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  1. Ahmad Abu-Akel & Alison L. Bailey (2001). Indexical and Symbolic Referencing: What Role Do They Play in Children's Success on Theory of Mind Tasks? Cognition 80 (3):263-281.
  2. Mark C. Baker (2005). The Innate Endowment for Language. In Peter Carruthers (ed.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York 156--174.
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  3. Robin Barrow (2004). Language and Character. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 3 (3):267-279.
    Recent empirical research into the brain, while reinforcing the view that we are extensively ‘programmed’, does not refute the idea of a distinctive human mind. The human mind is primarily a product of the human capacity for a distinctive kind of language. Human language is thus what gives us our consciousness, reasoning capacity and autonomy. To study and understand the human, however, is ultimately a task beyond empirical disciplines such as psychology. Literature is the repository of wisdom relating to humanity (...)
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  4. Robert Berwick & Noam Chomsky (2008). Poverty of the Stimulus' Revisited: Recent Challenges Reconsidered. In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society 383.
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  5. Martin Andrew Brown (1993). Understanding Language: A Luddite Approach. Dissertation, City University of New York
    According to Chomsky, the ability to speak and understand a language rests in part on knowledge of complex and abstract grammatical rules. This knowledge is used, when a person speaks or understands a sentence, to generate structural descriptions, analogous to those devised by linguists, at an unconscious level of the speaker's or hearer's mind. Speaking and understanding thus involve complex, mental activity akin to translation. Chomsky holds that this activity should be thought of as processes in the brain. ;I argue (...)
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  6. Robert W. Burch (1976). Why Grammar Cannot Be Innate. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 7 (1):37-44.
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  7. Peter Carruthers (1998). Distinctively Human Thinking. In Peter Carruthers & Jill Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought. Cambridge 69.
    This chapter takes up, and sketches an answer to, the main challenge facing massively modular theories of the architecture of the human mind. This is to account for the distinctively flexible, non-domain-specific, character of much human thinking. I shall show how the appearance of a modular language faculty within an evolving modular architecture might have led to these distinctive features of human thinking with only minor further additions and non-domain-specific adaptations.
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  8. Noam Chomsky (1997). Language and Cognition. In David Martel Johnson & Christina E. Erneling (eds.), The Future of the Cognitive Revolution. Oxford University Press 15--31.
  9. Noam Chomsky (1991). Linguistics and Cognitive Science: Problems and Mysteries. In Aka Kasher (ed.), The Chomskyan Turn. Basil Blackwell 26--53.
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  10. Noam A. Chomsky (1980). Rules and Representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (127):1-61.
    The book from which these sections are excerpted is concerned with the prospects for assimilating the study of human intelligence and its products to the natural sciences through the investigation of cognitive structures, understood as systems of rules and representations that can be regarded as These mental structui′es serve as the vehicles for the exercise of various capacities. They develop in the mind on the basis of an innate endowment that permits the growth of rich and highly articulated structures along (...)
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  11. Noam A. Chomsky (1976). Reflections On Language. Temple Smith.
  12. John Collins, Robert J. Matthews, Barry C. Smith & Brian Epstein (2008). Philosophy of Linguistics. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 8 (22).
  13. Fiona Cowie (1998). What's Within?: Nativism Reconsidered. Oxford University Press Usa.
    This powerfully iconoclastic book reconsiders the influential nativist position toward the mind. Nativists assert that some concepts, beliefs, or capacities are innate or inborn: "native" to the mind rather than acquired. Fiona Cowie argues that this view is mistaken, demonstrating that nativism is an unstable amalgam of two quite different--and probably inconsistent--theses about the mind. Unlike empiricists, who postulate domain-neutral learning strategies, nativists insist that some learning tasks require special kinds of skills, and that these skills are hard-wired into our (...)
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  14. Fiona Cowie (1994). Innate Ideas. Dissertation, Princeton University
    Recent years have seen a renewal of the perennial debate concerning innate ideas: Noam Chomsky has argued that much of our knowledge of natural languages is innate; Jerry Fodor has defended the innateness of most concepts. ;Part One concerns the historical controversy over nativism. On the interpretation there developed, nativists have defended two distinct theses. One, based on arguments from the poverty of the stimulus, is a psychological theory postulating special-purpose learning mechanisms. The other, deriving from arguments entailing that learning (...)
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  15. Stephen Crain, Children's Command of Negation.
