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Summary In Latin America, ethics is one of the oldest disciplines and has developed so closely connected to social and political philosophy, that any attempt at differentiating these areas is difficult. It has concerned mostly normative general and applied ethics. The ethical implications of various theories of human rights and Hispanic identity are recurrent topics in Latin American normative ethics,and have attracted considerable attention within both academic and non-academic circles. Environmental ethics, bioethics and business ethics are the main focus in  applied ethics.
Introductions For introductory articles to ethics in Latin America, see the articles by Pablo Navarro and Eduardo Rivera Lopez in Nuccetelli 2009
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Latin American Philosophy: Ethics
  1. Carlos E. Alchourrón (1996). Detachment and Defeasibility in Deontic Logic. Studia Logica 57 (1):5 - 18.
    The purpose of the paper is to present a logical framework that allow to formalize a kind of prima facie duties, defeasible conditional duties, indefeasible conditional duties and actual (indefeasible) duties, as well as to show their logical interconnections.
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  2. Carlos E. Alchourrón (1981). Prescripciones y normas: la teoría de Castañeda. Crítica 13 (38):3 - 27.
  3. Gina Alvarado Merino (ed.) (2008). Gestión Ambiental y Conflicto Social En América Latina. Clacso.
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  4. Jesús Alvarado (2009). Fair Trade in Mexico and Abroad: An Alternative to the Walmartopia? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):301 - 317.
    Fair trade is an ethical alternative to neoliberal market practices. This article examines the development of the fair trade movement, both in Mexico and abroad, beginning with the experience of UCIRI (Unión de Comunidades Indígenas de la Región del Istmo – Union of Indigenous Communities of the Isthmus Region), an association of small coffee growers in Mexico and a main actor in the creation of the first fair trade seal in the world, Max Havelaar, in 1988. Future success of the (...)
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  5. Karl-Otto Apel & Eduardo Mendieta (1996). Discourse Ethics' Before the Challenge of 'Liberation Philosophy. Philosophy and Social Criticism 22 (2):1-25.
  6. M. Cecilia Arruda (1997). Business Ethics in Latin America. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (14):1597-1603.
    Business ethics is a relatively new topic of academic discussion in Latin America. Corruption and impunity came to be serious moral diseases in the region, probably as a result of a long period of dictatorship in most countries. Low ethical standards in the politics have had deep impact on individuals, organizations and economic systems. Excessive consumption, materialism and selfishness, in contrast with real poverty, have been responsible for a sloppiness in attitudes and principles in many Latin American countries. Even though (...)
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  7. Martha Palacio Avendaño (2005). Ética filosófica en Colombia. 1990-2001. Astrolabio: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 1:28.
    El siguiente artículo presenta las conclusiones de la investigación realizada sobre la ética filosófica en la última década del siglo XX en Colombia. Dentro del proyecto investigativo de la Facultad de Filosofía de la Universidad Santo Tomás de Bogotá, Colombia, orientado al estudio y análisis de la historia de las ideas en América latina y Colombia, la investigación llevada a cabo buscó definir y aclarar el lugar que ocupa la ética filosófica en la historia de las ideas en Colombia. Para (...)
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  8. Zbigniew Bańkowski & J. Corvera Bernardelli (eds.) (1981). Medical Ethics and Medical Education: Proceedings of the Xivth Round Table Conference, Mexico City, Mexico, 1-3 December 1980. [REVIEW] Who Publications Centre [Distributor].
  9. Gustavo Barboza & Sandra Trejos (2009). Micro Credit in Chiapas, México: Poverty Reduction Through Group Lending. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):283 - 299.
    Micro Credit (MC) programs lend money to poor borrowers using innovative mechanisms such as group lending under joint liability while successfully accounting for the presence of asymmetric information in underdeveloped financial markets. MC programs have achieved what the conventional financial institutions and the government have not been able to: lend to the poor, impressive loan recuperation, and a positive impact in poverty reduction. This article analyzes the performance of ALSOL, an MC program in Chiapas, México, for 2151 participants in urban (...)
