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  1. Lonnie W. Aarssen (1984). On the Distinction Between Niche and Competitive Ability: Implications for Coexistence Theory. Acta Biotheoretica 33 (2):67-83.
    The meaning of niche and competitive ability have long been surrounded by controversy. The reason for this stems from the obscure relationship that exists between these terms. This extends from the views of Darwin through Eltonian tradition to current views in which the meaning of competitive ability is implicitly infused into the paradigm of niche. Distinct operational definitions for niche and competitive ability are therefore established with special reference to plants. It is proposed that potential niche refer explicitly to a (...)
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  2. Marshall Abrams (2007). Fitness and Propensity's Annulment? Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):115-130.
    Recent debate on the nature of probabilities in evolutionary biology has focused largely on the propensity interpretation of fitness (PIF), which defines fitness in terms of a conception of probability known as “propensity”. However, proponents of this conception of fitness have misconceived the role of probability in the constitution of fitness. First, discussions of probability and fitness have almost always focused on organism effect probability, the probability that an organism and its environment cause effects. I argue that much of the (...)
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  3. Marshall Abrams (2007). How Do Natural Selection and Random Drift Interact? Philosophy of Science 74 (5):666-679.
    One controversy about the existence of so called evolutionary forces such as natural selection and random genetic drift concerns the sense in which such “forces” can be said to interact. In this paper I explain how natural selection and random drift can interact. In particular, I show how population-level probabilities can be derived from individual-level probabilities, and explain the sense in which natural selection and drift are embodied in these population-level probabilities. I argue that whatever causal character the individual-level probabilities (...)
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  4. Richard N. Adams (2011). Energy, Complexity, and Strategies of Evolution: As Illustrated by Maya Indians of Guatemala. World Futures 66 (7):470-503.
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  5. David C. Airey & Richard C. Shelton (2006). Praise for a Critical Perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):405-405.
    The target article skillfully evaluates data on mental disorders in relation to predictions from evolutionary genetic theories of neutral evolution, balancing selection, and polygenic mutation-selection balance, resulting in a negative outlook for the likelihood of success finding genes for mental disorders. Nevertheless, new conceptualizations, methods, and continued interactions across disciplines provide hope. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  6. G. M. Aitken (1998). Extinction. Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):393-411.
    A significant proportion of conservationists' work is directed towards efforts to save disappearing species. This relies upon the belief that species extinction is undesirable. When justifications are offered for this belief, they very often rest upon the assumption that extinction brought about by humans is different in kind from other forms of extinction. This paper examines this assumption and reveals that there is indeed good reason to suppose current anthropogenic extinctions to be different in kind from extinctions brought about at (...)
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  7. R. McNeill Alexander (2006). Where Animals Go: Mechanistic Home Range Analysis Paul R. Moorcraft and Mark A. Lewis Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press , 2006 (172 Pp; $26.95 Pbk; ISBN 0-691-00928-7). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (4):433-434.
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  8. R. McNeill Alexander (1985). The Legs of Ostriches (Struthio) and Moas (Pachyornis). Acta Biotheoretica 34 (2-4):165-174.
    Ostriches were filmed running at maximum speed, and forces on the feet were calculated. Measurements were made of the principal structures in the legs of an ostrich. Hence peak stresses in muscles, tendons and bones were calculated. They lay within the range of stresses calculated for strenuous activities of other vertebrates. The ostrich makes substantial savings of energy in running, by elastic storage in stretched tendons. Pachyornis was a flightless bird, much heavier than ostriches and with massively thick leg bones. (...)
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  9. S. Alexander (1892). Natural Selection in Morals. International Journal of Ethics 2 (4):409-439.
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  10. Garland E. Allen (1968). Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Problem of Natural Selection. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (1):113 - 139.
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  11. Thomas R. Alley (1985). Organism-Environment Mutuality Epistemics, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche. Synthese 65 (3):411 - 444.
    The concept of an ecological niche (econiche) has been used in a variety of ways, some of which are incompatible with a relational or functional interpretation of the term. This essay seeks to standardize usage by limiting the concept to functional relations between organisms and their surroundings, and to revise the concept to include epistemic relations. For most organisms, epistemics are a vital aspect of their functional relationships to their surroundings and, hence, a major determinant of their econiche. Rejecting the (...)
