This category needs an editor. We encourage you to help if you are qualified.
Volunteer, or read more about what this involves.
Related categories
Subcategories:
474 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
1 — 50 / 474
Material to categorize
  1. Marshall Abrams (2007). Fitness and Propensity's Annulment? Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):115-130.
    Recent debate on the nature of probabilities in evolutionary biology has focused largely on the propensity interpretation of fitness (PIF), which defines fitness in terms of a conception of probability known as “propensity”. However, proponents of this conception of fitness have misconceived the role of probability in the constitution of fitness. First, discussions of probability and fitness have almost always focused on organism effect probability, the probability that an organism and its environment cause effects. I argue that much of the (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Richard N. Adams (2011). Energy, Complexity, and Strategies of Evolution: As Illustrated by Maya Indians of Guatemala. World Futures 66 (7):470-503.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. David C. Airey & Richard C. Shelton (2006). Praise for a Critical Perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):405-405.
    The target article skillfully evaluates data on mental disorders in relation to predictions from evolutionary genetic theories of neutral evolution, balancing selection, and polygenic mutation-selection balance, resulting in a negative outlook for the likelihood of success finding genes for mental disorders. Nevertheless, new conceptualizations, methods, and continued interactions across disciplines provide hope. (Published Online November 9 2006).
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. G. M. Aitken (1998). Extinction. Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):393-411.
    A significant proportion of conservationists' work is directed towards efforts to save disappearing species. This relies upon the belief that species extinction is undesirable. When justifications are offered for this belief, they very often rest upon the assumption that extinction brought about by humans is different in kind from other forms of extinction. This paper examines this assumption and reveals that there is indeed good reason to suppose current anthropogenic extinctions to be different in kind from extinctions brought about at (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. R. McNeill Alexander (2006). Where Animals Go: Mechanistic Home Range Analysis Paul R. Moorcraft and Mark A. Lewis Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press , 2006 (172 Pp; $26.95 Pbk; ISBN 0-691-00928-7). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (4):433-434.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. R. McNeill Alexander (1985). The Legs of Ostriches (Struthio) and Moas (Pachyornis). Acta Biotheoretica 34 (2-4).
    Ostriches were filmed running at maximum speed, and forces on the feet were calculated. Measurements were made of the principal structures in the legs of an ostrich. Hence peak stresses in muscles, tendons and bones were calculated. They lay within the range of stresses calculated for strenuous activities of other vertebrates. The ostrich makes substantial savings of energy in running, by elastic storage in stretched tendons. Pachyornis was a flightless bird, much heavier than ostriches and with massively thick leg bones. (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Garland E. Allen (1968). Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Problem of Natural Selection. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (1):113 - 139.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. L. Almeida & J. Demongeot (forthcoming). Predictive Power of “A Minima” Models in Biology. Acta Biotheoretica.
    Abstract Many apparently complex mechanisms in biology, especially in embryology and molecular biology, can be explained easily by reasoning at the level of the “efficient cause” of the observed phenomenology: the mechanism can then be explained by a simple geometrical argument or a variational principle, leading to the solution of an optimization problem, for example, via the co-existence of a minimization and a maximization problem (a min–max principle). Passing from a microscopic (or cellular) level (optimal min–max solution of the simple (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. M. Anand (2000). The Fundamentals of Vegetation Change - Complexity Rules. Acta Biotheoretica 48 (1).
    Long-term vegetation dynamics based on paleo-pollen data display transient behaviour, often alternating in phase between predominant determinism and predominant 'turbulence', when viewed as a trajectory in a multivariate phase space. Given this, the metaphor of vegetation dynamics as a 'flowing stream', first introduced by Cooper in his classic 1926 paper entitled "The fundamentals of vegetation change", is re-examined and revealed to be not only useful, but strikingly realistic. Vegetation dynamic theory is reviewed and classic theories are found to reflect reality (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Claes Andersson (2008). Sophisticated Selectionism as a General Theory of Knowledge. Biology and Philosophy 23 (2):229-242.
    Human knowledge is a phenomenon whose roots extend from the cultural, through the neural and the biological and finally all the way down into the Precambrian “primordial soup.” The present paper reports an attempt at understanding this Greater System of Knowledge (GSK) as a hierarchical nested set of selection processes acting concurrently on several different scales of time and space. To this end, a general selection theory extending mainly from the work of Hull and Campbell is introduced. The perhaps most (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Ping Ao (2007). Darwinian Dynamics Implies Developmental Ascendency. Biological Theory 2 (1):113-115.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. M. Arrigoni & A. Steiner (1983). Square-Root Models for the Volterra Equations and the Explicit Solution of These Models. Acta Biotheoretica 32 (2).