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  10. John H. Barnett (1991). The American Executive and Colombian Violence: Social Relatedness and Business Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 10 (11):853 - 861.
    Three models of the response of American managers both to the violence of Colombian society and to the demands made by the Colombian narcotrafficker are identified: (1) conflict, (2) compartment, and (3) complementarity. The foundations of the models and their managerial consequences are decribed. Finally, the concepts underlying complementarity lead to social relatedness, both a new model of the business and society relationship and a guide for business ethics.
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  11. S. Bautista & Juan José (2007). Hacia Una Crítica Ética Del Pensamiento Latinoamericano: Introducción Al Pensamiento Crítico de Franz J. Hinkelammert. Fundación Ipda.
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  12. Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham & Jeanne H. Yamamura (2003). Business Ethics in Brazil and the U.S.: A Comparative Investigation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 42 (3):267 - 279.
    In this comparative survey of 126 Brazilian and U.S. business professionals, we explore the effect of national culture on ethical decision-making within the context of business. Using Reidenbach and Robin''s (1988) multi-criteria ethics instrument, we examined how these two countries'' differences on Hofstede''s individualism/collectivism dimension are related to the manner in which business practitioners make ethical decisions. Our results indicate that Brazilians and Americans evaluate the ethical content of actions or decisions differently when applying utilitarian criteria. By contrast, business people (...)
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  13. Silvana Ferreira Bento, Ellen Hardy & Maria José Duarte Osis (2008). Process for Obtaining Informed Consent: Women's Opinions. Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):197-206.
    In Brazil, every study involving human beings is required to produce an informed consent form that must be signed by study participants: this is stated in Resolution 196/96. 1 Consent must be obtained through a specific structured process. Objective: To present the opinions of women regarding how the process of obtaining informed consent should be conducted when women are invited to participate in studies on contraceptive methods. Subjects and Methods: Eight focus groups were conducted, involving a total of 51 women (...)
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  14. Roberto Bergalli (1986). Memoria colectiva y derechos humanos: una componente peculiar en el derecho y la justicia de la transición a la democracia argentina. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 26:83-112.
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  15. Mauricio Beuchot (1996). El fundamento de los derechos humanos en Bartolomé de las Casas. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 52 (1/4):87 - 95.
    El autor intenta mostrar que en la filosofía cristiana de Bartolomé de las Casas sobresalen la afirmación de la dignidad del hombre y la fundamentación que en ella reciben los derechosnaturales o humanos. Las Casas reconoce esa dignidad en los indios tanto por motivos escolásticos como renacentistas y toda su labor en la defensa de los derechos de los indios y de los españoles era en realidad una labor dedicada a la teorización y defensa práctica de los derechos del hombre. (...)
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  16. Carlos Rodríguez Braun (1992). Ilustración y utilitarismo en Iberoamérica. Télos 1 (3):95-109.
    Expondré a continuación algunas notas sobre el pensamiento económico en América Latina a finales del siglo XVIII y comienzos del XIX. Me referiré al pensamiento ilustrado y al mercantilismo, y haré entrar a una filosofía que ejerció bastante influencia entonces -con particular relevancia desde finales de la década de 1810- en España e Iberoamérica, en un episodio poco estudiado en la historia de las ideas: el utilitarismo.
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  17. Mario Bunge (1961). Ethics as a Science. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 22 (2):139-152.
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  18. Bidart Campos & Germán José (eds.) (1987). Ethics, Law, Science, Technology, and International Cooperation: Córdoba, Argentina, 27/29 March 1984. Council of Advanced International Studies.
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  19. José Santiago González Campos (2009). R. Hall: Bioética institucional: problemas y prácticas en las organizaciones para el cuidado de la salud. México: Fontamara, 2008. [REVIEW] Dilemata 1 (1).
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  20. Jorge Carrillo & Robert Zárate (2009). The Evolution of Maquiladora Best Practices: 1965-2008. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):335 - 348.