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  12. L. Almeida & J. Demongeot (2012). Predictive Power of “A Minima” Models in Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (1-2):3-19.
    Many apparently complex mechanisms in biology, especially in embryology and molecular biology, can be explained easily by reasoning at the level of the “efficient cause” of the observed phenomenology: the mechanism can then be explained by a simple geometrical argument or a variational principle, leading to the solution of an optimization problem, for example, via the co-existence of a minimization and a maximization problem . Passing from a microscopic level to the macroscopic level often involves an averaging effect that gives (...)
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  13. Stephen G. Alter (2007). Darwin's Artificial Selection Analogy and the Generic Character of "Phyletic" Evolution. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):57 - 81.
    This paper examines the way Charles Darwin applied his domestic breeding analogy to the practical workings of species evolution: that application, it is argued, centered on Darwin's distinction between methodical and unconscious selection. Methodical selection, which entailed pairing particular individuals for mating purposes, represented conditions of strict geographic isolation, obviously useful for species multiplication (speciation). By contrast, unconscious selection represented an open landmass with a large breeding population. Yet Darwin held that this latter scenario, which often would include multiple ecological (...)
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  14. M. Anand (2000). The Fundamentals of Vegetation Change - Complexity Rules. Acta Biotheoretica 48 (1):1-14.
    Long-term vegetation dynamics based on paleo-pollen data display transient behaviour, often alternating in phase between predominant determinism and predominant 'turbulence', when viewed as a trajectory in a multivariate phase space. Given this, the metaphor of vegetation dynamics as a 'flowing stream', first introduced by Cooper in his classic 1926 paper entitled "The fundamentals of vegetation change", is re-examined and revealed to be not only useful, but strikingly realistic. Vegetation dynamic theory is reviewed and classic theories are found to reflect reality (...)
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  15. Claes Andersson (2008). Sophisticated Selectionism as a General Theory of Knowledge. Biology and Philosophy 23 (2):229-242.
    Human knowledge is a phenomenon whose roots extend from the cultural, through the neural and the biological and finally all the way down into the Precambrian “primordial soup.” The present paper reports an attempt at understanding this Greater System of Knowledge (GSK) as a hierarchical nested set of selection processes acting concurrently on several different scales of time and space. To this end, a general selection theory extending mainly from the work of Hull and Campbell is introduced. The perhaps most (...)
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  16. Pierpaolo Andriani & Jack Cohen (2013). From Exaptation to Radical Niche Construction in Biological and Technological Complex Systems. Complexity 18 (5):7-14.
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  17. Ping Ao (2007). Darwinian Dynamics Implies Developmental Ascendency. Biological Theory 2 (1):113-115.
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  18. M. Arrigoni & A. Steiner (1983). Square-Root Models for the Volterra Equations and the Explicit Solution of These Models. Acta Biotheoretica 32 (2):123-142.
    Volterra's (1926) equations for competition and predator-prey interactions are modified by introduction of root terms. A critical comparison with the original equations shows that the dynamic properties of the systems remain essentially alike, while the modification allows for explicit solution of the differential equations. Detailed solutions and numerical examples are given.
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  19. Stephen T. Asma (1996). Darwin's Causal Pluralism. Biology and Philosophy 11 (1):1-20.
    Historians of Biology have divided nineteenth century naturalists into two basic camps, Functionalists and Structuralists. This division is supposed to demarcate the alternative causal presuppositions working beneath research programs. If one is functionally oriented, then organic form will be contingent upon the causal powers of the environment. If structurally oriented, one argues for nonfunctional mechanisms (e.g., internal laws of growth) to account for organic form.Traditionally, Darwin has been grouped with the functionalists because natural selection (an adaptational mechanism) plays the prominent (...)
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  20. Sunny Auyang, Concepts of System in Engineering.
