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  1. Daron Acemoglu (2009). The Crisis of 2008: Lessons for and From Economics. Critical Review 21 (2-3):185-194.
    ABSTRACT The financial crisis is, in part, an embarrassment for economic theory. Economists tended to think that severe business cycles had been conquered; that free markets require no regulations to constrain self?interest; and that large, established companies could be trusted to monitor their own behavior so as to preserve their reputational capital. These three beliefs have proved to be inaccurate. On the other hand, economists justifiably believe that as a process of creative destruction, capitalism requires institutions that allow for innovation (...)
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  2. Viral V. Acharya & Matthew Richardson (2009). Causes of the Financial Crisis. Critical Review 21 (2-3):195-210.
    ABSTRACT Why did the popping of the housing bubble bring the financial system?rather than just the housing sector of the economy?to its knees? The answer lies in two methods by which banks had evaded regulatory capital requirements. First, they had temporarily placed assets?such as securitized mortgages?in off?balance?sheet entities, so that they did not have to hold significant capital buffers against them. Second, the capital regulations also allowed banks to reduce the amount of capital they held against assets that remained on (...)
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  3. Jonathan H. Adler (2012). Is the Common Law a Free-Market Solution to Pollution? Critical Review 24 (1):61-85.
    Whereas conventional analyses characterize environmental problems as examples of market failure, proponents of free-market environmentalism (FME) consider the problem to be a lack of markets and, in particular, a lack of enforceable and exchangeable property rights. Enforcing property rights alleviates disputes about, as well as the overuse of, most natural resources. FME diagnoses of pollution are much weaker, however. Most FME proponents suggest that common-law tort suits can adequately protect private property and ecological resources from pollution. Yet such claims have (...)
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  4. Lawrence A. Alexander (1983). Zimmerman on Coercive Wage Offers. Philosophy and Public Affairs 12 (2):160-164.
  5. Andrés Álvarez & Jimena Hurtado, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: A Comparative Study of Two Critics to the Market Economy.
    We present a comparison between the works of two great critics of the market economy: Rousseau and Marx. It shows their similarities and divergences, most important of which is the place they give to economic analysis in their intellectual and political theories. Whereas Marx built his political and scientific criticism on economic analysis, Rousseau believed this analysis could not be the starting point for understanding social organization. Their monetary theories can explain this difference.
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  6. Ash Amin & Joanne Roberts (eds.) (2008). Community, Economic Creativity, and Organization. OUP Oxford.
    'Communities of practice', like 'social capital' and 'networks', is an idea that has been widely adopted in the social sciences, particularly in discussion of innovation and creativity. This book evaluates the concept and its uses, and will be an essential guide for students and researchers.
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  7. Elizabeth Anderson (2013). Book Review: Free Market Fairness. [REVIEW] Political Theory 41 (1):163-166.
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  8. Elizabeth Anderson (1990). The Ethical Limitations of the Market. Economics and Philosophy 6 (02):179-.
    A distinctive feature of modern capitalist societies is the tendency of the market to take over the production, maintenance, and distribution of goods that were previously produced, maintained, and distributed by nonmarket means. Yet, there is a wide range of disagreement regarding the proper extent of the market in providing many goods. Labor has been treated as a commodity since the advent of capitalism, but not without significant and continuing challenges to this arrangement. Other goods whose production for and distribution (...)
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  9. Elizabeth Anderson (1988). Review: Values, Risks, and Market Norms. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Public Affairs 17 (1):54 - 65.
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  10. E. Angner (2002). Review of Alan Ebenstein's Friedrich Hayek: A Biography. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 18 (2):381-385.
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  11. Jonny Anomaly & Geoffrey Brennan (2013). Markets and Economic Theory. In Byron Kaldis (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Sage Publications
  12. N. Scott Arnold (1987). Marx And Disequilibrium in Market Socialist Relations of Production. Economics and Philosophy 3 (01):23-.