    Poverty -of-stimulus arguments have taken new ground recently, augmented by experimental findings from th e study of child language. In this paper, we briefly review two variants of the poverty-of-stimulus argument that have received empirical support from studies of child language; then we examine a third argument of this kind in more detail. The case under discussion involves the structural notion of c-command as it pertains to children’s interpretation of disjunction in the scope of negation.
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  16. Valentina Cuccio & Marco Carapezza (2013). Is Displacement Possible Without Language? Evidence From Preverbal Infants and Chimpanzees. Philosophical Psychology 28 (3):369-386.
    Is displacement possible without language? This question was addressed in a recent work by Liszkowski and colleagues . The authors carried out an experiment to demonstrate that 12-month-old prelinguistic infants can communicate about absent entities by using pointing gestures, while chimpanzees cannot. The main hypothesis of their study is that displacement does not depend on language but is, however, exclusively human and instead depends on species-specific social-cognitive human skills. Against this hypothesis, we will argue that a symbolic representation is needed (...)
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  17. Daniel C. Dennett (1998). Reflections on Language and Mind. In Peter Carruthers & Jill Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press 284.
    A theme that emerged at the Sheffield Conference with particular force, to my way of thinking, was a new way of recognizing, and then avoiding, a seductive bad idea. One of its many guises is what I have called the Cartesian Theater, but it also appears in the roles of Central Processing, or Central Executive, or Norman and Shallice's SAS, or Fodor's non-modular central arena of belief fixation. What is wrong with this idea is not (just) that it (apparently) postulates (...)
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  18. Jeff Elman (2006). Computational Approaches to Language Acquisition. In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 2--726.
  19. Nicholas Evans & Stephen C. Levinson (2009). The Myth of Language Universals: Language Diversity and its Importance for Cognitive Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):429-448.
    Talk of linguistic universals has given cognitive scientists the impression that languages are all built to a common pattern. In fact, there are vanishingly few universals of language in the direct sense that all languages exhibit them. Instead, diversity can be found at almost every level of linguistic organization. This fundamentally changes the object of enquiry from a cognitive science perspective. This target article summarizes decades of cross-linguistic work by typologists and descriptive linguists, showing just how few and unprofound the (...)
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  20. Robert Freidin (1991). Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition: A Note on Structure-Dependence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):618-619.
  21. Susan A. Gelman (2005). Psychological Models Often Assume That Young Children Learn Words and Concepts Bymeansof Associative Learning Mechanisms, Without the Need to Posit Any Innate Predispositions. For Example, Smith, Jones, and Landau (1996) Propose That Children Learn Concepts by Hearing Specific Linguistic Frames While Viewing Specific Object Properties. The Environment Provides All the Information That Children Need; the Conjunction of Sights and Sounds is Proposed to Be Sufficient to Enable Children. [REVIEW] In Peter Carruthers (ed.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York 1--198.
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  22. Bart Geurts (2000). Stephen Crain & Rosalind Thornton, Investigations in Universal Gram-Mar: A Guide to Experiments on the Acquisition of Syntax and Semantics. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (5):523-532.
  23. Stavroula N. Glezakos (2003). The Cognitive Value of Language. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    The central question that I address in this dissertation is: how should we explain our connection with the language that we use? I show that the way that one answers the question depends upon the characterization that one gives of the nature of language. ;I argue that philosophers of language who theorize about words as in-the-world entities with a history have largely failed to explain how we use such words. To fill in this gap, I offer a positive account of (...)
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  24. Adele E. Goldberg (2004). But Do We Need Universal Grammar? Comment on Lidz Et Al. Cognition 94 (1):77-84.
  25. Myrna Gopnik, Jenny Dalalakis, S. E. Fukuda, Suzy Fukuda & E. Kehayia (1996). Genetic Language Impairment: Unruly Grammars. Proceedings of the British Academy 88:223-249.
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  26. Alison Holm & Barbara Dodd (1996). The Effect of First Written Language on the Acquisition of English Literacy. Cognition 59 (2):119-147.
    The relationship between first and second language literacy was examined by identifying the skills and processes developed in the first language that were transferred to the second language. The performance of 40 university students from The People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Vietnam and Australia were compared on a series of tasks that assessed phonological awareness and reading and spelling skills in English. The results indicated that the Hong Kong students (with non-alphabetic first language literacy) had limited phonological awareness compared (...)
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  27. Thomas J. Hughes & J. T. M. Miller (2014). Lexicalisation and the Origin of the Human Mind. Biosemiotics 7 (1):11-27.