    PDF version This talk explores three concepts of system in engineering: systems theory, systems approach, and systems engineering. They are exemplified in three dimensions of engineering: science, design, and management. Unifying the three system concepts is the idea of function: functional abstraction in theory, functional analysis in design, and functional requirements in management. Signifying what a system is for, function is a purposive notion absent in physical science, which aims to understand nature. It is prominent in engineering, which aims to (...)
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  21. Francisco J. Ayala (1986). The Theory of Evolution: The Case for Randomness in the Evolution of DNA and Proteins. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 8 (1):129 - 138.
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  22. Michael B.�Lker (2004). Bear Ye One Another?S Genetic Burdens: The Price of Diversity and Complexity. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (1-2):73-82.
    Genetic variability and diversity are the result of a mutation-selection balance that acts permanently within and between species. The presence of deleterious mutations is a necessary consequence of this process and thus the price paid by a species for its capacity for further evolution (Haldane 1937, Am Nat 71:337–349). Recent estimations of mutation rate in the human lineage has revived the debate as to whether the high number of deleterious mutations poses a severe problem for the future of mankind. Theoretical (...)
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  23. C. D. N. Barel (1993). Concepts of an Architectonic Approach to Transformation Morphology. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (4):345-381.
    This paper is about a general methodology for pattern transformation. Patterns are network representations of the relations among structures and functions within an organism. Transformation refers to any realistic or abstract transformation relevant to biology, e.g. ontogeny, evolution and phenotypic clines. The main aim of the paper is a methodology for analyzing the range of effects on a pattern due to perturbing one or more of its structures and/or functions (transformation morphology). Concepts relevant to such an analysis of pattern transformation (...)
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  24. Louise Barrett & S. Peter Henzi (2002). Are All Bases Covered? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):506-507.
    In addition to ensuring that appropriate standards of evidence are employed when attempting to identify adaptations, researchers should investigate all nonevolutionary factors that could potentially explain their results. Evolutionary analyses may be undermined by alternative, non-evolutionary explanations either because not all relevant information is included in an evolutionary analysis, or because inappropriate methods incapable of detecting an adaptation are employed.
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  25. Martin Barrett, Hayley Clatterbuck, Michael Goldsby, Casey Helgeson, Brian McLoone, Trevor Pearce, Elliott Sober, Reuben Stern & Naftali Weinberger (2012). Puzzles for ZFEL, McShea and Brandon's Zero Force Evolutionary Law. Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):723-735.
    In their 2010 book, Biology’s First Law, D. McShea and R. Brandon present a principle that they call ‘‘ZFEL,’’ the zero force evolutionary law. ZFEL says (roughly) that when there are no evolutionary forces acting on a population, the population’s complexity (i.e., how diverse its member organisms are) will increase. Here we develop criticisms of ZFEL and describe a different law of evolution; it says that diversity and complexity do not change when there are no evolutionary causes.
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  26. Nick Barton & Linda Partridge (2000). Limits to Natural Selection. Bioessays 22 (12):1075-1084.
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  27. John Beatty (1984). Chance and Natural Selection. Philosophy of Science 51 (2):183-211.
    Among the liveliest disputes in evolutionary biology today are disputes concerning the role of chance in evolution--more specifically, disputes concerning the relative evolutionary importance of natural selection vs. so-called "random drift". The following discussion is an attempt to sort out some of the broad issues involved in those disputes. In the first half of this paper, I try to explain the differences between evolution by natural selection and evolution by random drift. On some common construals of "natural selection", those two (...)
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  28. John Beatty (1984). Pluralism and Panselectionism. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:113 - 128.
    During the 1950s and 60s, evolutionary biologists began to attribute a greater and greater role to natural selection, and correspondingly less and less a role to alternative evolutionary agents. Empirical grounds cited in support of the change in attitude consisted primarily of selectionist reinterpretations of evolutionary changes originally attributed to other evolutionary agents. In order to distinguish the respects in which the increased emphasis on natural selection was justified and unjustified, two distinctions are relied on. These are, first, the distinction (...)
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  29. William Bechtel (2009). Generalization and Discovery by Assuming Conserved Mechanisms: Cross‐Species Research on Circadian Oscillators. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):762-773.
