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Summary There is no single development of metaphysics and epistemology in Latin America but rather a vast number of theories in both areas which reflect the diversity of traditions cultivated there since philosophy acquired its "normal" status in the twentieth century. Many Latin Americans have been drawn to skepticism about the very existence of philosophy in the subcontinent in light of the tendency there to adopt every new philosophical trend in these areas without ever producing any significant contribution to each adopted trend.
Key works Metaphysics and epistemology in Latin America have been cultivated within traditions as varied as analytic philosophy, phenomenology, Marxism, Thomism, existentialism, French structuralism, and postmodernism.
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  1. Horacio Arló-Costa & Eduardo Fermé (2010). Formal Epistemology and Logic. In Susana Nuccetelli, Ofelia Schutte & Otávio Bueno (eds.), A Companion to Latin American Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  2. Jesús P. Zamora Bonilla (1995). Moulines Y El Realismo. Theoria 10 (1):193-208.
    Moulines’ arguments against several types of realism in his book Pluralidad y recursion are considered and a defence of scientific realism consistent with structuralism is offered as a plausible answer to Moulines’ criticisms.
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  3. Jesús P. Zamora Bonilla (1995). Moulines y el realismo. Theoria 10 (1):193-208.
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  4. Mario Bunge, Systemism: The Alternative to Individualism and Holism.
    Three radical worldviews and research approaches are salient in social studies: individualism, holism, and systemism. Individualism focuses on the composition of social systems, whereas holism focuses on their structure. Neither of them is adequate, one because all individuals are interrelated and two because there are no relations without relata. The only cogent and viable alternative is systemism, according to which everything is either a system or a component of a system, and every system has peculiar (emergent) properties that its components (...)
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  5. Mario Bunge (2009). Advantages and Limits of Naturalism. In John R. Shook & Paul Kurtz (eds.), The Future of Naturalism. Humanity Books.
  6. Mario Bunge (2003). The Centrality of Truth. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 81 (1):233-241.
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  7. Mario Bunge (1985). ¿Grados de Existencia O de Abstracción? Theoria 1 (2):547-549.
    A simplification of the notion of degree of existence, introduced by María Manzano, is proposed. And it is suggested that actually it exactifies a notion of degree of abstraction, not of existence.
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  8. Mario Bunge (1985). ¿Qué Es Un Individuo Concreto? Theoria 1 (1):121-128.
    The paper investigates the problems whether a concrete individual can be defined as a set or be characterized by an abstract theory. In particular, Jesês Mosterín’s objection to a theory of things proposed by the present author is discussed. Also, the view of scientific theories held by Sneed, and adopted by Mosterln, is analyzed. It is concluded that any adequate description of a concrete individual calls for more than a mathematical formalism.
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  9. Mario Bunge (1984). Philosophical Problems in Linguistics. Erkenntnis 21 (2):107 - 173.
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  10. Mario Bunge (1977). Emergence and the Mind. Neuroscience 2:501-9.
  11. Mario Bunge (1974). Les présupposés et les produits métaphysiques de la science et de la technique contemporaines. Dialogue 13 (03):443-453.
  12. Mario Bunge (1971). Is Scientific Metaphysics Possible? Journal of Philosophy 68 (17):507-520.
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  13. Mario Bunge (1971). "Scientific Metaphysics": Addenda Et Corrigenda. Journal of Philosophy 68 (23):876.
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  14. Mario Bunge (1971). A New Look at Definite Descriptions. Kagaku Tetsugaku 4:131-146.
  15. Mario Bunge (1966). On Null Individuals. Journal of Philosophy 63 (24):776-778.
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  16. Mario Bunge (1962). The Complexity of Simplicity. Journal of Philosophy 59 (5):113-135.
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  17. Mario Bunge (1962). Cosmology and Magic. The Monist 47 (1):116-141.
  18. Mario Bunge (1961). The Weight of Simplicity in the Construction and Assaying of Scientific Theories. Philosophy of Science 28 (2):120-149.
