About this topic
Summary Traditional formulations of quantum mechanics rely on an unanalysed concept of measurement. Quantum systems are treated as evolving via the unitary Schrodinger evolution, except when they are measured or observed; then, all components of the state are discarded except the one corresponding to the actual measurement result. The component which remains is then regarded as the new state of the system and again is evolved forwards according to the unitary evolution. The measurement problem is the problem of explaining why this two-stage procedure employing a primitive concept of measurement works so well.
Key works Bell 2004 contains a number of exceptionally clear discussions of the measurement problem. Bohr 1935 contains the first explicit claim that measurement plays a fundamental role in quantum theory.
Introductions Albert 1992
  Show all references
Related categories
Siblings:
123 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
1 — 50 / 123
  1. Stephen L. Adler (2003). Why Decoherence has Not Solved the Measurement Problem: A Response to P.W. Anderson. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 34 (1):135-142.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Y. Aharonov & M. Vardi (1981). An Operational Approach for Testing the Postulate of Measurement in Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 11 (1-2):121-125.
    We interpret the (formal) postulates of measurement in quantum theory in terms of measurement procedures that can be done in the laboratory (at least in principle).
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Yakir Aharonov, Jeeva Anandan & Lev Vaidman (1996). The Meaning of Protective Measurements. Foundations of Physics 26 (1):117-126.
    Protective measurement, which we have introduced recently, allows one to observe properties of the state of a single quantum system and even the Schrödinger wave itself. These measurements require a protection, sometimes due to an additional procedure and sometimes due to the potential of the system itself The analysis of the protective measurements is presented and it is argued, contrary to recent claims, that they observe the quantum state and not the protective potential. Some other misunderstandings concerning our proposal are (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. David Z. Albert (1992). Quantum Mechanics and Experience. Harvard Up.
    Presents a guide to the basics of quantum mechanics and measurement.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. David Z. Albert & Barry Loewer (1991). The Measurement Problem: Some “Solutions”. Synthese 86 (1):87 - 98.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Valia Allori (2013). On the Metaphysics of Quantum Mechanics. In Soazig Lebihan (ed.), Precis de la Philosophie de la Physique. Vuibert.
    What is quantum mechanics about? The most natural way to interpret quantum mechanics realistically as a theory about the world might seem to be what is called wave function ontology: the view according to which the wave function mathematically represents in a complete way fundamentally all there is in the world. Erwin Schroedinger was one of the first proponents of such a view, but he dismissed it after he realized it led to macroscopic superpositions (if the wave function evolves in (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Valia Allori (2013). Primitive Ontology and the Structure of Fundamental Physical Theories. In Alyssa Ney & David Z. Albert (eds.), The Wave Function: Essays in the Metaphysics of Quantum Mechanics. Oxford University Press.
    For a long time it was believed that it was impossible to be realist about quantum mechanics. It took quite a while for the researchers in the foundations of physics, beginning with John Stuart Bell [Bell 1987], to convince others that such an alleged impossibility had no foundation. Nowadays there are several quantum theories that can be interpreted realistically, among which Bohmian mechanics, the GRW theory, and the many-worlds theory. The debate, though, is far from being over: in what respect (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Valia Allori, Sheldon Goldstein, Roderich Tumulka & Nino Zanghi (2013). Predictions and Primitive Ontology in Quantum Foundations: A Study of Examples. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (2):axs048.
    A major disagreement between different views about the foundations of quantum mechanics concerns whether for a theory to be intelligible as a fundamental physical theory it must involve a ‘primitive ontology’ (PO), i.e. variables describing the distribution of matter in four-dimensional space–time. In this article, we illustrate the value of having a PO. We do so by focussing on the role that the PO plays for extracting predictions from a given theory and discuss valid and invalid derivations of predictions. To (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Valia Allori & Nino Zanghi (2004). What is Bohmian Mechanics. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 43:1743-1755.