    One feature of socialism that has been little discussed in the recent revival of interest in Marx is the basic form of economic organization that will characterize such a society. Marx's view, to be documented in what follows, is that socialism would not have a market economy. This prediction should be a matter of some embarrassment or consternation to twentieth-century socialists outside of the Soviet bloc who claim a Marxist heritage. Despite the fact that some socialist regimes in the first (...)
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  13. Avgitidou Athina (2011). Financial Crisis: The Myth of Free Market Ideology and Current Regulatory Reforms. International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy 5 (3):218.
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  14. Roger Backhouse (2012). Political Economy: History with the Politics Left Out? Historical Materialism 20 (3):24-38.
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  15. Roger Backhouse (2009). Review of An Engine, Not a Camera: How Financial Models Shape Markets. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 25 (1):99-106.
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  16. Roger E. Backhouse (2009). An Engine, Not a Camera: How Financial Models Shape Markets , Donald MacKenzie. MIT Press, 2006, X + 377 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 25 (1):99-106.
  17. Neera Badhwar (2008). Friendship and Commercial Societies. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (3):301-326.
    Critics of commercial societies complain that the free-market system of property rights and freedom of contract tends to commodify relationships, thus eroding the bonds of personal and civic friendship. I argue that this thesis rests on a misunderstanding of both markets and friendship. As voluntary, reciprocal relationships, market relationships and friendship share important properties. Like all relations and activities that exercise important human capacities and play an important role in a meaningful life, market relations and activities are essentially structured and (...)
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  18. Neera K. Badhwar, (Not for Citations. Published Copy Available on Request.).
    1.1 Are commercial societies unfriendly to friendship? Many critics of commercial societies, from both the left and the right, have thought so. They claim that the free-market system of property rights, freedom of contract, and other liberty rights – the “negative” right of individuals to peacefully pursue their own ends – is impersonal and dehumanizing, or even inherently divisive and adversarial. Yet (their complaint goes) the psychology and morality of markets and liberty rights pervade far too many relationships in a (...)
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  19. Randy E. Barnett (1979). 'Justice Entrepreneurship in a Free Market': Comment. Journal of Libertarian Studies 3:427.
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  20. Christian Barry & Scott Wisor (2013). World Trade Organization. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley
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  21. Jens Beckert (2012). The “Social Order of Markets” Approach: A Reply to Kurtuluş Gemici. Theory and Society 41 (1):119-125.
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  22. Richard Bellamy (1994). Moralizing Markets. Critical Review 8 (3):341-357.
    The Austrian school tends to associate the morality of the market with its efficient operation. Consequently, it criticizes attempts to offer an ethical evaluation of the market for not understanding how the market works. This criticism proves correct with regard to those who would seek to run an economy according to a set of predetermined moral criteria, such as socialist advocates of central planning or Victorian moralists who regarded the market as the embodiment of the desert ethic. However, if the (...)
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  23. Václav Benda (1994). Transition From State Control to Free Market. The Chesterton Review 20 (2/3):309-311.
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  24. Stephen Earl Bennett & Jeffrey Friedman (2008). The Irrelevance of Economic Theory to Understanding Economic Ignorance. Critical Review 20 (3):195-258.
    Bryan Caplan’s The Myth of the Rational Voter treats several immensely important and understudied topics—public ignorance of economics, political ideology, and their connection to policy error—from an orthodox economic perspective whose applicability to these topics is overwhelmingly disproven by the available evidence. Moreover, Caplan adds to the traditional and largely irrelevant orthodox economic notion of rational public ignorance the claim that when voters favor counterproductive economic policies, they do so deliberately, i.e., knowingly. This leads him to assume that “emotion or (...)
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  25. Peter L. Berger (forthcoming). A Market Model for the Analysis of Ecumenicity. Social Research.
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  26. Adolf Augustus Berle (1960). The Motive Power of Political Economy. [New York]New York Society for Ethical Culture.