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  19. Mario Bunge (1961). Analyticity Redefined. Mind 70 (278):239-245.
  20. Mario Bunge (1960). Levels: A Semantical Preliminary. Review of Metaphysics 13 (3):396 - 406.
  21. Mario Bunge (1954). New Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 15 (2):192-199.
  22. Mario Augusto Bunge (1999). Dictionary of Philosophy. Prometheus Books.
  23. Mario Augusto Bunge (1980). The Mind-Body Problem: A Psychobiological Approach. Pergamon Press.
  24. Mario Augusto Bunge (1977). Ontology. Reidel.
    1. The furniture of the world.--2. A world of systems.
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  25. Claudio Canaparo (2009). Geo-Epistemology: Latin America and the Location of Knowledge. Peter Lang.
    This book is about the formation and development of Latin America as name, idea and concept, as well as the wider concepts of location, knowledge and the ...
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  26. Eleonora Cresto (2010). Epistemology. In Susana Nuccetelli, Ofelia Schutte & Otávio Bueno (eds.), A Companion to Latin American Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  27. R. Cross (2007). Univocity and Mystery. In Roberto Hofmeister Pich (ed.), New Essays on Metaphysics as "Scientia Transcendens": Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Medieval Philosophy, Held at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande Do Sul (Pucrs), Porto Alegre/Brazil, 15-18 August 2006. Fédération Internationale des Instituts d'Études Médiévales.
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  28. Marcelo Dascal (ed.) (1991). Cultural Relativism and Philosophy: North and Latin American Perspectives. E.J. Brill.
    To what extent does cultural diversity affect the activity and the products of philosophizing?
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  29. Alejandro Estrella González (2011). Por una historia comparada de la filosofía: la formación del campo filosófico español y mexicano. Daimon 53:9-27.
    Este artículo pretende explorar la posibilidad de realizar un historia comparada de la filosofía. Para ello se estudian los casos de la filosofía mexicana y española durante el periodo que abarca el último tercio del siglo XIX y el primero del XX. La metodología de trabajo que se sigue para llevar a cabo esta comparativa se inspira en las aportaciones de diversas propuestas de la sociología de la filosofía y la teoría de las generaciones de Karl Mannheim. Finalmente se evaluan (...)
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  30. Fernando Escalante Gonzalbo (1998). Enrique Florescano, "Etnia, Estado y nación. Ensayo sobre las identidades colectivas en México". Revista Internacional de Filosofía Política 12:185-188.
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  31. Jorge J. E. Gracia (ed.) (1986). Latin American Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Man, Values, and the Search for Philosophical Identity. Prometheus Books.
  32. Conrad T. Gromada (2004). An Appreciation and a Critique in a Discussion of On Being Human: U.S. Hispanic and Rahnerian Perspectives by Miguel H. Díaz. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Theology 16 (1):141-150.
    In the context of acknowledging the contrast between Marian devotional life and eucharistic theology, this response to Díaz’s book makes several connections between the two, including a glimpse into Rahner’s own devotional piety. While affirming and approving the overall content of this study by Díaz, the respondent uses a more recent article by Rahner to suggest four topics that might have enhanced the book: 1) how Marian devotion is founded on the doctrine of the communion of the saints; 2) how (...)
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  33. John Haddox (1992). Latin American Personalist. The Personalist Forum 8:109-118.
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  34. John H. Haddox (1971). Antonio Caso, Philosopher of Mexico. Austin,University of Texas Press.
  35. John H. Haddox (1964). Philosophy with a Mexican Perspective. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (4):580-586.
  36. Jack J. Himelblau (1979). Alejandro O. Deústua: Philosophy in Defense of Man. University Presses of Florida.
  37. Guillermo Hurtado (2003). ¿Saber Sin Verdad? Objeciones a Un Argumento de Villoro (Knowledge Without Truth? Objections to an Argument From Villoro). Critica 35 (103):121 - 134.
