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  1. Hartley B. Alexander (1905). Quantity, Quality, and the Function of Knowledge. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 2 (17):459-464.
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  2. Gavin Ardley (1967). The Knower and the Known. Philosophical Studies 16:328-332.
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  3. Lynne Rudder Baker (2003). Must Science Validate All Knowledge? In Anthony J. Sanford (ed.), The Nature and Limits of Human Understanding: The 2001 Gifford Lectures at the University of Glasgow (Gifford Lectures, University of Glasgow 2001). T & T Clark (London)
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  4. Dominic J. Balestra (1976). "Knowledge," by Keith Lehrer. Modern Schoolman 53 (2):222-222.
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  5. Dominic J. Balestra (1976). "Precepts, Concepts, and Theoretic Knowledge: A Study in Epistemology," by Harold N. Lee. Modern Schoolman 54 (1):101-102.
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  6. Peter Baumann (2004). Lotteries And Contexts. Erkenntnis 61 (2-3):415-428.
    There are many ordinary propositions we think we know. Almost every ordinary proposition entails some "lottery proposition" which we think we do not know but to which we assign a high probability of being true (for instance: “I will never be a multi-millionaire” entails “I will not win this lottery”). How is this possible - given that some closure principle is true? This problem, also known as “the Lottery puzzle”, has recently provoked a lot of discussion. In this paper I (...)
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  7. Sibajiban Bhattacharyya (1987). Doubt, Belief, and Knowledge. Indian Council of Philosophical Research in Association with Allied Publishers.
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  8. Niels Bohr (1958). Unity of Knowledge. In Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 67--82.
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  9. Quassim Cassam (2009). The Possibility of Knowledge • by Quassim Cassam • Oxford University Press, 2007. X + 256 Pp. £32.00 Cloth: Summary. [REVIEW] Analysis 69 (2):307-309.
    An epistemological how-possible question asks how knowledge, or knowledge of some specific kind, is possible. Familiar epistemological how-possible questions include ‘How is knowledge of the external world possible?’, ‘How is knowledge of other minds possible?’ and ‘How is a priori knowledge possible?’ These are the three questions that I tackle in my book. In each case, I explain how and why the question arises and propose a way of answering it. The main negative claim of the book is that transcendental (...)
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  10. Albert Casullo (2012). Essays on a Priori Knowledge and Justification: Essays. OUP Usa.
    The past twenty-five years have seen a major renewal of interest in the topic of a priori knowledge. In the sixteen essays collected here, which span this entire period, philosopher Albert Casullo documents the complex set of issues motivating the renewed interest, identifies the central epistemological questions, and provides the leading ideas of a unified response to them.
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  11. Albert Casullo, Annotated Bibliography on A Priori Knowledge.
    Contents 1. Introduction 2. General Overviews 3. Textbooks 4. Anthologies 5. Historical Background to the Contemporary Debate 6. General Accounts 7. Mathematical Knowledge 8. Logical Knowledge 9. Intuitions and Conceptual Analysis 10. Modal Knowledge a. Overviews b. Primary Sources 11. Testimonial Knowledge 12. Naturalism 13. Scepticism 14. New Developments..
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  12. Laurent Cesalli & Nadja Germann (2008). Signification and Truth Epistemology at the Crossroads of Semantics and Ontology in Augustine's Early Philosophical Writings. Vivarium 46 (2):123-154.
    This article is about the conception of truth and signification in Augustine's early philosophical writings. In the first, semantic-linguistic part, the gradual shift of Augustine's position towards the Academics is treated closely. It reveals that Augustine develops a notion of sign which, by integrating elements of Stoic epistemology, is suited to function as a transmitter of true knowledge through linguistic expressions. In the second part, both the ontological structure of signified (sensible) things and Augustine's solution to the apparent tautologies of (...)
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  13. Robert D'Amico (1989). Historicism and Knowledge. Routledge.
    A critical account of the case for historicism from Popper to Foucault, this volume, originally published in 1989, shows the viability of an historicist account of knowledge by replying to traditional objections and the need for defenses of realism and reference at the heart of most alternatives to historicism. The book provides insights to those in philosophy as well as literary criticism, intellectual history, history of science, and cultural criticism.
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  14. Wayne Davis & Christoph Jäger (2012). Reliabilism and the Extra Value of Knowledge. Philosophical Studies 157 (1):93-105.
