About this topic
Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
  Show all references
Related categories
Subcategories:
1457 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Order:
1 — 50 / 1457
Material to categorize
  1. Joseph Agassi (1983). Theoretical Bias in Evidence: A Historical Sketch. Philosophica 31 (1):7-24.
    The studies of theoretical bias in evidence are these days developed by many clever psychologists, social psychologists, and philosophers. It therefore comes as a surprise to realize that most of the material one can find in the up-to -date literature repeats discoveries which are due to the heroes of the present sketch, namely Galileo Galilei, Sir Francis Bacon, and Robert Boyle; William Whewell, Pierre Duhem, and Karl Popper. We may try to raise scholarly standards by familiarizing ourselves with their ideas (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2. Joseph Agassi (1976). The Lakatosian Revolution. In R. S. Cohen, P. K. Feyerabend & M. Wartofsky (eds.), Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos. Reidel 9--21.
  3. Joseph Agassi (1969). Popper on Learning From Experience'. In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg 162--71.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  4. Joseph Agassi (1968). The Novelty of Popper's Philosophy of Science. International Philosophical Quarterly 8 (3):442-463.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  5. W. W. Bartley (1976). The Philosophy of Karl Popper. Philosophia 6 (3-4):463-494.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  6. Charles A. Baylis (1954). Review: K. R. Popper, William Kneale, A. J. Ayer, Symposium: What Can Logic Do for Philosophy? [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (4):290-290.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7. James Robert Brown (1984). Vintage Popper: The Postscript, After Fifty Years. Dialogue 23 (4):677-682.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8. Mario Bunge (1973). Miguel A. Quintanilla, "Idealismo y Filosofía de la Ciencia: Introducción a la Epistemología de Karl R. Popper". [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 3 (4):399.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9. Mario Bunge (1966). The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy: Essays in Honor of Karl R. Popper. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 27 (1):134-135.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  10. Mario Augusto Bunge & Karl Raimund Popper (1964). The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy. Free Press of Glencoe.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  11. Mario Augusto Bunge & Karl Raimund Popper (1964). The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy. Edited by Mario Bunge in Honor of Karl R. Popper. Free Press of Glencoe.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. T. E. Burke (1983). The Philosophy of Popper. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  13. A. Burms (1975). „Zelfbepaling is niet genoeg” Popper over vrijheid en determinisme. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 37 (2):277 - 293.
    In this article I have pointed to some contradictions which appear in Popper's „Of Clouds and Clocks”. These contradictions are explained on two different levels. First, they are represented as the result of conceptual confusions. Secondly, they are connected with a paradox which is never explicitly stated by Popper, but which seems fundamental for a better understanding of what the freewill-controversy is about. The paradox is this : on the one hand freedom is usually and naturally considered as self-determination, i.e. (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. Arnold Burms & Herman de Dijn (1979). Waarheidsliefde En Relativisme. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 41 (4):590 - 614.
    One can assign three different aims to the desire for knowledge : utility, pleasure, truth-for-truth's-sake. Whereas the first two aims have a concretely determinable content and therefore look evident, the third one has been looked upon as strange and problematic : it is not immediately clear what kind of value is defended in this case. Popper is one of the recent defenders of the traditional ideal of truth-for-truth's-sake. He wants to defend the ideal against three positions : a primitive taboo-ridden (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15. Marco Buzzoni (2011). Rethinking Popper and His Legacy. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (3):309-321.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16. reviewed John Wettersten (2006). I. C. Jarvie: The Republic of Science: The Emergence of Popper's Social View of Science 1935–1945,. Philosophy of Science 73 (1):108-121.
    I. C. Jarvie interprets Popper's philosophy of science as a theory of the institution of science, explains how the social aspect of his theory developed, and suggests that an updated version of Popper's social theory should be used to study both scientific and nonscientific societies today. Although (1) Jarvie's description of the emergence of Popper's theory suffers because he takes no account Popper's research conducted before Logik der Forschung (1994), (2) his portrayal of Popper's framework overlooks important problems, and (3) (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17. H. K. Cakmak (2007). Review: Chaudhury, M. (2004). Bounds of Freedom: Popper, Liberty and Ecological Rationality. Rodopi: Amsterdam--New York. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (2):251-255.
  18. Bruce Caldwell (2009). A Skirmish in the Popper Wars: Hutchison Versus Caldwell on Hayek, Popper, Mises, and Methodology. Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (3):315-324.