    Volterra's (1926) equations for competition and predator-prey interactions are modified by introduction of root terms. A critical comparison with the original equations shows that the dynamic properties of the systems remain essentially alike, while the modification allows for explicit solution of the differential equations. Detailed solutions and numerical examples are given.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Stephen T. Asma (1996). Darwin's Causal Pluralism. Biology and Philosophy 11 (1):1-20.
    Historians of Biology have divided nineteenth century naturalists into two basic camps, Functionalists and Structuralists. This division is supposed to demarcate the alternative causal presuppositions working beneath research programs. If one is functionally oriented, then organic form will be contingent upon the causal powers of the environment. If structurally oriented, one argues for nonfunctional mechanisms (e.g., internal laws of growth) to account for organic form.Traditionally, Darwin has been grouped with the functionalists because natural selection (an adaptational mechanism) plays the prominent (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Sunny Auyang, Concepts of System in Engineering.
    PDF version This talk explores three concepts of system in engineering: systems theory, systems approach, and systems engineering. They are exemplified in three dimensions of engineering: science, design, and management. Unifying the three system concepts is the idea of function: functional abstraction in theory, functional analysis in design, and functional requirements in management. Signifying what a system is for, function is a purposive notion absent in physical science, which aims to understand nature. It is prominent in engineering, which aims to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Francisco J. Ayala (1986). The Theory of Evolution: The Case for Randomness in the Evolution of DNA and Proteins. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 8 (1):129 - 138.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Michael B.�Lker (2004). Bear Ye One Another?S Genetic Burdens: The Price of Diversity and Complexity. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (1-2):73-82.
    Genetic variability and diversity are the result of a mutation-selection balance that acts permanently within and between species. The presence of deleterious mutations is a necessary consequence of this process and thus the price paid by a species for its capacity for further evolution (Haldane 1937, Am Nat 71:337–349). Recent estimations of mutation rate in the human lineage has revived the debate as to whether the high number of deleterious mutations poses a severe problem for the future of mankind. Theoretical (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. C. D. N. Barel (1993). Concepts of an Architectonic Approach to Transformation Morphology. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (4).
    This paper is about a general methodology for pattern transformation. Patterns are network representations of the relations among structures and functions within an organism. Transformation refers to any realistic or abstract transformation relevant to biology, e.g. ontogeny, evolution and phenotypic clines. The main aim of the paper is a methodology for analyzing the range of effects on a pattern due to perturbing one or more of its structures and/or functions (transformation morphology). Concepts relevant to such an analysis of pattern transformation (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Louise Barrett & S. Peter Henzi (2002). Are All Bases Covered? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):506-507.
    In addition to ensuring that appropriate standards of evidence are employed when attempting to identify adaptations, researchers should investigate all nonevolutionary factors that could potentially explain their results. Evolutionary analyses may be undermined by alternative, non-evolutionary explanations either because not all relevant information is included in an evolutionary analysis, or because inappropriate methods incapable of detecting an adaptation are employed.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Martin Barrett, Hayley Clatterbuck, Michael Goldsby, Casey Helgeson, Brian McLoone, Trevor Pearce, Elliott Sober, Reuben Stern & Naftali Weinberger (2012). Puzzles for ZFEL, McShea and Brandon's Zero Force Evolutionary Law. Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):723-735.
    In their 2010 book, Biology’s First Law, D. McShea and R. Brandon present a principle that they call ‘‘ZFEL,’’ the zero force evolutionary law. ZFEL says (roughly) that when there are no evolutionary forces acting on a population, the population’s complexity (i.e., how diverse its member organisms are) will increase. Here we develop criticisms of ZFEL and describe a different law of evolution; it says that diversity and complexity do not change when there are no evolutionary causes.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Nick Barton & Linda Partridge (2000). Limits to Natural Selection. Bioessays 22 (12):1075-1084.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Barbara G. Beddall (1968). Wallace, Darwin, and the Theory of Natural Selection: A Study in the Development of Ideas and Attitudes. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):261 - 323.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Ken Binmore (2013). Sexual Drift. Biological Theory 8 (2):201-208.
    This paper uses a 4 × 4 expansion of the Hawk–Dove Game to illustrate how sexual drift in a large genotype space can shift a population from one equilibrium in a smaller phenotype space to another. An equilibrium is only safe from being destabilized in this way when implemented by recessive alleles.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Jean-Sébastien Bolduc & Frank Cézilly (2012). Optimality Modelling in the Real World. Biology and Philosophy 27 (6):851-869.