    Bohmian mechanics is a quantum theory with a clear ontology. To make clear what we mean by this, we shall proceed by recalling first what are the problems of quantum mechanics. We shall then briefly sketch the basics of Bohmian mechanics and indicate how Bohmian mechanics solves these problems and clarifies the status and the role of of the quantum formalism.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Martin S. Altschul (1978). Coordinate Transformations and the Theory of Measurement. Foundations of Physics 8 (1-2):69-92.
    We discuss the criteria for deriving new information from coordinate transformations, focusing on the property of implementability, or measurability in practice. We contrast the role of coordinate transformations in classical and quantum physics, and demonstrate that many well-known applications fail to meet the criteria for new information. Finally, we discuss some mathematical properties of the coordinate transformations, and then relate these properties to a practical measurement scheme.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Charis Anastopoulos (2006). Classical Versus Quantum Probability in Sequential Measurements. Foundations of Physics 36 (11):1601-1661.
    We demonstrate in this paper that the probabilities for sequential measurements have features very different from those of single-time measurements. First, they cannot be modelled by a classical stochastic process. Second, they are contextual, namely they depend strongly on the specific measurement scheme through which they are determined. We construct Positive-Operator-Valued measures (POVM) that provide such probabilities. For observables with continuous spectrum, the constructed POVMs depend strongly on the resolution of the measurement device, a conclusion that persists even if we (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Frank Arntzenius (1993). How to Discover That the Real is Unreal. Erkenntnis 38 (2):191 - 202.
    The measurement problem in quantum mechanics is presented in a completely non-technical way by means of the results of some very simple experiments. These experimental results themselves, rather than the formalism of quantum theory, are shown to be extremely hard to incorporate in a sensible state-space picture of the world. A novel twist is then added which makes the problem even harder than it appears to be in other presentations of the measurement problem.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Harald Atmanspacher (1989). The Aspect of Information Production in the Process of Observation. Foundations of Physics 19 (5):553-577.
    The physical process of observation is considered from a specific information theoretical viewpoint. Using the modified concept of an information based on infinite alternatives, a formalism is derived describing the elementary transfer of one bit of information. This bit of information is produced on a virtual (nonreal) sub-quantum level of physical description. The interpretation of the formalism yields the following, complementary points: (i) the effect of spatiotemporal delocalization on the sub-quantum level, and (ii) a possible access to the concept of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Gennaro Auletta (2005). Quantum Information and Inferential Reasoning. Foundations of Physics 35 (1):155-156.
    Information may be extracted from a quantum–mechanical system only by means of inference. For this reason, the observer, although not required as such for obtaining an eigenstate of the measured observable on a given system, is necessary for obtaining information.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Guido Bacciagaluppi, The Role of Decoherence in Quantum Mechanics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Interference phenomena are a well-known and crucial feature of quantum mechanics, the two-slit experiment providing a standard example. There are situations, however, in which interference effects are (artificially or spontaneously) suppressed. We shall need to make precise what this means, but the theory of decoherence is the study of (spontaneous) interactions between a system and its environment that lead to such suppression of interference. This study includes detailed modelling of system-environment interactions, derivation of equations (‘master equations’) for the (reduced) state (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Manuel Bächtold (2008). Five Formulations of the Quantum Measurement Problem in the Frame of the Standard Interpretation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 39 (1):17 - 33.
    The aim of this paper is to give a systematic account of the so-called “measurement problem” in the frame of the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is argued that there is not one but five distinct formulations of this problem. Each of them depends on what is assumed to be a “satisfactory” description of the measurement process in the frame of the standard interpretation. Moreover, the paper points out that each of these formulations refers not to a unique problem, (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Jeffrey A. Barrett, Wigner's Friend and Bell's Field Beables.
    A field-theoretic version of Wigner’s friend (1961) illustrates how the quantum measurement problem arises for field theory. Similarly, considering spacelike separate measurements of entangled fields by observers akin to Wigner’s friend shows the sense in which relativistic constraints make the measurement problem particularly difficult to resolve in the context of a relativistic field theory. We will consider proposals by Wigner (1961), Bloch (1967), Helwig and Kraus (1970), and Bell (1984) for resolving the measurement problem for quantum field theory. We will (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Otto Bergmann (1988). A Quantum Mechanical Version of the Paper by E. Schrödinger “Über Die Umkehrung der Naturgesetze”. Foundations of Physics 18 (3):373-378.
