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  1. Jaywant J. P. . Patil (1999). Evidence‐Based Medicine and Clinical Experience. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (4):423-425.
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  2. J. S. Abramson (1987). The Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children: The Role of Viruses. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 32 (1):63-72.
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  3. Paul S. Agutter, P. Colm Malone & Denys N. Wheatley (2000). Diffusion Theory in Biology: A Relic of Mechanistic Materialism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (1):71 - 111.
    Diffusion theory explains in physical terms how materials move through a medium, e.g. water or a biological fluid. There are strong and widely acknowledged grounds for doubting the applicability of this theory in biology, although it continues to be accepted almost uncritically and taught as a basis of both biology and medicine. Our principal aim is to explore how this situation arose and has been allowed to continue seemingly unchallenged for more than 150 years. The main shortcomings of diffusion theory (...)
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  4. Abeer Sh Ahmad, Nouf Be Al‐Mutar, Fahad As Al‐Hulabi, Eman Sl Al‐Rashidee & Lukman Thalib (2009). Evidence‐Based Practice Among Primary Care Physicians in Kuwait. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1125-1130.
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  5. Daniel A. Albert & Michael D. Resnik (1978). Book Review:The Logic of Medicine Edmond A. Murphy. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 45 (3):488-.
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  6. Douglas Allchin (1996). Points East and West: Acupuncture and Comparative Philosophy of Science. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):115.
    Acupuncture, the traditional Chinese practice of needling to alleviate pain, offers a striking case where scientific accounts in two cultures, East and West, diverge sharply. Yet the Chinese comfortably embrace the apparent ontological incommensurability. Their pragmatic posture resonates with the New Experimentalism in the West--but with some provocative differences. The development of acupuncture in China (and not in the West) further suggests general research strategies in the context of discovery. My analysis also exemplifies how one might fruitfully pursue a comparative (...)
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  7. Peter Allmark (2009). Public Health and Human Rights: Evidence-Based Approaches. Nursing Philosophy 10 (1):62-63.
  8. Suhair Husni Al‐Ghabeesh, Fathieh Abu‐Moghli, Mahvash Salsali & Mohammad Saleh (2013). Exploring Sources of Knowledge Utilized in Practice Among Jordanian Registered Nurses. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (5):889-894.
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  9. Holly Andersen (2012). Mechanisms: What Are They Evidence for in Evidence-Based Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):992-999.
    Even though the evidence‐based medicine movement (EBM) labels mechanisms a low quality form of evidence, consideration of the mechanisms on which medicine relies, and the distinct roles that mechanisms might play in clinical practice, offers a number of insights into EBM itself. In this paper, I examine the connections between EBM and mechanisms from several angles. I diagnose what went wrong in two examples where mechanistic reasoning failed to generate accurate predictions for how a dysfunctional mechanism would respond to intervention. (...)
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  10. Aleksandar Apostolov (2012). Forensic Expertise and Judicial Practice: Evidence or Proof? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (6):1147-1150.
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  11. David A. Asch & John C. Hershey (1997). The Limits of Boardroom Thinking at the Bedside. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (1):1-2.
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  12. R. Ashcroft (2004). Ethics, Philosophy, and Evidence Based Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):119-119.
    The editors of the symposium hope it will provide a balanced appraisal of evidence based medicine.This symposium is devoted to evidence based medicine and the ethical issues it raises. Since Sir Archie Cochrane’s seminal Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust lectures in 1972 and their publication as the Rock Carling monograph for that year, Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services, the idea that medical interventions and health services should be evaluated and selected on the basis of the most reliable evidence (...)
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  13. R. Ashcroft (2002). What is Clinical Effectiveness? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (2):219-233.
    Clinical trials and other forms of evaluation of medical treatment are held to give an objective assessment of the 'clinical effectiveness' of the medical treatments under evaluation. This kind of evaluation is central to the evidence-based medicine movement, as it provides a basis for the rational selection of treatment. The ethical status of randomised clinical trials is widely agreed to depend crucially upon the state of equipoise regarding which of two (or more) treatments is more (or most) effective in (...)
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  14. R. E. Ashcroft (2004). Current Epistemological Problems in Evidence Based Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):131-135.
    Evidence based medicine has been a topic of considerable controversy in medical and health care circles over its short lifetime, because of the claims made by its exponents about the criteria used to assess the evidence for or against the effectiveness of medical interventions. The central epistemological debates underpinning the debates about evidence based medicine are reviewed by this paper, and some areas are suggested where further work remains to be done. In particular, further work is needed on the theory (...)
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  15. Gloria Ayob (2009). Do People Defy Generalizations?: Examining the Case Against Evidence-Based Medicine in Psychiatry. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (2):167-174.
  16. Sean M. Bagshaw & Rinaldo Bellomo (2008). The Need to Reform Our Assessment of Evidence From Clinical Trials: A Commentary. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3 (1):23.
    The ideology of evidence-base medicine (EBM) has dramatically altered the way we think, conceptualize, philosophize and practice medicine. One of its major pillars is the appraisal and classification of evidence. Although important and beneficial, this process currently lacks detail and is in need of reform. In particular, it largely focuses on three key dimensions (design, [type I] alpha error and beta [type II] error) to grade the quality of evidence and often omits other crucial aspects of evidence such as biological (...)
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  17. den Belvant, H., Spirochaetes, Serology, and Salvarsan: Ludwik Fleck and the Construction of Medical Knowledge About Syphilis.