    In many domains of biology, explanation takes the form of characterizing the mechanism responsible for a particular phenomenon in a specific biological system. How are such explanations generalized? One important strategy assumes conservation of mechanisms through evolutionary descent. But conservation is seldom complete. In the case discussed, the central mechanism for circadian rhythms in animals was first identified in Drosophila and then extended to mammals. Scientists' working assumption that the clock mechanisms would be conserved both yielded important generalizations and served (...)
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  30. Barbara G. Beddall (1968). Wallace, Darwin, and the Theory of Natural Selection: A Study in the Development of Ideas and Attitudes. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):261 - 323.
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  31. Hugues Bersini (2012). Emergent Phenomena Belong Only to Biology. Synthese 185 (2):257-272.
    In this philosophical paper, I discuss and illustrate the necessary three ingredients that together could allow a collective phenomenon to be labelled as “emergent.” First, the phenomenon, as usual, requires a group of natural objects entering in a non-linear relationship and potentially entailing the existence of various semantic descriptions depending on the human scale of observation. Second, this phenomenon has to be observed by a mechanical observer instead of a human one, which has the natural capacity for temporal or spatial (...)
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  32. Ken Binmore (2013). Sexual Drift. Biological Theory 8 (2):201-208.
    This paper uses a 4 × 4 expansion of the Hawk–Dove Game to illustrate how sexual drift in a large genotype space can shift a population from one equilibrium in a smaller phenotype space to another. An equilibrium is only safe from being destabilized in this way when implemented by recessive alleles.
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  33. Jean-Sébastien Bolduc & Frank Cézilly (2012). Optimality Modelling in the Real World. Biology and Philosophy 27 (6):851-869.
    In a recent paper, Potochnik (Biol Philos 24(2):183–197, 2009) analyses some uses of optimality modelling in light of the anti-adaptationism criticism. She distinguishes two broad classes of such uses (weak and strong) on the basis of assumptions held by biologists about the role and the importance of natural selection. This is an interesting proposal that could help in the epistemological characterisation of some biological practices. However, Potochnik’s distinction also rests on the assumption that all optimality modelling represent the selection dynamic (...)
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  34. Michael Bölker (2004). Bear Ye One Another's Genetic Burdens: The Price of Diversity and Complexity. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (s 1-2):73-82.
    Genetic variability and diversity are the result of a mutation-selection balance that acts permanently within and between species. The presence of deleterious mutations is a necessary consequence of this process and thus “the price paid by a species for its capacity for further evolution” (Haldane 1937, Am Nat 71:337–349). Recent estimations of mutation rate in the human lineage has revived the debate as to whether the high number of deleterious mutations poses a severe problem for the future of mankind. Theoretical (...)
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  35. Giovanni Boniolo, Browse Papers.
    Recent discussion of mechanism has suggested new approaches to several issues in the philosophy of science, including theory structure, causal explanation, and reductionism. Here, I apply what I take to be the fruits of the 'new mechanical philosophy' to an analysis of a contemporary debate in evolutionary biology about the role of natural selection in speciation. Traditional accounts of that debate focus on the geographic context of genetic divergence--namely, whether divergence in the absence of geographic isolation is possible (or significant). (...)
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  36. Walter Bossert, Chloe X. Qi & John A. Weymark (2013). Extensive Social Choice and the Measurement of Group Fitness in Biological Hierarchies. Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):75-98.
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  37. Pierrick Bourrat, Time and Fitness in Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality.
    It is striking that the concept of fitness although fundamental in evolutionary theory, still remains ambiguous. I argue here that time, although usually neglected, is an important parameter in regards to the concept of fitness. I will show some of the benefits of taking it seriously using the example of recent debates over evolutionary transitions in individuality. I start from Okasha's assertion that once an evolutionary transition in individuality is completed an ontologically new level of selection emerges from lower levels (...)
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  38. Robert Brandon, Natural Selection. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection provided the first, and only, causal-mechanistic account of the existence of adaptations in nature. As such, it provided the first, and only, scientific alternative to the “argument from design”. That alone would account for its philosophical significance. But the theory also raises other philosophical questions not encountered in the study of the theories of physics. Unfortunately the concept of natural selection is intimately intertwined with the other basic concepts of evolutionary theory—such as the (...)