    Goldman and Olsson ( 2009 ) have responded to the common charge that reliabilist theories of knowledge are incapable of accounting for the value knowledge has beyond mere true belief. We examine their “conditional probability solution” in detail, and show that it does not succeed. The conditional probability relation is too weak to support instrumental value, and the specific relation they describe is inessential to the value of knowledge. At best, they have described conditions in which knowledge indicates that additional (...)
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  15. Ezio Di Nucci (2012). Knowing Future Contingents. Logos and Episteme 3 (1):43-50.
    This paper argues that we know the future by applying a recent solution of the problem of future contingents to knowledge attributions about the future. MacFarlane has put forward a version of assessment-context relativism that enables us to assign a truth value 'true' (or 'false') to future contingents such as There Will Be A Sea Battle Tomorrow. Here I argue that the same solution can be applied to knowledge attributions about the future by dismissing three disanalogies between the case of (...)
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  16. James Kern Feibleman (1976). Adaptive Knowing: Epistemology From a Realistic Standpoint. Nijhoff.
    The problem of knowledge.--The acquisition of knowledge.--The assimilation of knowledge.--The deployment of knowledge.--Knowing, doing and being.--Absent objects.--The mind-body problem.--The knowledge of the known.--The subjectivity of a realist.--Activity as a source of knowledge.--On beliefs and believing.--Adaptive responses and the ecosystem.--The reality game.
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  17. Ralph Tyler Flewelling (1923). The Easy Chair of Skepticism. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 4 (4):221.
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  18. Allan Franklin (2007). No Easy Answers: Science and the Pursuit of Knowledge. University of Pittsburgh Press.
    In _No Easy Answers_, Allan Franklin offers an accurate picture of science to both a general reader and to scholars in the humanities and social sciences who may not have any background in physics. Through the examination of nontechnical case studies, he illustrates the various roles that experiment plays in science. He uses examples of unquestioned success, such as the discoveries of the electron and of three types of neutrino, as well as studies that were dead ends, wrong turns, or (...)
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  19. Steve Fuller (2009). The Sociology of Intellectual Life: The Career of the Mind in and Around the Academy. Sage.
    1. The Place of Intellectual Life: The University -- The University as an Institutional Solution to the Problem of Knowledge -- The Alienability of Knowledge in Our So-called Knowledge Society -- The Knowledge Society as Capitalism of the Third Order -- Will the University Survive the Era of Knowledge Management? -- Postmodernism as an Anti-university Movement -- Regaining the University's Critical Edge by Historicizing the Curriculum -- Affirmative Action as a Strategy for Redressing the Balance Between Research and Teaching -- (...)
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  20. Axel Gelfert (2011). Steps to an Ecology of Knowledge: Continuity and Change in the Genealogy of Knowledge. Episteme 8 (1):67-82.
    The present paper argues for a more complete integration between recent "genealogical" approaches to the problem of knowledge and evolutionary accounts of the development of human cognitive capacities and practices. A structural tension is pointed out between, on the one hand, the fact that the explicandum of genealogical stories is a specifically human trait and, on the other hand, the tacit acknowledgment, shared by all contributors to the debate, that human beings have evolved from non-human beings. Since humans differ from (...)
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  21. Julia Haarmann, Toralf Kahlert, Lars Langenberg & Tobias Müller-Prothmann, K.Exchange - a Systematic Approach to Knowledge Transfer of the Aging Workforce.
    Managing knowledge of the aging workforce is a major challenge, particularly to companies in the aerospace industry. Whenever an expert or manager retires or takes up a new position, there is the risk of losing his or her knowledge about what it really needs to fill his/her position. Apart from the risk of losing expert knowledge about administrative or technical issues, there is also the risk of losing distinct, personal social networks which are needed for gathering information or synchronising with (...)
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  22. John Hanging (unknown). No Easy Answers. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 22 (2):160-161.
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  23. Frank J. Hoffman (2013). “Knowledge and Ethics in Early Buddhism” (Zao Qi Fo Jiao Zhong De Dao De). In Li Lian (ed.), Fo Jiao Yu Dang Dai Wen Hua Jian She Xue Shu Yan Tao Hui Lun Wen Ji (The Collected Papers of "Buddhism and Contemporary Cultural Construction" Conference, Xi'an, China). Northwest University Press (Shi Bei Daxue)
  24. Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa (2012). Knowledge Norms and Acting Well. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):49-55.
    I argue that evaluating the knowledge norm of practical reasoning is less straightforward than is often assumed in the literature. In particular, cases in which knowledge is intuitively present, but action is intuitively epistemically unwarranted, provide no traction against the knowledge norm. The knowledge norm indicates what it is appropriately to hold a particular content as a reason for action; it does not provide a theory of what reasons are sufficient for what actions. Absent a general theory about what sorts (...)