    The principal results of Schrödinger's paper are reviewed and a possible extension of his formalism for diffusion processes to general quantum mechanical processes is given. The formalism is not in accord with the general theory of transformation of quantum mechanics and violates the basic assumption of the unpredictable change of a system due to a measurement. Nevertheless, the formalism leads to a density operator which is constructed according to accepted quantum mechanical rules.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Michel Bitbol, Consciousness, Situations, and the Measurement Problem of Quantum Mechanics.
    There are two versions of the putative connection between consciousness and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics : consciousness as the cause of state vector reduction, and state vector reduction as the physical basis of consciousness. In this article, these controversial ideas are neither accepted uncritically, nor rejected from the outset in the name of some prejudice about objective knowledge. Instead, their origin is sought in our most cherished (but disputable) beliefs about the place of mind and consciousness in the (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. David Bohm (1952). A Suggested Interpretation of the Quantum Theory in Terms of ‘Hidden’ Variables, I and II. Physical Review (85):166-193.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Thomas Bonk (2001). How Reichenbach Solved the Quantum Measurement Problem. Dialectica 55 (4):291–314.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. William Boos (1996). Mathematical Quantum Theory I: Random Ultrafilters as Hidden Variables. Synthese 107 (1):83 - 143.
    The basic purpose of this essay, the first of an intended pair, is to interpret standard von Neumann quantum theory in a framework of iterated measure algebraic truth for mathematical (and thus mathematical-physical) assertions — a framework, that is, in which the truth-values for such assertions are elements of iterated boolean measure-algebras (cf. Sections 2.2.9, 5.2.1–5.2.6 and 5.3 below).The essay itself employs constructions of Takeuti's boolean-valued analysis (whose origins lay in work of Scott, Solovay, Krauss and others) to provide a (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Carlos Alexandre Brasil, L. A. De Castro & R. D. J. Napolitano (2013). How Much Time Does a Measurement Take? Foundations of Physics 43 (5):642-655.
    We consider the problem of measurement using the Lindblad equation, which allows the introduction of time in the interaction between the measured system and the measurement apparatus. We use analytic results, valid for weak system-environment coupling, obtained for a two-level system in contact with a measurer (Markovian interaction) and a thermal bath (non-Markovian interaction), where the measured observable may or may not commute with the system-environment interaction. Analysing the behavior of the coherence, which tends to a value asymptotically close to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Harvey R. Brown & David Wallace (2005). Solving the Measurement Problem: De Broglie-Bohm Loses Out to Everett. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 35 (4):517-540.
    The quantum theory of de Broglie and Bohm solves the measurement problem, but the hypothetical corpuscles play no role in the argument. The solution finds a more natural home in the Everett interpretation.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Harvey Brown & David Wallace (2005). Solving the Measurement Problem: De Broglie-Bohm Loses Out to Everett. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 35 (4):517-540.
    The quantum theory of de Broglie and Bohm solves the measurement problem, but the hypothetical corpuscles play no role in the argument. The solution finds a more natural home in the Everett interpretation.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Matthew J. Brown (2009). Relational Quantum Mechanics and the Determinacy Problem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (4):679-695.
    Carlo Rovelli's relational interpretation of quantum mechanics holds that a system's states or the values of its physical quantities as normally conceived only exist relative to a cut between a system and an observer or measuring instrument. Furthermore, on Rovelli's account, the appearance of determinate observations from pure quantum superpositions happens only relative to the interaction of the system and observer. Jeffrey Barrett ([1999]) has pointed out that certain relational interpretations suffer from what we might call the ‘determinacy problem', but (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Jeffrey Bub (1988). From Micro to Macro: A Solution to the Measurement Problem of Quantum Mechanics. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:134 - 144.