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  39. Robert N. Brandon (2006). The Principle of Drift: Biology's First Law. Journal of Philosophy 103 (7):319-335.
    Drift is to evolution as inertia is to Newtonian mechanics. Both are the "natural" or default states of the systems to which they apply. Both are governed by zero-force laws. The zero-force law in biology is stated here for the first time.
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  40. Robert N. Brandon (2005). The Difference Between Selection and Drift: A Reply to Millstein. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):153-170.
    Millstein [Bio. Philos. 17 (2002) 33] correctly identies a serious problem with the view that natural selection and random drift are not conceptually distinct. She offers a solution to this problem purely in terms of differences between the processes of selection and drift. I show that this solution does not work, that it leaves the vast majority of real biological cases uncategorized. However, I do think there is a solution to the problem she raises, and I offer it here. My (...)
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  41. Daniel R. Brooks, John Collier, Brian A. Maurer, Jonathan D. H. Smith & E. O. Wiley (1989). Entropy and Information in Evolving Biological Systems. Biology and Philosophy 4 (4):407-432.
    Integrating concepts of maintenance and of origins is essential to explaining biological diversity. The unified theory of evolution attempts to find a common theme linking production rules inherent in biological systems, explaining the origin of biological order as a manifestation of the flow of energy and the flow of information on various spatial and temporal scales, with the recognition that natural selection is an evolutionarily relevant process. Biological systems persist in space and time by transfor ming energy from one state (...)
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  42. J. R. Brown (1901). Martineau's Heredity and Philosophy. Philosophical Review 10:165.
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  43. Björn Brunnander (2007). What is Natural Selection? Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):231-246.
    ‘Natural selection’ is, it seems, an ambiguous term. It is sometimes held to denote a consequence of variation, heredity, and environment, while at other times as denoting a force that creates adaptations. I argue that the latter, the force interpretation, is a redundant notion of natural selection. I will point to difficulties in making sense of this linguistic practise, and argue that it is frequently at odds with standard interpretations of evolutionary theory. I provide examples to show this; one example (...)
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  44. Joe Cain (2005). Book Review: Edward J. Larson, Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory (New York: The Modern Library), Xiv + 337 Pp., Illus., $21.95. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):172-174.
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  45. Joseph Allen Cain & Lindley Darden (1988). Hull and Selection. Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):165-171.
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  46. Julio A. Camargo (1998). A Thermodynamic Perspective on Natural Selection. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (1):65-75.
    A novel thermodynamic perspective on natural selection is presented. In the case that life continuity is optimized in an ideal system, where relatively constant and homogeneous selective pressures favour a given competing species, natural selection leads that system to a stationary state of maximum genotypic uniformity of life and maximum sustainable consumption of available energy by life (competitive equilibrium). Structurally and functionally, this optimizing tendency towards competitive equilibrium looks similar to the optimizing tendency towards thermodynamic equilibrium of classical thermodynamics (maximum (...)
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  47. Donald T. Campbell (1977). Comment on "the Natural Selection Model of Conceptual Evolution". Philosophy of Science 44 (3):502-507.
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  48. Tom Campbell, Daria Osipova & Seppo Kähkönen (2006). Finland's Galapagos: Founder Effect, Drift, and Isolation in the Inheritance of Susceptibility Alleles. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):409-410.
    The target article excludes ancestral neutrality as a cause for the inheritance of schizophrenia, with an argument relating to selection against a single allele in the Finnish population. However, drift would predominate over selection within subisolates of the Finnish population. Comparisons of subisolates with heterogeneous populations may provide clues to the endophenotypic structure of complex polygenetic heritable mental disorders. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  49. Lynn Helena Caporale (2009). Putting Together the Pieces: Evolutionary Mechanisms at Work Within Genomes. Bioessays 31 (7):700-702.
  50. Lynn Helena Caporale (2008). It's Not Random Anymore. Bioessays 30 (4):400-402.
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