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  25. Filosofisch Instifuut (1983). Five Easy Pieces. In Alice G. B. Ter Meulen (ed.), Studies in Modeltheoretic Semantics. Foris Publications 1.
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  26. Elizabeth A. Laidlaw-Johnson (1996). Plato's Epistemology: How Hard is It to Know? Peter Lang Pub..
  27. Steven Luper (2007). The Easy Argument. Acta Analytica 22 (4):321 - 331.
    Suppose Ted is in an ordinary house in good viewing conditions and believes red, his table is red, entirely because he sees his table and its color; he also believes not-white, it is false that his table is white and illuminated by a red light, because not-white is entailed by red. The following three claims about this table case clash, but each seems plausible: 1. Ted’s epistemic position is strong enough for him to know red. 2. Ted cannot know not-white (...)
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  28. Edward H. Madden (1985). Problems of Knowledge. International Studies in Philosophy 17 (1):95-96.
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  29. Peter J. Markie (2005). Easy Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (2):406–416.
    Stewart Cohen has recently presented solutions to two forms of what he calls "The Problem of Easy Knowledge" ("Basic Knowledge and the Problem of Easy Knowledge," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, LXV, 2, September 2002, pp. 309-329). I offer alternative solutions. Like Cohen's, my solutions allow for basic knowledge. Unlike his, they do not require that we distinguish between animal and reflective knowledge, restrict the applicability of closure under known entailments, or deny the ability of basic knowledge to combine with self-knowledge (...)
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  30. Thomas Moorman (1977). What is It Really Like Out There?: Objective Knowing. Atheneum.
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  31. Mina O'Dowd (2000). The Changing Nature of Knowledge: Mapping the Discourse of the Malmö Longitudinal Study, 1939-1995. Stockholms Universitet.
    The concept of knowledge is the topic of this monograph, the purpose of which is to study how it has been represented in educational research literature since 1939. Six texts have been selected, which use the Malmö Longitudinal Study data. These texts span the time period of 1939-1995 and have different foci, such as intelligence, social adjustment, benefits of education, recurrent education and quality of life. Discourse analysis has been used to study the texts. The assumption, guiding the analysis, is (...)
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  32. Rafael Pascual (2010). La pretensión de verdad del cristianismo a la luz del pensamiento de Joseph Ratzinger. Alpha Omega 13 (3):377-391.
    La questione sulla verità del cristianesimo è fondamentale e ineludibile. In essa si trova uno dei filoni fondamentali del pensiero di Joseph Ratzinger – Benedetto XVI. In fondo si trovano coinvolti una serie di argomenti che si possono riassumere nel rapporto tra fede e ragione, tra il Dio della fede e il Dio dei filosofi. Nella visione cristiana ambedue non si contrappongono, ma s’incontrano. La “distinzione mosaica” s’incontra con la “distinzione socratica” . La pretesa di verità del cristianesimo conduce a (...)
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  33. Kenneth Prewitt (2010). Introduction: Limits to Knowledge? No Easy Answer. Social Research: An International Quarterly 77 (3):901-904.
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  34. David Z. Rich (1988). The Dynamics of Knowledge: A Contemporary View. Greenwood Press.
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  35. Mark Joseph Schmid (1942). The Solution is Easy. New York and Cincinnati, Frederick Pustet Co., Inc..
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  36. Nicholas Shackel (2014). The Nought Belief Paradox. Erkenntnis 79 (3):523-529.
    A paradox is presented that the poses new problems for both the truth norm and the knowledge norm of belief.
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  37. Kent Staley (2007). No Easy Answers: Science and the Pursuit of Knowledge. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 40 (3):455-457.
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  38. James van Cleve (2011). Sosa on Easy Knowledge and the Problem of the Criterion. Philosophical Studies 153 (1):19-28.
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  39. Jonathan Weisberg, Indiscriminate Evidence, Easy Knowledge.
    Offers a diagnosis of the easy knowledge problem, according to which easy knowledge is unjustified belief because the inferences that deliver easy knowledge feign evidential support that is not actually there. This diagnosis leads to a rejection of Closure. But, I argue, this rejection of Closure is more plausible than the traditional one endorsed by tracking theorists. I also argue that my diagnosis suggests a general plausibility argument against Closure, since a number of epistemic goods traditionally associated with knowledge do (...)
