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Summary Logic and philosophy of science and mathematics did not develop in Latin American philosophy until the second half of the twentieth century. At present, they are cultivated mostly by philosophers working in the analytic tradition. But it is not uncommon to find interest in these areas among some Thomists and historians of philosophy. 
Key works The greatest contribution to logic from Latin America is paraconsistent logic, first outlined by Peruvian Francisco Miro´ Quesada and later developed by the Brazilian Newton da Costa and his collaborators. Argentine Carlos Alchourron has made a contribution to epistemology through his original theory of belief revision, developed with colleagues from outside Latin America. Noteworthy contributions to philosophy of science include Ulises C. Moulines's structuralism in science, Mario Bunge's scientific realism, and Roberto Torretti’s historical approach to the foundations of physics.
Introductions Introductory sources in this category include Bunge 1963, Bunge 1975, Moulines 1976, Moulines 1980, Moulines 2010, Arlo-Costa 2000, da Costa et al 2007, and Costdaa et al 1997
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  1. Joseph Agassi (1972). The Interface of Philosophy and Physics. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 39 (2):263 - 265.
  2. Evandro Agazzi & Alberto Cordero (eds.) (1991). Philosophy and the Origin and Evolution of the Universe. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  3. Carlos E. Alchourrón (1996). Detachment and Defeasibility in Deontic Logic. Studia Logica 57 (1):5 - 18.
    The purpose of the paper is to present a logical framework that allow to formalize a kind of prima facie duties, defeasible conditional duties, indefeasible conditional duties and actual (indefeasible) duties, as well as to show their logical interconnections.
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  4. Carlos E. Alchourron (1996). On Law and Logic. Ratio Juris 9 (4):331-348.
  5. Carlos E. Alchourrón (1991). Conflicts of Norms and the Revision of Normative Systems. Law and Philosophy 10 (4):413 - 425.
  6. Carlos E. Alchourrón (1987). On the Philosophical Adequacy of Set Theories. Theoria 2 (2):567-574.
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  7. Carlos E. Alchourrón (1981). Prescripciones y normas: la teoría de Castañeda. Crítica 13 (38):3 - 27.
  8. Carlos E. Alchourrón (1972). The Intuitive Background of Normative Legal Discourse and its Formalization. Journal of Philosophical Logic 1 (3/4):447 - 463.
  9. Carlos E. Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors & David Makinson (1985). On the Logic of Theory Change: Partial Meet Contraction and Revision Functions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (2):510-530.
    This paper extends earlier work by its authors on formal aspects of the processes of contracting a theory to eliminate a proposition and revising a theory to introduce a proposition. In the course of the earlier work, Gardenfors developed general postulates of a more or less equational nature for such processes, whilst Alchourron and Makinson studied the particular case of contraction functions that are maximal, in the sense of yielding a maximal subset of the theory (or alternatively, of one of (...)
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  10. Carlos E. Alchourrón & David Makinson (1986). Maps Between Some Different Kinds of Contraction Function: The Finite Case. Studia Logica 45 (2):187 - 198.
    In some recent papers, the authors and Peter Gärdenfors have defined and studied two different kinds of formal operation, conceived as possible representations of the intuitive process of contracting a theory to eliminate a proposition. These are partial meet contraction (including as limiting cases full meet contraction and maxichoice contraction) and safe contraction. It is known, via the representation theorem for the former, that every safe contraction operation over a theory is a partial meet contraction over that theory. The purpose (...)
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  11. Carlos E. Alchourrón & David Makinson (1985). On the Logic of Theory Change: Safe Contraction. Studia Logica 44 (4):405 - 422.
    This paper is concerned with formal aspects of the logic of theory change, and in particular with the process of shrinking or contracting a theory to eliminate a proposition. It continues work in the area by the authors and Peter Gärdenfors. The paper defines a notion of safe contraction of a set of propositions, shows that it satisfies the Gärdenfors postulates for contraction and thus can be represented as a partial meet contraction, and studies its properties both in general and (...)
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  12. Carlos E. Alchourron & David Makinson (1982). On the Logic of Theory Change: Contraction Functions and Their Associated Revision Functions. Theoria 48 (1):14-37.