    This paper will discuss the origin of the human mind, and the qualitative discontinuity between human and animal cognition. We locate the source of this discontinuity within the language faculty, and thus take the origin of the mind to depend on the origin of the language faculty. We will look at one such proposal put forward by Hauser et al. (Science 298:1569-1579, 2002), which takes the evolution of a Merge trait (recursion) to solely explain the differences between human and animal (...)
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  28. B. Inhelder (1980). Cognitive Schemes and Their Possible Relativons to Language Acquisition. In Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini (ed.), Language and Learning: The Debate Between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky. Harvard University Press
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  29. Mika Kiikeri & Tomi Kokkonen (2007). Biological Notions of Innateness and Explanation of Language Acquisition. In Johannes Persson & Petri Ylikoski (eds.), Rethinking Explanation. Springer 177--192.
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  30. Wendy Lee (1998). The Foundation Walls That Are Carried by the House: A Critique of the Poverty of Stimulus Thesis and a Wittgensteinian—Dennettian Alternative. Journal of Mind and Behavior 19 (2):177-194.
    A bedrock assumption made by cognitivist philosophers such as Noam Chomsky, and, more recently, Jerry Fodor and Steven Pinker is that the contexts within which children acquire a language inevitably exhibit a irremediable poverty of whatever stimuli are necessary to condition such acquisition and development. They argue that given this poverty, the basic rudiments of language must be innate; the task of the cognitivist is to theorize universal grammars, languages of thought, or language instincts to account for it. My argument, (...)
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  31. Ningombam Bupenda Meitei (2013). Genetics of Language. viXra.Org:7.
    The paper intends to zoom in and find a uniqueness in human language by narrowing down the range of cognitive domains to human computational mind having a property of recursion which is exclusively unique to human and not in any other species in animalia kingdom.This notion of recursion is the centrality of the paper. There has been an opposition to the notion of recursion being only unique to human and the paper makes an attempt to reply to such arguments using (...)
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  32. John Mikhail (2007). Universal Moral Grammar: Theory, Evidence, and the Future. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):143 –152.
    Scientists from various disciplines have begun to focus attention on the psychology and biology of human morality. One research program that has recently gained attention is universal moral grammar (UMG). UMG seeks to describe the nature and origin of moral knowledge by using concepts and models similar to those used in Chomsky's program in linguistics. This approach is thought to provide a fruitful perspective from which to investigate moral competence from computational, ontogenetic, behavioral, physiological and phylogenetic perspectives. In this article, (...)
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  33. M. Moradiyan (unknown). The Philosophical Dimensions of the Theory of the Innateness of Language. Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 26.
    This paper presents a study of the philosophical dimensions of the innateness of language. In this regard, reference has been made to the ideas of Chomsky, De Saussaure, Descartes, Kant, Russell, Plato, and Aristotle. The writers of this article have paid special attention to understanding the relationships between the structure of language and the structure of mind, or the relationships between syntax and logic, and believe that they are inseparable from each other.The article consists of two main parts. The first (...)
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  34. Reinhard Muskens, Categorial Grammar and Lexical-Functional Grammar.
    This paper introduces λ-grammar, a form of categorial grammar that has much in common with LFG. Like other forms of categorial grammar, λ-grammars are multi-dimensional and their components are combined in a strictly parallel fashion. Grammatical representations are combined with the help of linear combinators, closed pure λ-terms in which each abstractor binds exactly one variable. Mathematically this is equivalent to employing linear logic, in use in LFG for semantic composition, but the method seems more practicable.
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  35. Shaun Nichols (2005). Although Linguistic Nativism has Received the Bulk of Attention in Contemporary. In Peter Carruthers (ed.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York 1--353.
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  36. Paul Pietroski & Stephen Crain, The Language Faculty.
  37. Steven Pinker & Ray Jackendoff (2009). The Reality of a Universal Language Faculty. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):465-466.
    While endorsing Evans & Levinson's (E&L's) call for rigorous documentation of variation, we defend the idea of Universal Grammar as a toolkit of language acquisition mechanisms. The authors exaggerate diversity by ignoring the space of conceivable but nonexistent languages, trivializing major design universals, conflating quantitative with qualitative variation, and assuming that the utility of a linguistic feature suffices to explain how children acquire it.
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  38. Geoffrey K. Pullum (2002). Empirical Assessment of Stimulus Poverty Arguments. Linguistic Review.