    This article analyzes the evolution of best practices in the maquiladora industry in Mexico. Since the mid-1960s, the maquiladora has been understood as a simple assembly activity based on cheap labor, with low added value, and limited linkage with local suppliers. However, the maquiladora industry has evolved since the early 1980s as a consequence of the adoption of best practices in the productive processes and industrial organization. The best practices examined in this article are increases or improvements in complex activities, (...)
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  21. Denis Collins & Julie Whitaker (2009). Introduction to Central America and Mexico: Efforts and Obstacles in Creating Ethical Organizations and an Ethical Economy. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):225-230.
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  22. Agustina Vence Conti (2008). Política y Deuda Externa En Argentina a Inicios Del Siglo XX. In Cuesta, Eduardo, Eduardo Martín & Mario Daniel Serrafero (eds.), Pasado y Futuro: Una Complejidad En Clave Política. Sociedad Científica Argentina.
  23. Josep Corbí (2004). En respuesta al comentario de Carlos Pereda sobre Un lugar para la moral (A Reply to Carlos Pereda's Discussion of Un lugar para la moral). Crítica 36 (107):75 - 85.
    Carlos Pereda califica mi concepción de la moral de realismo particularista y objeta a mi defensa tanto del realismo como del particularismo. En mi respuesta trato de mostrar cómo nuestras discrepancias en torno al papel de los principios en la deliberación moral es, excepto en un punto crucial, cuestión de énfasis. No ocurre lo mismo, sin embargo, con mi reivindicación del realismo moral, pues parte de lo que intento mostrar en el libro es que los programas constructivistas de los que (...)
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  24. Rosely Gomes Costa (2007). Racial Classification Regarding Semen Donor Selection in Brazil. Developing World Bioethics 7 (2):104–111.
  25. Luciano Barin Cruz & Dirk Michael Boehe (2010). How Do Leading Retail MNCs Leverage CSR Globally? Insights From Brazil. Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):243 - 263.
    This study examines how multinational corporations (MNCs) from the retail sector deal with four challenges they face when adopting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies: the challenge of developing well-performing CSR projects and programs, building competitive advantages based on CSR, responding to local stakeholder issues in the host countries and learning from different CSR experiences on a worldwide basis. Based on in-depth case studies of two globally leading retail MNCs (with strong operations in Latin America), the concept of Transverse CSR Management (...)
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  26. Antonio Casado Da Rocha (2008). Review of L. Pessini, C. De Paul de Barchifontaine, and F. Lolas (Eds.). Perspectivas de la Bioetica En Iberoamerica [Ibero-American Perspectives on Bioethics]. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 8 (4):74-75.
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  27. Ian Davies (2009). Latino Immigration and Social Change in the United States: Toward an Ethical Immigration Policy. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):377 - 391.
    Approximately 47 million Latinos currently live in the United States, and nearly 25 percent of them are undocumented. The USA is a very different country from just a generation ago – culturally, socially, and demographically. Its presumed core values have been transformed largely by the changes wrought by immigration and ethnicity. A multicultural society has, in 2008, elected a multicultural president. This article examines immigration discourse, framed in terms of fear and security, and the evolution of the US immigration policy. (...)
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  28. Pérez de la Cruz & Rosa Elena (2007). El Pensamiento Ético de Andrés Avelino. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México.
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  29. Ana Delgado (2008). Opening Up for Participation in Agro-Biodiversity Conservation: The Expert-Lay Interplay in a Brazilian Social Movement. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21 (6):559-577.
    In science and environmental studies, there is a general concern for the democratization of the expert-lay interplay. However, the democratization of expertise does not necessarily lead to more sustainable decisions. If citizens do not take the sustainable choice, what should experts and decision makers do? Should the expert-lay interplay be dissolved? In thinking about how to shape the expert-lay interplay in a better way in agro-biodiversity conservation, I take the case of the MST (Movimento Sem Terra/Landless People’s Movement), possibly the (...)
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  30. Kim Díaz (2010). U.S. Border Wall. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 17 (1):1-12.