  13. Carlos E. Alchourron & Antonio A. Martino (1990). Logic Without Truth. Ratio Juris 3 (1):46-67.
  14. Carlos E. Alchourron & Antonio A. Martino (1987). Lógica Sin Verdad. Theoria 3 (1):7-43.
    1. EI dilema de Jørgensen. 2. La salución propuesta. 3. Breve historia de un prejudicio filosófico. 4. Normas sin lógica (o los precios ontológicos). 4.1. Imperativos sin lógica. 4.2. Normas y proposicienesnormativas. 4.3. Proposiciones normativas y normas verdaderas. 4.4. Mundos posibles. 4.5. Validez e invalidez. 4.6. La racionalidad del legislador. 5. La noción abstracta, sintáctica y semántica de consecuencia. 5.1. La noción abstracta de consecuencia. 5.2. La noción sintáctica de consecuencia. 5.3. La noción semántica de consecuencia. 5.4. EI sentido dado (...)
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  15. Ravel Apostol (1985). About Mario Bunge's 'a Critical Examination of Dialectics'. Studies in East European Thought 29 (2):89-136.
  16. Lourdes Arana & José Luis Lujan Lopez (2010). Aguirre, javier; iñaki ceberio Y Oscar González gilmas (eds.)(2009). Racionali-dad, visión, imagen. Madrid: Plaza Y Valdés. Albornoz, mario; álvaro marchesi ullastres, Lourdes Arana Uli (coords.)(2009). Cultura científica en iberoamérica. Encuesta en grandes núcleos urbanos. Madrid: Fecyt, oei, ricyt. [REVIEW] Theoria 67:117.
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  17. Horacio Arló-Costa & Eduardo Fermé (2010). Formal Epistemology and Logic. In Susana Nuccetelli, Ofelia Schutte & Otávio Bueno (eds.), A Companion to Latin American Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  18. Horacio Arlo-Costa & Arthur Paul Pedersen, Social Norms, Rational Choice and Belief Change.
    This article elaborates on foundational issues in the social sciences and their impact on the contemporary theory of belief revision. Recent work in the foundations of economics has focused on the role external social norms play in choice. Amartya Sen has argued in [Sen93] that the traditional rationalizability approach used in the theory of rational choice has serious problems accommodating the role of social norms. Sen's more recent work [Sen96, Sen97] proposes how one might represent social norms in the theory (...)
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  19. Ayda I. Arruda, Xavier Caicedo, Rolando Chuaqui & Newton C. A. Costdaa (1983). Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic: Bogotá, Colombia, 1981. Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (3):884-892.
  20. Ayda I. Arruda, Xavier Caicedo, Rolando Chuaqui & Newton C. A. da Costa (1983). Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic: Bogotá, Colombia, 1981. Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (3):884 - 892.
  21. Ayda I. Arruda, R. Chuaqui & Newton C. A. Costdaa (eds.) (1980). Mathematical Logic in Latin America: Proceedings of the Iv Latin American Symposium on Mathematical Logic Held in Santiago, December 1978. Sole Distributors for the U.S.A. And Canada, Elsevier North-Holland.
    (or not oveA-complete.) . Let * be a unary operator defined on the set F of formulas of the language £ (ie, if A is a formula of £, then *A is also a ...
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  22. Ayda I. Arruda, Newton C. A. Costdaa & R. Chuaqui (eds.) (1977). Non-Classical Logics, Model Theory, and Computability: Proceedings of the Third Latin-American Symposium on Mathematical Logic, Campinas, Brazil, July 11-17, 1976. [REVIEW] Sale Distributors for the U.S.A. And Canada, Elsevier/North-Holland.
  23. Ayda I. Arruda, Francisco Miro Quesada, Newton C. A. Da Costa & Rolando Chuaqui (1978). Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic: Campinas, Brazil 1976. Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (2):352-364.
  24. Ayda I. Arruda, Francisco Miró Quesada, Newton C. A. Da Costa & Rolando Chuaqui (1978). Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic: Campinas, Brazil 1976. Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (2):352 - 364.
  25. Jody Azzouni & Otavio Bueno, Critical Studies/Book Reviews 319.
    Ask a philosopher what a proof is, and you’re likely to get an answer hii empaszng one or another regimentationl of that notion in terms of a finite sequence of formalized statements, each of which is either an axiom or is derived from an axiom by certain inference rules. (Wecan call this the formal conception of proof) Ask a mathematician what a proof is, and you will rbbl poay get a different-looking answer. Instead of stressing a partic- l uar regimented (...)