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  27. Amar Bhidé (2009). An Accident Waiting to Happen. Critical Review 21 (2-3):211-247.
    ABSTRACT Banks provide a valuable but inherently unstable combination of deposit?taking and lending functions that were successfully held together for several decades after the New Deal by tough banking rules. The weakening of the rules after the 1970s promoted the displacement of traditional relationship?based banking with securitized, arms?length alternatives that encouraged banks to undertake activities about which bankers lacked deep relationship?based knowledge of the risks. Ironically, this risky behavior, encouraged by loosened regulation, was reinforced by progressively tightened securities regulation, which (...)
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  28. Mark Blyth (2009). Coping with the Black Swan: The Unsettling World of Nassim Taleb. Critical Review 21 (4):447-465.
    ABSTRACT Nassim Taleb rightly points out that although people may acknowledge in the abstract that the world is uncertain, they still behave as if a large enough sample size is all that is needed to predict, and model, the future. He also rightly notes that ever?increasing quantities of information are relevant only in simple situations, such as in predicting the range of human height, but are misleading in more random arenas, such as financial markets. However, while Taleb decries the use (...)
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  29. Peter J. Boettke & Kyle W. O'Donnell (2013). The Failed Appropriation of FA Hayek by Formalist Economics. Critical Review 25 (3-4):305-341.
    Hayek argued that the central question of economics is the coordination problem: How does the spontaneous interaction of many purposeful individuals, each having dispersed bits of subjective knowledge, generate an order in which the actors' subjective data are coordinated in a way that enables them to dovetail their plans and activities successfully? In attempting to solve this problem, Hayek outlined an approach to economic theorizing that takes seriously the limited, subjective nature of human knowledge. Despite purporting to have appropriated Hayek's (...)
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  30. David Boonin (1988). Competition and Capitalism. Critical Review 2 (2-3):183-188.
    NO CONTEST: THE CASE AGAINST COMPETITION by Alfie Kohn Boston: Houghton Miffin, 1986. 257 pp., $16.95.
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  31. Timothy J. Brennan (1994). Markets, Information, and Benevolence. Economics and Philosophy 10 (02):151-.
    In the January 6, 1991, issue of the Washington Post Magazine , reporter Walt Harrington wrote a profile of Bryan Stevenson. Mr. Stevenson is a 31-year-old working-class African-American from Delaware who graduated from Harvard Law School and the Kennedy School of Government. Like the typical graduate of Harvard Law School, Mr. Stevenson had the opportunity to join the worlds of six-figure corporate law or high-visibility politics. Rather than follow his colleagues, however, Mr. Stevenson works seven-day, eighty-hour weeks as director of (...)
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  32. Alex Broadbent (2011). Defining Neglected Disease. Biosocieties 6 (1):51-70.
    In this article I seek to say what it is for something to count as a neglected disease. I argue that neglect should be defined in terms of efforts at prevention, mitigation and cure, and not solely in terms of research dollars per disability-adjusted life-year. I further argue that the trend towards multifactorialism and risk factor thinking in modern epidemiology has lent credibility to the erroneous view that the primary problem with neglected diseases is a lack of research. A more (...)
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  33. Richard Bronk (2014). Reflexivity Unpacked: Performativity, Uncertainty and Analytical Monocultures. Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (4):343-349.
    This paper analyses Soros' theory of reflexivity by breaking it down into several component concepts that are individually well analysed in existing literature – including performativity, self-reinforcing feedback loops and uncertainty. By focusing on the cognitive myopia implied by analytical monocultures and on the indeterminacy implied by innovation, it helps establish boundaries of applicability for reflexivity (as opposed to standard economic) models. It argues that Soros largely ignores a key element in the formation of self-reinforcing delusions or market bubbles – (...)