    Drawing on the work of John Rawls and Thomas Pogge, I argue that the U.S. is in part responsible for the immigration of Mexicans and Central Americans into the U.S. By seeking to further its national interests through its foreign policies, the U.S. has created economic and politically oppressive conditions that Mexican and Central American people seek to escape. The significance of this project is to highlight the role of the U.S. in illegal immigration so that we may first acknowledge (...)
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  31. Debora Diniz (2008). Research Ethics in Social Sciences: The Severina's Story Documentary. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 1 (2):23 - 35.
    In Brazil, social science research ethics is a field still under construction and subject to intense dispute. The aim of this paper is to discuss how accepted principles of biomedical research ethics can be incorporated into the ethical review of social sciences, particularly open interviews, ethnographic research, and participant observation. The paper uses a case study—the ethnographic documentary "Severina's Story"—as the basis for analysis of the methodological and ethical issues raised in social science research. To promote ethical social science research, (...)
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  32. Debora Diniz (2002). New Reproductive Technologies, Ethics and Gender: The Legislative Process in Brazil. Developing World Bioethics 2 (2):144–158.
  33. Debora Diniz, Dirce Bellezi Guilhem & Volnei Garrafa (1999). Bioethics in Brazil. Bioethics 13 (3-4):244-248.
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  34. Debora Diniz, Juan-guillermo Figueroa Perea & Florencia Luna Guest Editors (2007). Reproductive Health Ethics: Latin American Perspectives. Developing World Bioethics 7 (2):ii–iv.
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  35. J. F. Drane (1996). Bioethical Perspectives From Ibero-America. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (6):557-569.
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  36. James F. Drane (2009). Bioethics in the Americas: North and South—A Personal Story. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (03):280-.
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  37. Fernanda Duarte (2010). Working with Corporate Social Responsibility in Brazilian Companies: The Role of Managers' Values in the Maintenance of CSR Cultures. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):355 - 368.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to the duty of management to consider and respond to issues beyond the organization's economic and legal requirements in line with social and environmental values. However, 'management' is constituted by real people responsible for routine decisions and formulation and implementation of policies. It can be said therefore that the ethical ideals and beliefs of these individuals - in particular their personal values - play an important role in their decisions. It is contended in this article (...)
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  38. Enrique Dussel (2004). Deconstruction of the Concept of "Tolerance": From Intolerance to Solidarity. Constellations 11 (3):326-333.
  39. Enrique Dussel (1997). The Architectonic of the Ethics of Liberation: On Material Ethics and Formal Moralities. Philosophy and Social Criticism 23 (3):1-35.
    This contribution is a critical and constructive engage ment with discourse ethics. First, it clarifies why discourse ethics has difficulties with the grounding and application of moral norms. Second, it turns to a positive appropriation of the formal and proce dural aspects of discourse ethics. The goal is the elaboration of an ethics that is able to incorporate the material aspects of goods and the formal dimension of ethical validity and consensuability. Every morality is the formal application of some substantive (...)
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  40. P. L. Entralgo (1996). From Galen to Magnetic Resonance: History of Medicine in Latin America. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (6):571-591.
    Spanish influence in the New World was particularly acute in the areas of medicine and medical education. From the time of Columbus forward prominent medical experts journeyed to Latin America establishing medical schools and research centers. This essay chronicles the history of Latin America with a strong focus on the physicians and scientists who brought modern scientific medicine, as it wag then known in Western Europe, to the Americas.
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  41. David A. Escobar (2011). Amos & Postmodernity: A Contemporary Critical & Reflective Perspective on the Interdependency of Ethics & Spirituality in the Latino-Hispanic American Reality. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):59-72.
    This article argues that ethics and spirituality are therefore interdependent. One cannot be practiced without paying attention to the other. One needs to be shaped and informed by the other. This article intends to support this claim by briefly using the book and story of the Old Testament prophet Amos. Here, a brief but fair description and definition of postmodernity is provided in order to prepare the ground for an examination, discussion, and reflection of the interdependency of ethics and spirituality (...)