    Philosophical debate on the measurement problem of quantum mechanics has, for the most part, been confined to the non-relativistic version of the theory. Quantizing quantum field theory, or making quantum mechanics relativistic, yields a conceptual framework capable of dealing with the creation and annihilation of an indefinite number of particles in interaction with fields, i.e. quantum systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. I show that a solution to the standard measurement problem is available if we exploit the (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Paul Busch & Gregg Jaeger (2010). Unsharp Quantum Reality. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1341-1367.
    The positive operator (valued) measures (POMs) allow one to generalize the notion of observable beyond the traditional one based on projection valued measures (PVMs). Here, we argue that this generalized conception of observable enables a consistent notion of unsharp reality and with it an adequate concept of joint properties. A sharp or unsharp property manifests itself as an element of sharp or unsharp reality by its tendency to become actual or to actualize a specific measurement outcome. This actualization tendency—or potentiality—of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1990). Completely Positive Mappings in Quantum Dynamics and Measurement Theory. Foundations of Physics 20 (12):1429-1439.
    The role of completely positive mappings in quantum dynamics and measurement theory is reanalyzed in light of the possibility of a generalized dynamics.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Paul Busch & Abner Shimony (1996). Insolubility of the Quantum Measurement Problem for Unsharp Observables. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (4):397-404.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara (1977). Logical Self Reference, Set Theoretical Paradoxes and the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 6 (1):331 - 347.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Leon Cohen & Marlan O. Scully (1986). Joint Wigner Distribution for Spin-1/2 Particles. Foundations of Physics 16 (4):295-310.
    The Wigner distribution has proven to be a useful tool in many quantum problems requiring a joint distribution of position and momentum. In the present paper we develop a joint distribution for spin components within the spirit of the Wigner distribution. This distribution provides an insight into the quantum theory of measurement. We also discuss how one may write joint distributions for two arbitrary noncommuting operators.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Michael E. Cuffaro & Wayne C. Myrvold (2013). On the Debate Concerning the Proper Characterization of Quantum Dynamical Evolution. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):1125-1136.
    There has been a long-standing and sometimes passionate debate between physicists over whether a dynamical framework for quantum systems should incorporate not completely positive (NCP) maps in addition to completely positive (CP) maps. Despite the reasonableness of the arguments for complete positivity, we argue that NCP maps should be allowed, with a qualification: these should be understood, not as reflecting ‘not completely positive’ evolution, but as linear extensions, to a system’s entire state space, of CP maps that are only partially (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. John F. Cyranski (1978). Quantum Measurement as a Communication with Nature. Foundations of Physics 8 (11-12):805-822.
    It is assumed that experiments yield results that are not isomorphic with reality, but represent a distorted image of reality. Reality is related to observation via a communication channel of finite capacity. Quantum uncertainties are due to the bound on the amount of information available. Use is made of recent results from information and communication theories.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. B. D'Espagnat (1987). Empirical Reality, Empirical Causality, and the Measurement Problem. Foundations of Physics 17 (5):507-529.
    Does physics describe anything that can meaningfully be called “independent reality,” or is it merely operational? Most physicists implicitly favor an intermediate standpoint, which takes quantum physics into account, but which nevertheless strongly holds fast to quite strictly realistic ideas about apparently “obvious facts” concerning the macro-objects. Part 1 of this article, which is a survey of recent measurement theories, shows that, when made explicit, the standpoint in question cannot be upheld. Part 2 brings forward a proposal for making minimal (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Dennis Dieks (2003). Book Review: Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, an Empiricist Approach. By Willem M. De Muynck. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 2002, Xxiv+680 Pp., $219.00 (Hardcover). ISBN 1-4020-0932-1. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (6):1003-1006.
  37. Andrew Elby (1994). The 'Decoherence' Approach to the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:355 - 365.