  39. Hilary Putnam (1967). The 'Innateness Hypothesis' and Explanatory Models in Linguistics. Synthese 17 (March):12-22.
  40. William Ramsey & Stephen P. Stich (1990). Connectionism and Three Levels of Nativism. Synthese 82 (2):177-205.
    Along with the increasing popularity of connectionist language models has come a number of provocative suggestions about the challenge these models present to Chomsky's arguments for nativism. The aim of this paper is to assess these claims. We begin by reconstructing Chomsky's argument from the poverty of the stimulus and arguing that it is best understood as three related arguments, with increasingly strong conclusions. Next, we provide a brief introduction to connectionism and give a quick survey of recent efforts to (...)
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  41. Heather K. J. Van der Lely, Stuart Rosen & Alan Adlard (2004). Grammatical Language Impairment and the Specificity of Cognitive Domains: Relations Between Auditory and Language Abilities. Cognition 94 (2):167-183.
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  42. Josef Voss (1973). Noam Chomsky Et la Linguistique Cartésienne. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 71 (11):512-538.
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Linguistic Innateness, Misc
  1. Mark C. Baker (2006). The Innate Endowment for Language: Underspecified or Overspecified? In Peter Carruthers (ed.), The Innate Mind: Culture and Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press New York
  2. Edward G. Belaga (2008). In the Beginning Was the Verb: The Emergence and Evolution of Language Problem in the Light of the Big Bang Epistemological Paradigm. Cognitive Philology 1 (1).
    The enigma of the Emergence of Natural Languages, coupled or not with the closely related problem of their Evolution is perceived today as one of the most important scientific problems. The purpose of the present study is actually to outline such a solution to our problem which is epistemologically consonant with the Big Bang solution of the problem of the Emergence of the Universe}. Such an outline, however, becomes articulable, understandable, and workable only in a drastically extended epistemic and scientific (...)
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  3. I. Bhattacharjee (2001). Competence and Language Acquisition: Determining the Conceptual Limits of Chomskyan Nativism. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 28 (4):443-454.
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  4. Noam Chomsky (1995). Language and Nature. Mind 104 (413):1-61.
  5. Andy Clark (1993). Minimal Rationalism. Mind 102 (408):587-610.
    Enquiries into the possible nature and scope of innate knowledge never proceed in an empirical vaccuum. Instead, such conjectures are informed by a theory (perhaps only tacitly endorsed) concerning probable representational form. Classical approaches to the nativism debate often assume a quasi-linguistic form of knowledge representation and deliniate a space of options (concerning the nature and extent of innate knowledge) accordingly. Recent connectionist theorizing posits a different kind of represenational form, and thus determines a different picture of the space of (...)
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  6. John M. Collins (2006). Proxytypes and Linguistic Nativism. Synthese 153 (1):69-104.
    Prinz (Perceptual the Mind: Concepts and Their Perceptual Basis, MIT Press, 2002) presents a new species of concept empiricism, under which concepts are off-line long-term memory networks of representations that are ‘copies’ of perceptual representations – proxytypes. An apparent obstacle to any such empiricism is the prevailing nativism of generative linguistics. The paper critically assesses Prinz’s attempt to overcome this obstacle. The paper argues that, prima facie, proxytypes are as incapable of accounting for the structure of the linguistic mind as (...)
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  7. Stephen Crain & Drew Khlentzos (2010). The Logic Instinct. Mind and Language 25 (1):30-65.
    We present a series of arguments for logical nativism, focusing mainly on the meaning of disjunction in human languages. We propose that all human languages are logical in the sense that the meaning of linguistic expressions corresponding to disjunction (e.g. English or , Chinese huozhe, Japanese ka ) conform to the meaning of the logical operator in classical logic, inclusive- or . It is highly implausible, we argue, that children acquire the (logical) meaning of disjunction by observing how adults use (...)
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  8. Johan De Smedt (2009). Cognitive Modularity in the Light of the Language Faculty. Logique Et Analyse 208:373-387.
    Ever since Chomsky, language has become the paradigmatic example of an innate capacity. Infants of only a few months old are aware of the phonetic structure of their mother tongue, such as stress-patterns and phonemes. They can already discriminate words from non-words and acquire a feel for the grammatical structure months before they voice their first word. Language reliably develops not only in the face of poor linguistic input, but even without it. In recent years, several scholars have extended this (...)
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