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  26. Wolfgang Balzer & C. Ulises Moulines (1980). On Theoreticity. Synthese 44 (3):467 - 494.
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  27. Jc Beall & Otávio Bueno (2002). The Simple Liar Without Bivalence? Analysis 62 (273):22–26.
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  28. Mauricio Beuchot (2006). Ciencia y Filosofía En México En El Siglo Xx. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Ciencia y filosofía en Arturo Rosenblueth -- Algunos temas filosóficos de Antonio Gómez Robledo -- Leopoldo Zea y el problema de la filosofía latinoamericana -- Juan Hernández Luna y la historiografía de la filosofía en el México colonial -- Bernabé Navarro, filósofo -- Ontología y poesía en Ramón Xirau -- José Rubén Sanabria, un existencialista mexicano -- Fernando Salmerón y la filosofía -- Individuos y universales en Adolfo García Díaz -- Abelardo Villegas y los derechos humanos -- Aspectos del filosofar (...)
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  29. Mauricio Beuchot (2006). Lógica y Metafísica En la Nueva España. Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas.
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  30. Jeffrey Bub (1968). Book Review:Quantum Theory and Reality Mario Bunge. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 35 (4):425-.
  31. O. Bueno (1997). Empirical Adequacy: A Partial Structures Approach. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (4):585-610.
    Based on da Costa's and French's notions of partial structures and pragmatic truth, this paper examines two possible characterizations of the concept of empirical adequacy, one depending on the notion of partial isomorphism, the other on the hierarchy of partial models of phenomena, and both compatible with an empiricist view. These formulations can then be employed to illuminate certain aspects of scientific practice.
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  32. O. Bueno & M. Colyvan (2003). Yablo's Paradox and Referring to Infinite Objects. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (3):402 – 412.
    The blame for the semantic and set-theoretic paradoxes is often placed on self-reference and circularity. Some years ago, Yablo [1985; 1993] challenged this diagnosis, by producing a paradox that's liar-like but does not seem to involve circularity. But is Yablo's paradox really non-circular? In a recent paper, Beall [2001] has suggested that there are no means available to refer to Yablo's paradox without invoking descriptions, and since Priest [1997] has shown that any such description is circular, Beall concludes that Yablo's (...)
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  33. O. Bueno & S. French (2012). Can Mathematics Explain Physical Phenomena? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (1):85-113.
    Batterman ([2010]) raises a number of concerns for the inferential conception of the applicability of mathematics advocated by Bueno and Colyvan ([2011]). Here, we distinguish the various concerns, and indicate how they can be assuaged by paying attention to the nature of the mappings involved and emphasizing the significance of interpretation in this context. We also indicate how this conception can accommodate the examples that Batterman draws upon in his critique. Our conclusion is that ‘asymptotic reasoning’ can be straightforwardly accommodated (...)
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  34. O. Bueno & S. French (2000). Review. An Essay on Contraction. A Fuhrmann. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (3):513-517.
  35. Otavio Bueno, Outline of a Paraconsistent Category Theory.
    The aim of this paper is two-fold: (1) To contribute to a better knowledge of the method of the Argentinean mathematicians Lia Oubifia and Jorge Bosch to formulate category theory independently of set theory. This method suggests a new ontology of mathematical objects, and has a profound philosophical significance (the underlying logic of the resulting category theory is classical iirst—order predicate calculus with equality). (2) To show in outline how the Oubina-Bosch theory can be modified to give rise to a (...)
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  36. Otávio Bueno, Book Symposium.
    Relativism and scepticism are often taken to be incompatible doctrines. After all, the relativist typically attempts to argue that there are no universal standards of assessment between different conceptual schemes – hence the slogan: everything is relative. The sceptic, in turn, is often portrayed as defending the view according to which knowledge is impossible – and thus we cannot even know that the relativist’s claim is true. Despite their incompatibility, both views are taken to be wrong, and for similar self-refuting (...)
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  37. Otávio Bueno (2012). Nominalism and the Application of Mathematics. Metascience 21 (2):301-304.
    Nominalism and the application of mathematics Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-012-9653-6 Authors Otávio Bueno, Department of Philosophy, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  38. Otávio Bueno (2011). When Physics and Biology Meet: The Nanoscale Case. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (2):180-189.