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  42. John Exdell (2009). Immigration, Nationalism, and Human Rights. Metaphilosophy 40 (1):131-146.
    Abstract: Michael Walzer and David Miller defend the authority of democratic states to determine who will be allowed entry and membership. In support of this view they have claimed that the domestic solidarity necessary for social justice is threatened by the unregulated influx of outsiders. This empirical thesis proves to be false when applied to the United States, where heavy Latino and Latina immigration is more likely to increase civic solidarity than to diminish it. Seen in this light, the positions (...)
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  43. Carrillo Fabela & Luz María Reyna (2005). La Responsabilidad Profesional Del Médico En México. Editorial Porrúa.
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  44. Andrea Ferrero (2006). Professional Ethics in Psychology Facing Disadvantaged Social Conditions in Argentina. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 25 (1/4):81-92.
    General health conditions are related to a great number of factors, including the socio-historical ones. As human beings are part of the social field, personality is also affected by them. Due to this, the main Ethics Codes of psychology, all around the world, remark in their preambles the importance of social responsibility in the practice and training in psychology. Argentina is confronted with several social problems that have severely influenced people’s mental health. In countries like Argentina, the ethical practice of (...)
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  45. P. R. Figueroa & H. Fuenzalida (1996). Bioethics in Ibero-America and the Caribbean. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (6):611-627.
    Bioethics has become a field of new challenges for Ibero-America and the Caribbean. A seeming uniformity in the region hides a rich heterogeneous society. A brief survey of bioethical developments in different Ibero- American countries is provided as well as the bioethical problems and approaches peculiar to the region. Some of the unique features of bioethics in this region, it is suggested, could infuse new life into the U.S. and European bioethics discussion. Finally, a bibliography of Ibero-American bioethics literature is (...)
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  46. Elias Abdalla Filho & Volnei Garrafa (2002). Psychiatric Examinations on Handcuffed Convicts in Brazil: Ethical Concerns. Developing World Bioethics 2 (1):28–37.
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  47. Joseph P. Fitzpatrick (1988). The Hispanic Poor in the American Catholic Middle-Class Chruch. Thought 63 (2):189-200.
  48. Jason Flores & Arturo Z. Vasquez-Parraga (2009). Ethical Orientations and Attitudes of Hispanic Business Students. Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (4):261-275.
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the attitudes and orientations of Hispanic business students regarding ethical and unethical actions as well as what rewards or punishments are considered appropriate for specific scenarios. A survey was developed using a 2 × 2 randomized experimental design to measure students’ ethical orientations and 38 items were developed to measure students’ attitudes regarding factors that can influence the decision to cheat or not to cheat. The results suggest that Hispanic business students are (...)
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  49. Michael A. Flynn & Donald E. Eggerth (2011). When the Third World Comes to the First: Ethical Considerations When Working With Hispanic Immigrants. Ethics and Behavior 20 (3):229-242.
    This article briefly reviews concerns related to the “cultural colonialism” of applying Western biomedical models of research ethics to non-Western groups. The feasibility of alternate ethical models is discussed and found wanting. In practical terms, many academic researchers in the United States are funded by federal agencies and are required to adhere to Title 45, Part 46 of the Code of Federal Regulations , legislation that is clearly grounded in the Western biomedical research tradition. Consequently, the question is not whether (...)
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  50. Ana Carolina da Costa E. Fonseca (2011). The Fallacy of Neutrality: The Interruption of Pregnancy of Anencephalic Fetus in Brazil. Bioethics 25 (8):458-462.
    Those who favor and those who oppose the interruption of pregnancy with anencephalic fetuses answer the question ‘what is the right to life?’ differently. Those in favor argue that life exists only when it is ‘viable’; that is to say, when cerebral activities occur or may occur. Those who oppose it argue that it is not possible to describe ‘life’ as residing in a particular quality, since life ‘exists from conception’. In fact, in both cases, the noun ‘life’ is being (...)
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