    Decoherence results from the dissipative interaction between a quantum system and its environment. As the system and environment become entangled, the reduced density operator describing the system "decoheres" into a mixture (with the interference terms damped out). This formal result prompts some to exclaim that the measurement problem is solved. I will scrutinize this claim by examining how modal and relative-state interpretations can use decoherence. Although decoherence cannot rescue these interpretations from general metaphysical difficulties, decoherence may help these interpretations to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Arthur Fine (1993). Measurement and Quantum Silence. In. In S. French & H. Kamminga (eds.), Correspondence, Invariance and Heuristics. Kluwer. 279--294.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Gordon Fleming (2000). Operation Quantum Physics. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 31 (1):117-125.
  40. Alan Forrester (2007). Decision Theory and Information Propagation in Quantum Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (4):815-831.
    In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule pk=|ψk|2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decision-theoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 3129–3137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415–438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. S. French (2002). A Phenomenological Solution to the Measurement Problem? Husserl and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 33 (3):467-491.
    The London and Bauer monograph occupies a central place in the debate concerning the quantum measurement problem. Gavroglu has previously noted the influence of Husserlian phenomenology on London's scientific work. However, he has not explored the full extent of this influence in the monograph itself. I begin this paper by outlining the important role played by the monograph in the debate. In effect, it acted as a kind of 'lens' through which the standard, or Copenhagen, 'solution' to the measurement problem (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Steven French (2008). Quantum Enigma. Review of Metaphysics 61 (4):857-858.
  43. Yehudah Freundlich (1972). Mind, Matter, and Physicists. Foundations of Physics 2 (2-3):129-148.
    Some aspects of the problem of measurement in quantum theory are treated. We stress that the problem is both physical and conceptual, that the physical problem has been solved and the conceptual one is inherent in quantum theory. We also deal with some remarks made by Wigner concerning physics and the explanation of life, and present alternative positions on the mind-matter relationship within a deterministic framework, as we see them.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Izuru Fujiwara (1972). Quantum Theory of State Reduction and Measurement. Foundations of Physics 2 (2-3):83-110.
    The central problem in the quantum theory of measurement, how to describe the process of state reduction in terms of the quantum mechanical formalism, is solved on the basis of the relativity of quantal states, which implies that once the apparatus is detected in a well-defined state, the object state must reduce to a corresponding one. This is a process termed by Schrödinger disentanglement. Here, it is essential to observe that Renninger's negative result does constitute an actual measurement process. From (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. G. C. Ghirardi, A. Rimini & T. Weber (1980). A General Argument Against Superluminal Transmission Through the Quantum Mechanical Measurement Process. Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento 27:294--298.
  46. GianCarlo Ghirardi (2008). Reconsidering Mermin's “In Praise of Measurement”. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):1011-1019.
    We critically analyze a recent paper by D. Mermin and we compare his statements with Bell’s position on the problems he is discussing.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Partha Ghose & Dipankar Home (1995). An Analysis of the Aharonov-Anandan-Vaidman Model. Foundations of Physics 25 (7):1105-1109.
    We argue that the Aharonov-Anandan-Vaidman model, by using the notion of so-called “protective measurements,” cannot claim to have dispensed with the ldcollapse of the wave function,” because it does not succeed in avoiding the quantum measurement problem. Its claim to be able to distinguish between two nonorthogonal states is also critically examined.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Barry C. Gilbert & Sue Sulcs (1996). The Measurement Problem Resolved and Local Realism Preserved Via a Collapse-Free Photon Detection Model. Foundations of Physics 26 (11):1401-1439.
    A new realislic local model of light propagation and detection is described. The authors propose a novel stochastic model of low-intensity photon detection in which background noise is added to a part of the photon prior to absorption. In this model, in agreement with Planck, there is no quantization of the propagating field. The model has some similarities to theories advanced by E. Santos and T. Marshall in the last decade, but also has substantial deviations from these. A mechanism, conserving (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Ravi V. Gomatam (1999). Quantum Theory and the Observation Problem. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (11-12):11-12.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Daniel M. Greenberger (2001). The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (1):127-129.
    Review of Peter Mittelstaedt, The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Measurement Process (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 140pp., ISBN 0-521-55445-4, hardback US$44.95, £30.00.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 123