  39. Otávio Bueno (2011). An Inferential Conception of the Application of Mathematics. Noûs 45 (2):345 - 374.
    A number of people have recently argued for a structural approach to accounting for the applications of mathematics. Such an approach has been called "the mapping account". According to this view, the applicability of mathematics is fully accounted for by appreciating the relevant structural similarities between the empirical system under study and the mathematics used in the investigation ofthat system. This account of applications requires the truth of applied mathematical assertions, but it does not require the existence of mathematical objects. (...)
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  40. Otávio Bueno (2010). Structuralism and Information. Metaphilosophy 41 (3):365-379.
    Abstract: According to Luciano Floridi (2008) , informational structural realism provides a framework to reconcile the two main versions of realism about structure: the epistemic formulation (according to which all we can know is structure) and the ontic version (according to which structure is all there is). The reconciliation is achieved by introducing suitable levels of abstraction and by articulating a conception of structural objects in information-theoretic terms. In this essay, I argue that the proposed reconciliation works at the expense (...)
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  41. Otávio Bueno (2010). Hetherington, Stephen, Ed., Epistemology Futures , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2006, X + 241, Us$54.00 (Cloth). Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):181 – 183.
  42. Otávio Bueno (2010). A Defense of Second-Order Logic. Axiomathes 20 (2-3):365-383.
    Second-order logic has a number of attractive features, in particular the strong expressive resources it offers, and the possibility of articulating categorical mathematical theories (such as arithmetic and analysis). But it also has its costs. Five major charges have been launched against second-order logic: (1) It is not axiomatizable; as opposed to first-order logic, it is inherently incomplete. (2) It also has several semantics, and there is no criterion to choose between them (Putnam, J Symbol Logic 45:464–482, 1980 ). Therefore, (...)
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  43. Otávio Bueno (2010). Models and Scientific Representations. In P. D. Magnus & Jacob Busch (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Science. Palgrave Macmillan. 94--111.
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  44. Otávio Bueno (2009). Functional Beauty: Some Applications, Some Worries. Philosophical Books 50 (1):47-54.
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  45. Otavio Bueno (2009). Fitch's Paradox and the Philosophy of Mathematics. In Joe Salerno (ed.), New Essays on the Knowability Paradox. Oxford University Press.
  46. Otávio Bueno (2009). Sosa on Skepticism. Metaphilosophy 40 (2):195-202.
    Abstract: Ernest Sosa has recently articulated an insightful response to skepticism and, in particular, to the dream argument. The response relies on two independent moves. First, Sosa offers the imagination model of dreaming according to which no assertions are ever made in dreams and no beliefs are involved there. As a result, it is possible to distinguish dreaming from being awake, and the dream argument is blocked. Second, Sosa develops a virtue epistemology according to which in appropriately normal conditions our (...)
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  47. Otávio Bueno (2008). Relativism and Scepticism. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (2):247-254.
  48. Otávio Bueno (2008). Truth and Proof. Manuscrito 31 (1).
    Current versions of nominalism in the philosophy of mathematics face a significant problem to understand mathematical knowledge. They are unable to characterize mathematical knowledge as knowledge of the objects mathematical theories are taken to be about. Oswaldo Chateaubriand’s insightful reformulation of Platonism (Chateaubriand 2005) avoids this problem by advancing a broader conception of knowledge as justified truth beyond a reasonable doubt, and by introducing a suitable characterization of logical form in which the relevant mathematical facts play an important role in (...)
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  49. Otávio Bueno (2006). Representation at the Nanoscale. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):617-628.
    In this paper, I provide an account of scientific representation that makes sense of the notion both at the nanoscale and at the quantum level: the partial mappings account. The account offers an extension of a proposal developed by R. I. G. Hughes in terms of denotation, demonstration, and interpretation (DDI). I first argue that the DDI account needs some amendments to accommodate representation of nano and quantum phenomena. I then introduce a generalized framework with the notions of unsharp denotation, (...)
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  50. Otavio Bueno (2006). Why Inconsistency is Not Hell : Making Room for Inconsistency in Science. In Erik J. Olsson (ed.), Knowledge and Inquiry: Essays on the Pragmatism of Isaac Levi. Cambridge University Press. 70.
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1 — 50 / 279