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  40. Anita Konzelmann Ziv (2011). Bolzanian Knowing: Infallibility, Virtue and Foundational Truth. Synthese 183 (1):27 - 45.
    The paper discusses Bernard Bolzano's epistemological approach to believing and knowing with regard to the epistemic requirements of an axiomatic model of science. It relates Bolzano's notions of believing, knowing and evaluation to notions of infallibility, immediacy and foundational truth. If axiomatic systems require their foundational truths to be infallibly known, this knowledge involves both evaluation of the infallibility of the asserted truth and evaluation of its being foundational. The twofold attempt to examine one's assertions and to do so by (...)
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Knowledge, Misc
  1. John Altmann, Meditations on Moral Philosophy.
    An extensive commentary on moral philosophy that is a renunciation of my previous two essays. This essay promotes the idea that the answer to an objective morality lies in examining moral problems through an epistemic lens.
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  2. M. Cristina Amoretti & Nicla Vassallo (2011). Piccolo Trattato di Epistemologia. Codice Edizioni.
    La discussione generale sulla filosofia della scienza contemporanea è complicata dal numero e dall’eterogeneità delle scienze, mentre lo studio di temi specifici porta inevitabilmente a dissertazioni specialistiche che mancano nel dare ragione della trama di senso sottostante. Questo Piccolo trattato di epistemologia intende occupare uno spazio vuoto, proponendo alcuni temi chiave per la comprensione dei meccanismi alla base della conoscenza scientifica: i rapporti tra filosofia e scienze, siano esse naturali o umane; la complessa relazione tra fatti e valori; la distinzione (...)
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  3. Luis M. Augusto (2010). Accommodating Unconscious Beliefs. Princípios 17 (28):129-154.
    More often than not, theories of belief and of belief ascription restrict themselves to conscious beliefs, thus obliterating a vast part of our mental life and offering extremely incomplete, unrealistic theories. Indeed, conscious beliefs are the exception, not the rule, as far as human doxastic states are concerned, and a naturalistic, realistic theory of knowledge that aspires to completeness has to take unconscious beliefs into consideration. This paper is the elaboration of such a theory of belief.
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  4. Maria Baghramian & Adam Carter, "Relativism", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Relativism has been, in its various guises, both one of the most popular and most reviled philosophical doctrines of our time. Defenders see it as a harbinger of tolerance and the only ethical and epistemic stance worthy of the open-minded and tolerant. Detractors dismiss it for its alleged incoherence and uncritical intellectual permissiveness. Debates about relativism permeate the whole spectrum of philosophical sub-disciplines. From ethics to epistemology, science to religion, political theory to ontology, theories of meaning and even (...)
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  5. Peter Baumann (2015 (3.ed.)). Erkenntnistheorie. Metzler.
    An introduction to epistemology with a focus on different accounts of knowledge, scepticism, belief, truth, rationality and justification, the sources of knowledge.
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  6. Peter Baumann (2014). A Contradiction for Contextualism? In Franck Lihoreau & Manuel Rebuschi (eds.), Epistemology, Context, and Formalism. Springer 49-57.
    This discusses a problem for epistemic contextualism having to do with the possibility of evaluating knowledge attributions made in other contexts.
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  7. Peter Baumann (2013). Gettier, Wissen, Zufall. In Gerhard Ernst & Lisa Marani (eds.), Das Gettierproblem. Eine Bilanz nach 50 Jahren. Mentis 9-27.
    This is a discussion of the Gettier problem and its relation to epistemic luck.
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  8. Peter Baumann (2012). Knowing About Other Contexts. In Christoph Jäger & Winfried Löffler (eds.), Epistemology: Contexts, Values, Disagreement. Ontos 63-79.
    This discusses and proposes a solution to the factivity problem for contextualism.
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  9. Peter Baumann (2012). Knowledge, Practical Reasoning and Action. Logos and Episteme 3:7-26.
    Is knowledge necessary or sufficient or both necessary and sufficient for acceptable practical reasoning and rational action? Several authors (e.g., Williamson, Hawthorne, and Stanley) have recently argued that the answer to these questions is positive. In this paper I present several objections against this view (both in its basic form as well in more developed forms). I also offer a sketch of an alternative view: What matters for the acceptability of practical reasoning in at least many cases (and in all (...)
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  10. Peter Baumann (2012). Response to Schaffer's Reply. In Stefan Toiksdorf (ed.), Conceptions of Knowledge. De Gruyter 425-431.
    This is a response to Jonathan Schaffer's reply to my criticism of contrastivism.
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