoid the trap of denying that any positive contribution can be made by western science and technology. Critical rationalists do not need to agree with her suggestions and recommendations in order to welcome her positioning of environmental issues alongside the traditional human and political debates about freedom. The Indian perspective that informs this book is particularly impressive and interesting. David Miller Professor Mahasweta Chaudhury (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  36. L. A. M. Chi-Ming (2013). A Popperian Approach to Education for Open Society. Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (8):845-859.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37. M. Chiariello (1997). Book Reviews : Sheldon Richmond, Aesthetic Criteria: Gombrich and the Philosophies of Science of Popper and Polanyi. Series in the Philosophy of Karl R. Popper, Volume VI. Edited by Kurt Salamun. Editions Rodopi, Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA, 1994. Pp. 152. $28.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 27 (1):151-152.
  38. Michael Chiariello (1996). The Philosopher's Apprentice. Review of Metaphysics 49 (3):639-641.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. Stephanie Chitpin (2013). Should Popper's View of Rationality Be Used for Promoting Teacher Knowledge? Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (8):833-844.
    Popper?s theory of learning is sometimes met with incredulity because Popper claims that there is no transference of knowledge or knowledge elements from outside the individual, neither from the physical environment nor from others. Instead, he claims that we can improve our present theories by discovering their inadequacies.The intent of this article is not to persuade educators to adopt Popper?s approach uncritically to build their professional knowledge. Rather, it presents a discussion on the need for teachers to adopt a critical (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  40. Adam Chmielewski (1995). Filozofia Poppera Analiza Krytyczna.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. Adam Chmielewski (1994). Sir Karl Popper. Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 12 (4):5-9.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. Adam J. Chmielewski & Karl R. Popper (1999). The Future is Open: A Conversation with Sir Karl Popper. In I. C. Jarvie & Sandra Pralong (eds.), Popper's Open Society After Fifty Years: The Continuing Relevance of Karl Popper. Routledge
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  43. Roberta Corvi (1997). An Introduction to the Thought of Karl Popper. Routledge.
    This is a comprehensive introduction to the philosophical and political thought of Karl Popper, now available in English. It is divided into three parts, dealing with his biographical data, his works and recurrent themes, and finally his critics. It was approved of by Popper himself as a sympathetic and comprehensive study, and will be ideal to meet the increasing demand for a summary introduction to his work.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  44. Christopher Cowton & Gerhard Zecha (2003). Doing It Right Instead of Twice. Philosophy of Management 3 (2):23-33.
    Fundamental to Sir Karl Poppers oeuvre was the insight that humans err - and that we can learn from our mistakes. Critique is therefore valuable in all human endeavours. Although this stance is most famously seen in Poppers claim that to be scientific a theory or hypothesis has to be falsifiable. Popper adopted a critical approach extensively in his work towards whatever crossed his path. Yet he never developed or suggested a general method of criticism. In this paper we present (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45. Justin Cruickshank (2004). Practical Knowledge and Realism: Linking Andrew Collier on Lay Knowledge to Karl Popper on the Philosophy of Science.'. In Andrew Collier, Margaret Scotford Archer & William Outhwaite (eds.), Defending Objectivity: Essays in Honour of Andrew Collier. Routledge
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Norberto Amadeu F. G. Da Cunha (1982). Filosofia E Filosofar Em Karl R. Popper. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 38 (2/3):219 - 252.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47. R. D'Amico (1992). Book Reviews : Douglas E. Williams, Truth, Hope, and Power: The Thought of Karl Popper. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1989. Pp. 237, $35.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (2):251-255.
  48. Norberto Amadeu F. G. da Cunha (1982). Filosofia E Filosofar Em Karl R. Popper. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 38 (2):219-252.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. J. Dance (1997). Karl Popper, The Lesson of This Century. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4:376-378.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50. J. Dance (1997). Roberta Corvi, An Introduction to the Thought of Karl Popper. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4:376-376.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 1452