    The paper is a reminiscence of T.W. Hutchison by way of a retrospective view of our debate over the relationship between the ideas of Karl Popper, F. A. Hayek, and Ludwig von Mises on methodology. Our dispute was part of a larger debate over the relevance of Popper's thought for economic methodology. Its place within the larger debate is also explored.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  19. S. Cannavo (1979). Ackerman on Popper. International Studies in Philosophy 11:141-145.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20. Mauro Cardoso Simões (2009). Epistemología, ética y política según Karl Popper. Enfoques 21 (2):5-14.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. James Cargile (1965). Review: David Kaplan, Richard Montague, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic: A Paradox Regained; Martin Gardner, The British Journal of Philosophy of Science: A New Prediction Paradox; K. R. Popper, The British Journal of Philosophy of Science:A Comment on the New Prediction Paradox. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 30 (1):102-103.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  22. J. Cat (1995). The Popper-Neurath Debate and Neurath's Attack on Scientific Method. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 26 (2):219-250.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  23. Jordi Cat (2003). Ian C. Jarvie, The Republic of Science: The Emergence of Popper's Social View of Science 1935–1945. [REVIEW] Metascience 12 (1):75-77.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24. Philip Catton & Graham Macdonald (eds.) (2004). Karl Popper: Critical Appraisals. Routledge.
    One of the most original thinkers of the century, Karl Popper's work has inspired generations of philosophers, historians, and politicians. This collection of papers, specially written for this volume, offers fresh philosophical examination of key themes in Popper's philosophy, including philosophy of knowledge, science and political philosophy. Drawing from some of Popper's most important works, contributors address Popper's solution to the problem of induction, his views on conventionalism and criticism in an open society and explore his unique position in twentieth (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  25. M. Cehelnik (2002). Karl R. Popper, Philosophical Quest for a Better World-An Intellectual Portrait of the Founder of Critical Rationalism, on the Occasion of His Centennial Birthday. Filozofia 57 (7):510-524.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26. M. Cehelník (2002). Karl R. Popper: A Philosophy of the Quest for a Better World. Filozofia 57:510-524.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27. Mahasweta Chaudhury (ed.) (2004). Bounds of Freedom: Popper, Liberty and Ecological Rationality. Rodopi.
    Dr Chaudhury is concerned to defend what is responsible and hopeful in contemporary ecological thinking, but to avoid the trap of denying that any positive contribution can be made by western science and technology. Critical rationalists do not need to agree with her suggestions and recommendations in order to welcome her positioning of environmental issues alongside the traditional human and political debates about freedom. The Indian perspective that informs this book is particularly impressive and interesting. David Miller Professor Mahasweta Chaudhury (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28. L. A. M. Chi-Ming (2013). A Popperian Approach to Education for Open Society. Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (8):845-859.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. M. Chiariello (1997). Book Reviews : Sheldon Richmond, Aesthetic Criteria: Gombrich and the Philosophies of Science of Popper and Polanyi. Series in the Philosophy of Karl R. Popper, Volume VI. Edited by Kurt Salamun. Editions Rodopi, Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA, 1994. Pp. 152. $28.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 27 (1):151-152.
  30. Michael Chiariello (1996). The Philosopher's Apprentice. Review of Metaphysics 49 (3):639-641.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31. Stephanie Chitpin (2013). Should Popper's View of Rationality Be Used for Promoting Teacher Knowledge? Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (8):833-844.
    Popper?s theory of learning is sometimes met with incredulity because Popper claims that there is no transference of knowledge or knowledge elements from outside the individual, neither from the physical environment nor from others. Instead, he claims that we can improve our present theories by discovering their inadequacies.The intent of this article is not to persuade educators to adopt Popper?s approach uncritically to build their professional knowledge. Rather, it presents a discussion on the need for teachers to adopt a critical (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  32. Adam Chmielewski (1995). Filozofia Poppera Analiza Krytyczna.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33. Adam Chmielewski (1994). Sir Karl Popper. Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 12 (4):5-9.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34. Adam J. Chmielewski & Karl R. Popper (1999). The Future is Open: A Conversation with Sir Karl Popper. In I. C. Jarvie & Sandra Pralong (eds.), Popper's Open Society After Fifty Years: The Continuing Relevance of Karl Popper. Routledge
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  35. Roberta Corvi (1996). An Introduction to the Thought of Karl Popper. Routledge.
    This is a comprehensive introduction to the philosophical and political thought of Karl Popper, now available in English. It is divided into three parts, dealing with his biographical data, his works and recurrent themes, and finally his critics. It was approved of by Popper himself as a sympathetic and comprehensive study, and will be ideal to meet the increasing demand for a summary introduction to his work.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  36. Christopher Cowton & Gerhard Zecha (2003). Doing It Right Instead of Twice. Philosophy of Management 3 (2):23-33.