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  34. Vivienne Brown (1997). 'Mere Inventions of the Imagination': A Survey of Recent Literature on Adam Smith. Economics and Philosophy 13 (2):281-312.
    As late twentieth-century discourses of modernity and postmodernity invoke their Enlightenment heritage in a search for the origins of their present achievements and predicaments, Adam Smith's works are still seen as a canonic representative of that heritage. Smith has long been evoked as the ‘father’ of economics and the original proponent of laissez-faire capitalism, but the political changes in recent decades have reconstituted his iconic status. With the full range of Smith's published and unpublished writings and lectures now widely available, (...)
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  35. Vivienne Brown (1995). Reading Adam Smith's Texts on Morals and Wealth. Economics and Philosophy 11 (02):344-.
    In his Comment , Richard Arlen Kleer accepts much of the argument in my article (Brown, 1991) but insists that I have (Kleer, 1993). Kleer agrees that there is a moral hierarchy in Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments (TMS) where benevolence and self-command are ranked higher than justice and prudence, but he is uneasy with the conclusion that economic activity and the pursuit of gain are activities and insists that they do have a significant moral standing. In addition, although (...)
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  36. Vivienne Brown (1991). Signifying Voices: Reading the “Adam Smith Problem”. Economics and Philosophy 7 (02):187-.
    The “Adam Smith problem” has traditionally been concerned with the issue of authorial integrity: the issue of how a single author, Adam Smith, could have written two such apparently dissimilar, even contradictory, works as The Theory of Moral Sentiments and The Wealth of Nations . As the problem to be resolved was the single authorial origin of two such works, the perceived incompatibilities between them were explained in terms of Smith's intellectual biography – for example, Smith's travels to France, Smith's (...)
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  37. Luigino Bruni (2012). The Genesis and Ethos of the Market. Palgrave Macmillan.
    In this book Luigino Bruni analyses the market and its ethos, illuminating the history of capitalism and highlighting the need for a new ethical direction.
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  38. Luigino Bruni (2012). The Genesis and Nature of the Ethos of the Market. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  39. Luigino Bruni & Robert Sugden (2000). Moral Canals: Trust and Social Capital in the Work of Hume, Smith and Genovesi. Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):21-45.
    It is a truism that a market economy cannot function without trust. We must be able to rely on other people to respect our property rights, and on our trading partners to keep their promises. The theory of economics is incomplete unless it can explain why economic agents often trust one another, and why that trust is often repaid. There is a long history of work in economics and philosophy which tries to explain the kinds of reasoning that people use (...)
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  40. James M. Buchanan & David I. Fand (1992). Monetary Malpractice: Intent, Impotence, or Incompetence? Critical Review 6 (4):457-469.
    Monetary policy prior to, during, and following the 1990?1991 recession was the tightest and most restrictive in over 30 years. Some have suggested that this policy was explicitly designed by the monetary hawks on the Federal Reserve to wring out the residues of inflationary expectations; others, that the central bank could not offset the real, and powerful, negative shocks buffeting the American economy. But a better explanation is that the monetary authorities were passive because they failed to appreciate the treacherous (...)
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  41. James M. Buchanan & Viktor J. Vanberg (1991). The Market as a Creative Process. Economics and Philosophy 7 (02):167-.
    Our purpose is to identify a body of criticism of orthodox equilibirum theory in economics that seems to correspond closely with the developments note in the natural sciences, and, second, to elaborate on the implications of this (the radical subjectivist) criticism in some detail and, particularly, in this relation to its near neighbour, the entrepreneurial conception of Israel Kirzner.
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  42. Bruce Caldwell (2006). Hayek, Social Science, and Politics: Reply to Hill and Friedman. Critical Review 18 (4):377-390.