    In a recent paper, Potochnik (Biol Philos 24(2):183–197, 2009) analyses some uses of optimality modelling in light of the anti-adaptationism criticism. She distinguishes two broad classes of such uses (weak and strong) on the basis of assumptions held by biologists about the role and the importance of natural selection. This is an interesting proposal that could help in the epistemological characterisation of some biological practices. However, Potochnik’s distinction also rests on the assumption that all optimality modelling represent the selection dynamic (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Michael Bölker (2004). Bear Ye One Another's Genetic Burdens: The Price of Diversity and Complexity. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (s 1-2):73-82.
    Genetic variability and diversity are the result of a mutation-selection balance that acts permanently within and between species. The presence of deleterious mutations is a necessary consequence of this process and thus “the price paid by a species for its capacity for further evolution” (Haldane 1937, Am Nat 71:337–349). Recent estimations of mutation rate in the human lineage has revived the debate as to whether the high number of deleterious mutations poses a severe problem for the future of mankind. Theoretical (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Walter Bossert, Chloe X. Qi & John A. Weymark (2013). Extensive Social Choice and the Measurement of Group Fitness in Biological Hierarchies. Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):75-98.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Pierrick Bourrat, Time and Fitness in Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality.
    It is striking that the concept of fitness although fundamental in evolutionary theory, still remains ambiguous. I argue here that time, although usually neglected, is an important parameter in regards to the concept of fitness. I will show some of the benefits of taking it seriously using the example of recent debates over evolutionary transitions in individuality. I start from Okasha's assertion that once an evolutionary transition in individuality is completed an ontologically new level of selection emerges from lower levels (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Daniel R. Brooks, John Collier, Brian A. Maurer, Jonathan D. H. Smith & E. O. Wiley (1989). Entropy and Information in Evolving Biological Systems. Biology and Philosophy 4 (4):407-432.
    Integrating concepts of maintenance and of origins is essential to explaining biological diversity. The unified theory of evolution attempts to find a common theme linking production rules inherent in biological systems, explaining the origin of biological order as a manifestation of the flow of energy and the flow of information on various spatial and temporal scales, with the recognition that natural selection is an evolutionarily relevant process. Biological systems persist in space and time by transfor ming energy from one state (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Joe Cain (2005). Book Review: Edward J. Larson, Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory (New York: The Modern Library), Xiv + 337 Pp., Illus., $21.95. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):172-174.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Joseph Allen Cain & Lindley Darden (1988). Hull and Selection. Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):165-171.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Tom Campbell, Daria Osipova & Seppo Kähkönen (2006). Finland's Galapagos: Founder Effect, Drift, and Isolation in the Inheritance of Susceptibility Alleles. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):409-410.
    The target article excludes ancestral neutrality as a cause for the inheritance of schizophrenia, with an argument relating to selection against a single allele in the Finnish population. However, drift would predominate over selection within subisolates of the Finnish population. Comparisons of subisolates with heterogeneous populations may provide clues to the endophenotypic structure of complex polygenetic heritable mental disorders. (Published Online November 9 2006).
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Lynn Helena Caporale (2009). Putting Together the Pieces: Evolutionary Mechanisms at Work Within Genomes. Bioessays 31 (7):700-702.
  32. Lynn Helena Caporale (2008). It's Not Random Anymore. Bioessays 30 (4):400-402.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Lynn Helena Caporale (2000). Mutation is Modulated: Implications for Evolution. Bioessays 22 (4):388-395.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Hayley Clatterbuck, Elliott Sober & Richard Lewontin (2013). Selection Never Dominates Drift (nor Vice Versa). Biology and Philosophy 28 (4):577-592.
    The probability that the fitter of two alleles will increase in frequency in a population goes up as the product of N (the effective population size) and s (the selection coefficient) increases. Discovering the distribution of values for this product across different alleles in different populations is a very important biological task. However, biologists often use the product Ns to define a different concept; they say that drift “dominates” selection or that drift is “stronger than” selection when Ns is much (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Edward C. Cox (1995). Recombination, Mutation and the Origin of Species. Bioessays 17 (9):747-749.
  36. A. Brito Cunha (1991). Commentary on the Paper by H.C. Byerly and R.E. Michod, “Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation”. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):23-27.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Bernard D. Davis (1993). Roots: The Penicillin Method of Mutant Selection. Bioessays 15 (12):837-839.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. W. Ford Doolittle (forthcoming). Natural Selection Through Survival Alone, and the Possibility of Gaia. Biology and Philosophy:1-9.
    Here I advance two related evolutionary propositions. (1) Natural selection is most often considered to require competition between reproducing “individuals”, sometimes quite broadly conceived, as in cases of clonal, species or multispecies-community selection. But differential survival of non-competing and non-reproducing individuals will also result in increasing frequencies of survival-promoting “adaptations” among survivors, and thus is also a kind of natural selection. (2) Darwinists have challenged the view that the Earth’s biosphere is an evolved global homeostatic system. Since there is only (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. W. Ford Doolittle (2013). Microbial Neopleomorphism. Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):351-378.