    Fundamental to Sir Karl Poppers oeuvre was the insight that humans err - and that we can learn from our mistakes. Critique is therefore valuable in all human endeavours. Although this stance is most famously seen in Poppers claim that to be scientific a theory or hypothesis has to be falsifiable. Popper adopted a critical approach extensively in his work towards whatever crossed his path. Yet he never developed or suggested a general method of criticism. In this paper we present (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37. Justin Cruickshank (2004). Practical Knowledge and Realism: Linking Andrew Collier on Lay Knowledge to Karl Popper on the Philosophy of Science.'. In Andrew Collier, Margaret Scotford Archer & William Outhwaite (eds.), Defending Objectivity: Essays in Honour of Andrew Collier. Routledge
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38. Norberto Amadeu F. G. Da Cunha (1982). Filosofia E Filosofar Em Karl R. Popper. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 38 (2/3):219 - 252.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. R. D'Amico (1992). Book Reviews : Douglas E. Williams, Truth, Hope, and Power: The Thought of Karl Popper. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1989. Pp. 237, $35.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (2):251-255.
  40. Norberto Amadeu F. G. da Cunha (1982). Filosofia E Filosofar Em Karl R. Popper. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 38 (2):219-252.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. J. Dance (1997). Karl Popper, The Lesson of This Century. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4:376-378.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. J. Dance (1997). Roberta Corvi, An Introduction to the Thought of Karl Popper. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4:376-376.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43. R. M. Davison (1979). Aspects of the Soviet Response to Popper. Studies in East European Thought 20 (2):105-125.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44. A. Dawson (2001). Geoffrey Stokes, Popper: Philosophy, Politics and Scientific Method. Thesis Eleven 65:151-152.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45. Renan Springer De Freitas (1997). Back to Darwin and Popper: Criticism, Migration of Piecemeal Conceptual Schemes, and the Growth of Knowledge. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 27 (2):157-179.
    Popper's thesis that the growth of knowledge lies in the emergence of problems out of criticism and takes place in an autonomous world of products of the human mind (his so-called world-3) raises two questions: (1) Why does criticism lead to new problems, and (2) Why can only a limited number of tentative solutions arise at a given time? I propose the following answer: Criticism entails an overlooked evolutionary world-3 mechanism, namely, the migration of piece meal conceptual schemes from one (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Paulo Eduardo de Oliveira (2010). Natureza e liberdade: a questão ética da posição indeterminista de Karl Popper. Princípios 16 (26):189-209.
    O presente trabalho analisa a perspectiva indeterminista da epistemologia de Karl Popper. A partir da compreensáo unitária do Racionalismo Crítico, como epistemologia e filosofia política, ao mesmo tempo, o artigo mostra em que sentido se pode afirmar que a proposta de Popper revela uma questáo ética de largo alcance e interesse na filosofia contemporânea, sobretudo no que se refere à análise da crise da cientificidade moderna. Palavras-chave: Ética, Indeterminismo, Popper, Racionalismo Crítico.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47. Robert Deltete (2008). John H. Sceski, Popper, Objectivity and the Growth of Knowledge. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 28:432-435.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48. Nikolaj Demjanécuk & Béretislav Fajkus (2002). Kultura a Véedeck'a Racionalita. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. Georg J. W. Dorn (2002). Induktion und Wahrscheinlichkeit. Ein Gedankenaustausch mit Karl Popper. In Edgar Morscher (ed.), Was wir Karl R. Popper und seiner Philosophie verdanken. Zu seinem 100. Geburtstag. Academia Verlag
    Zwischen 1987 und 1994 sandte ich 20 Briefe an Karl Popper. Die meisten betrafen Fragen bezüglich seiner Antiinduktionsbeweise und seiner Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie, einige die organisatorische und inhaltliche Vorbereitung eines Fachgesprächs mit ihm in Kenly am 22. März 1989 (worauf hier nicht eingegangen werden soll), einige schließlich ganz oder in Teilen nicht-fachliche Angelegenheiten (die im vorliegenden Bericht ebenfalls unberücksichtigt bleiben). Von Karl Popper erhielt ich in diesem Zeitraum 10 Briefe. Der bedeutendste ist sein siebter, bestehend aus drei Teilen, geschrieben am 21., 22. (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50. Theodor Ebert (1974). Über Eine Vermeintliche Entdeckung in der Wissenschaftstheorie. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 5 (2):308-316.
    The paper tries to defend the critical rationalism of Popper and Albert against criticisms brought forward by Janich/Kambartel/Mittelstrass in a series of articles entitled: Wissenschaftstheorie als Wissenschaftskritik, Aspekte 1972 - since published as a book. These authors try to overcome the trilemma of infinite regress, circular reasoning and axiomatic foundation which confronts any attempt to base scientific foundations on reasons: they claim that this trilemma is due to an "extremely limited concept of reasoning" which can be overcome by using the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 1457