    Hayek's case for the limits of economic agents? knowledge does not, as Greg Hill seems to suggest, imply that government should be in the business of engaging in countercyclical fiscal policy or paternalistic corrections of people's pursuit of ?imaginary goods.? In the latter case, markets have corrective learning mechanisms for consumer mistakes. In the former, public?choice and public?ignorance problems plague government efforts to correct the business cycle. The problem of public ignorance is, in turn, Jeffrey Friedman's topic, but he is (...)
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  43. Raphael Calel (2013). What Money Can't Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets, Michael Sandel. Allen Lane, 2012, 244 Pages. Strings Attached: Untangling the Ethics of Incentives, Ruth Grant. Princeton University Press, 2012, Xvi+ 202 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 29 (2):277-283.
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  44. Simon Caney & Cameron Hepburn (2011). Carbon Trading: Unethical, Unjust and Ineffective? Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 69:201-234.
    Cap-and-trade systems for greenhouse gas emissions are an important part of the climate change policies of the EU, Japan, New Zealand, among others, as well as China (soon). However, concerns have been raised on a variety of ethical grounds about the use of markets to reduce emissions. In this paper we examine three types of concern. The first holds that emissions trading schemes are 'unethical'. We examine five ethical objections. These objections hold that emissions trading is unethical because it: involves (...)
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  45. Bryan Caplan (2005). Toward a New Consensus on the Economics of Socialism: Rejoinder to My Critics. Critical Review 17 (1-2):203-220.
    Abstract This has been an unusually productive exchange. My critics largely accept my main theoretical claims about economic calculation and socialism. They have also started to do what advocates of the Misesian view should have been doing for decades: offer empirical evidence that that the calculation problem is serious. While I continue to believe that incentive problems explain most of the failures of socialism, I am slightly less confident than I was before. Fortunately, there are many unexploited sources of information (...)
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  46. Enrica Carbone (2008). Temptations and Dynamic Consistency. Theory and Decision 64 (2-3):229-248.
    The objective of this article is to test a prediction of the quasi-hyperbolic model. The test is innovative in that it uses an experimental implementation in which there are two treatments: a forward market and a spot market. In each of these markets goods and activities are sold. The good and activities sold are investment goods or activities and temptation goods or activities. The prediction of the quasi-hyperbolic model is that in the spot (forward) market participants will buy more temptation (...)
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  47. Fred Carstensen (1995). Civil Authority and the Articulation of Markets. Critical Review 9 (4):585-594.
    Markets, law, and regulation are intimately intertwined. Thus, recent studies (by Morton Keller and Donald McCloskey et al.) of the intersection between public policy and the economy are both necessary and welcome. But the absence in these works of a nuanced conceptualization of the critical, constructive role of civil authority in the creation and maintenance of open, competitive markets, and the virtual absence of a concern for and understanding of the engines of real economic growth, results in scholarship that only (...)
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  48. Eugene M. Caruso, Kathleen D. Vohs, Brittani Baxter & Adam Waytz (2013). Mere Exposure to Money Increases Endorsement of Free-Market Systems and Social Inequality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (2):301.
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  49. K. K. Cetina (2006). The Market. Theory, Culture and Society 23 (2-3):551-556.
    Markets have led a shadowy existence in economics. The ruling paradigm, neoclassical economics, for which markets are a central institution, has mainly been concerned with the determination of market prices. Until recently, sociological investigations of modern markets focused on production, as did anthropological work that ascertained how each culture made a living. The major debate among anthropologists to date has been about whether the economic rationality of the maximizing individual is to be found in all societies or whether substantive economies (...)
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  50. K. K. Cetina & U. Bruegger (2002). Traders' Engagement with Markets: A Postsocial Relationship. Theory, Culture and Society 19 (5-6):161-185.
    This article focuses upon the construction of wants and the embodying of the market in the work routines of workers on the Swiss foreign exchange market. The authors are particularly concerned with the role of the computer screen within the establishment of postsocial relations around a sense of embodied lack. The screen does not provide access to the market but is the market as an exteriorized assemblage of practices brought together in one place. The screen is the market rather than (...)
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