    Our understanding of what microbes are and how they evolve has undergone many radical shifts since the late nineteenth century, when many still believed that bacteria could be spontaneously generated and most thought microbial “species” (if any) to be unstable and interchangeable in form and function (pleomorphic). By the late twentieth century, an ontology based on single cells and definable species with predictable properties, evolving like species of animals or plants, was widely accepted. Now, however, genomic and metagenomic data show (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. W. Ford Doolittle, Julius Lukeš, John M. Archibald, Patrick J. Keeling & Michael W. Gray (2011). Comment on “Does Constructive Neutral Evolution Play an Important Role in the Origin of Cellular Complexity?” DOI 10.1002/Bies. 201100010. [REVIEW] Bioessays 33 (6):427-429.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Gabby Dover (1997). There's More to Life Than Selection and Neutrality. Bioessays 19 (1):91-92.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Catherine Driscoll (2006). The Bowerbirds and the Bees: Miller on Art, Altruism, and Sexual Selection. Philosophical Psychology 19 (4):507 – 526.
    Geoffrey Miller argues that we can account for the evolution of human art and altruism via the action of sexual selection. He identifies five characteristics supposedly unique to sexual adaptations: fitness indicating cost; involvement in courtship; heritability; variability; and sexual differentiation. Miller claims that art and altruism possess these characteristics. I argue that not only does he not demonstrate that art and altruism possess these characteristics, one can also explain the origins of altruism via a form of group selection and (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Thomas Durt (2010). Experimental Proposal for Testing the Emergence of Environment Induced (EIN) Classical Selection Rules with Biological Systems. Studia Logica 95 (1/2):259 - 277.
    According to the so-called Quantum Darwinist approach, the emergence of "classical islands" from a quantum background is assumed to obey a (selection) principle of maximal information. We illustrate this idea by considering the coupling of two oscillators (modes). As our approach suggests that the classical limit could have emerged throughout a long and progressive Evolution mechanism, it is likely that primitive living organisms behave in a "more quantum", "less classical" way than more evolved ones. This brings us to seriously consider (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Luís R. Eleutério (2012). Mechanism of Stimulation: An Alternative Explanation for Genetic Variation in the Evolutionary Theory. World Futures 68 (1):49 - 68.
    A new evolutionary concept is presented, based on the principle of biological diversity by organismal adaptation, more specifically the origin of the first variations and the process leading to speciation. The article suggests the mechanism of stimulation as the major promoter of genetic variation, making an overall assessment and accurate to the natural phenomenon responsible for this evolutionary step. Constantly, environmental forces interact with the organism, favoring changes to the organs toward adaptation. Stimulation focuses on this action?reaction between organism and (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Matthew Elton (1997). Cognitive Success and Exam Preparation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):72-73.
    Evolution is not like an exam in which pre-set problems need to be solved. Failing to recognise this point, Clark & Thornton misconstrue the type of explanation called for in species learning although, clearly, species that can trade spaces have more chances to discover novel beneficial behaviours. On the other hand, the trading spaces strategy might help to explain lifetime learning successes.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Richard England (1997). Natural Selection Before the Origin: Public Reactions of Some Naturalists to the Darwin-Wallace Papers (Thomas Boyd, Arthur Hussey, and Henry Baker Tristram). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 30 (2):267 - 290.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Lina Eriksson (2008). The Concept(s) and Controversies of Equilibrium. Biology and Philosophy 23 (3):447-454.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Carla Fehr (2001). Pluralism and Sex: More Than a Pragmatic Issue. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S237-.
    The evolution of sexual reproduction is a case of explanatory pluralism, meaning that there is more than one explanation for this phenomenon. I use the concept of a domain to more clearly explicate the various explananda that can be found in this case. I argue that although pluralism with respect to some types of domains can be decreased using van Fraassen’s pragmatics of explanation, there remains an important class of domain, an orthogonal domain, for which this is not the case.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Willy Feller (1939). Die Grundlagen der Volterraschen Theorie Des Kampfes Ums Dasein in Wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretischer Behandlung. Acta Biotheoretica 5 (1).
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Robert K. Fleck (2011). Natural Selection and the Problem of Evil: An Evolutionary Model with Application to an Ancient Debate. Zygon 46 (3):561-587.
    Abstract. Since Darwin, scholars have contemplated what our growing understanding of natural selection, combined with the fact that great suffering occurs, allows us to infer about the possibility that a benevolent God created the universe. Building on this long line of thought, I develop a model that illustrates how undesirable characteristics of the world (stylized “evils”) can influence long-run outcomes. More specifically, the model considers an evolutionary process in which each generation faces a risk from a “natural evil” (e.g., predation, (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 474