    Se examina uno de los argumentos principales de Creer, saber, conocer en contra de la inclusión de la noción de verdad en la definición de saber. Se sostiene que el argumento falla, entre otras razones, porque concede al escéptico una premisa falsa acerca de las condiciones de aplicabilidad del verbo "saber". /// One of the main arguments of Creer, saber, conocer against the inclusion of the notion of truth in the definition of knowledge is examined. It is claimed that the (...)
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  38. Guillermo Hurtado (2000). Por qué no soy falibilista. Critica 32 (96):59 - 97.
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  39. Guillermo Hurtado (1998). Realismo, Relativismo E Irrealismo. Critica 30 (90):23 - 46.
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  40. Guillermo Hurtado (1996). El (supuesto) trilema del saber. Critica 28 (83):131 - 136.
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  41. Guillermo Hurtado (1994). Subjetividad y privacidad. Critica 26 (76/77):185 - 203.
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  42. Guillermo Hurtado (1989). Ward on Davidson's Refutation of Scepticism. Critica 21 (63):75 - 81.
  43. Andrew Irvine (2011). An Ontological Critique of the Trans-Ontology of Enrique Dussel. Sophia 50 (4):603-624.
    Enrique Dussel has developed a sweeping philosophical critique of the eurocentricity of Western habits of thought and action, with the aim of articulating an ‘ethics of liberation’ that takes the part distinctively of ‘the victims’ of the world system. The heart of Dussel’s effort is an ostensibly new method, ‘analectic’ or ‘anadialectic,’ which comes about through the ‘revelation’ of the other, and goes beyond the self-enclosure that, Dussel asserts, typifies dialectic in Western ontology. Thus, he takes his position to have (...)
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  44. P. G. Leite Júnior (2007). Univocity of Being in William of Ockham's Thought: A First Approach. In Roberto Hofmeister Pich (ed.), New Essays on Metaphysics as "Scientia Transcendens": Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Medieval Philosophy, Held at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande Do Sul (Pucrs), Porto Alegre/Brazil, 15-18 August 2006. Fédération Internationale des Instituts d'Études Médiévales.
  45. S. Knuuttila (2007). Modality as Alternativeness in John Duns Scotus. In Roberto Hofmeister Pich (ed.), New Essays on Metaphysics as "Scientia Transcendens": Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Medieval Philosophy, Held at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande Do Sul (Pucrs), Porto Alegre/Brazil, 15-18 August 2006. Fédération Internationale des Instituts d'Études Médiévales.
  46. Miguel León Portilla & A. Robert Caponigri (eds.) (1966). Major Trends in Mexican Philosophy. Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Press.
  47. María Lugones (2003). Pilgrimages/Peregrinajes: Theorizing Oppression Against Mulptiple Oppressions. Lantham.
  48. Richard Lynn, Eduardo Backhoff & L. A. Contreras (2005). Ethnic and Racial Differences on the Standard Progressive Matrices in Mexico. Journal of Biosocial Science 37 (1):107-113.
    Raven10 years in Mexico. The mean IQs in relation to a British mean of 100 obtained from the 1979 British standardization sample and adjusted for the estimated subsequent increase were: 98·0 for whites, 94·3 for Mestizos and 83·3 for Native Mexican Indians.
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  49. Dedier Norberto Marquiegui (2010). Pluralismo social Y cultural, crisol de razas Y multiculturalismo en el estudio de las migraciones masivas a la argentina: Una mirada histórica retrospectiva. Astrolabio: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 2.
    PLURALISMO SOCIAL Y CULTURAL, CRISOL DE RAZAS Y MULTICULTURALISMO EN EL ESTUDIO DE LAS MIGRACIONES MASIVAS A LA ARGENTINA: UNA MIRADA HISTÓRICA RETROSPECTIVA.
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  50. Bernard Mayo (1954). The Nature of the Self. By Risieri Frondizi. (Yale University Press. 1953. London: Geoffrey Cumberlege, Oxford University Press. Pp. Xii + 210. Price $4.). [REVIEW] Philosophy 29 (110):268-.
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