    The theoretical and empirical scope of this study thus clarified, an outline of the chapters which follow can now be presented.In Chapter II 1 shall systematically compare Fleck's theories with the approaches adopted by contemporary constructivists. My strategy is partly to use modern forms of constructivism as a foil for extracting relevant and valuable insights from the richness of Fleck's elaborations, partly to identify theoretical and conceptual issues that can possibly be clarified through an empirical 'replication' of Fleck's work. In (...)
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  18. Nikola Biller-Andorno, Reidar K. Lie & Ruud Ter Meulen (2002). Evidence-Based Medicine as an Instrument for Rational Health Policy. Health Care Analysis 10 (3):261-275.
    This article tries to present a broad view on the values and ethicalissues that are at stake in efforts to rationalize health policy on thebasis of economic evaluations (like cost-effectiveness analysis) andrandomly controlled clinical trials. Though such a rationalization isgenerally seen as an objective and `value free' process, moral valuesoften play a hidden role, not only in the production of `evidence', butalso in the way this evidence is used in policy making. For example, thedefinition of effectiveness of medical treatment or (...)
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  19. Jeffrey Paul Bishop (2011). The Anticipatory Corpse: Medicine, Power, and the Care of the Dying. University of Notre Dame Press.
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  20. Marsden S. Blois (1983). Conceptual Issues in Computer-Aided Diagnosis and the Hierarchical Nature of Medical Knowledge. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (1):29-50.
    Attempts to formalize the diagnostic process are by no means a recent undertaking; what is new is the availability of an engine to process these formalizations. The digital computer has therefore been increasingly turned to in the expectation of developing systems which will assist or replace the physician in diagnosis. Such efforts involve a number of assumptions regarding the nature of the diagnostic process: e.g. where it begins, and where it ends. ‘Diagnosis’ appears to include a number of quite different (...)
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  21. Robyn Bluhm (2013). Physiological Mechanisms and Epidemiological Research. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):422 - 426.
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  22. Robyn Bluhm (2009). Some Observations on “Observational” Research. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):252-263.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) ranks different medical research methods on a hierarchy, at the top of which are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews or meta-analyses of RCTs. Any study that does not randomly assign patients to a treatment or a control group is automatically placed at a lower level on the hierarchy. This article argues that what matters is whether the treatment and control groups are similar with respect to potential confounding factors, not whether they got that way through (...)
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  23. Robyn Bluhm (2007). Clinical Trials as Nomological Machines: Implications for Evidence-Based Medicine. In Harold Kincaid Jennifer McKitrick (ed.), Establishing Medical Reality: Essays In The Metaphysics And Epistemology Of Biomedical Science. Springer
  24. Robyn Bluhm (2005). From Hierarchy to Network: A Richer View of Evidence for Evidence-Based Medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):535-547.
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  25. Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson (2011). Evidence-Based Medicine. In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier
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  26. Kirstin Borgerson (2009). Valuing Evidence: Bias and the Evidence Hierarchy of Evidence-Based Medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):218-233.
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  27. Kirstin Borgerson (2005). Evidence-Based Alternative Medicine? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):502-515.
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  28. Kirstin Borgerson & Robyn Bluhm (2005). Evidence Based Medicine: Editors' Overview and Introduction. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):475-476.
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  29. Hillel D. Braude (2012). Intuition in Medicine: A Philosophical Defense of Clinical Reasoning. The University of Chicago Press.
    Intuition in medical and moral reasoning -- Moral intuitionism -- The place of Aristotelian phronesis in clinical reasoning -- Aristotle's practical syllogism: accounting for the individual through a theory of action and cognition -- Individual and statistical physiognomy: the art and science of making the invisible visible -- Clinical intuition versus statistical reasoning -- Contingency and correlation: the significance of modeling clinical reasoning on statistics -- Abduction: the intuitive support of clinical induction -- Conclusion: medical ethics beyond ontology.
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  30. Hillel D. Braude (2009). Clinical Intuition Versus Statistics: Different Modes of Tacit Knowledge in Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):181-198.
    Despite its phenomenal success since its inception in the early nineteen-nineties, the evidence-based medicine movement has not succeeded in shaking off an epistemological critique derived from the experiential or tacit dimensions of clinical reasoning about particular individuals. This critique claims that the evidence-based medicine model does not take account of tacit knowing as developed by the philosopher Michael Polanyi. However, the epistemology of evidence-based medicine is premised on the elimination of the tacit dimension from clinical judgment. This is demonstrated through (...)
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  31. Howard Brody (2005). Patient Ethics and Evidence-Based Medicine—The Good Healthcare Citizen. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (02):141-146.
    I am grateful to Drs. Richard Bukata and Jerome Hoffman and the staff of Primary Care Medicals for retrieving and analyzing some of the references used in this paper.
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  32. Howard Brody, Franklin G. Miller & Elizabeth Bogdan-Lovis (2005). Evidence-Based Medicine: Watching Out for Its Friends. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):570-584.
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  33. Matthew J. Brown, Inquiry and Evidence: From the Experimenter's Regress to Evidence-Based Policy.
    In the first part of this paper, I will sketch the main features of traditional models of evidence, indicating idealizations in such models that I regard as doing more harm than good. I will then proceed to elaborate on an alternative model of evidence that is functionalist, complex, dynamic, and contextual, which I will call DYNAMIC EVIDENTIAL FUNCTIONALISM. I will demonstrate its application to an illuminating example of scientific inquiry, and defend it from some likely objections. In the second part, (...)
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  34. Nancy Cartwright (2009). Evidence-Based Policy: What's to Be Done About Relevance? [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 143 (1):127 - 136.
    How can philosophy of science be of more practical use? One thing we can do is provide practicable advice about how to determine when one empirical claim is relevant to the truth of another; i.e., about evidential relevance. This matters especially for evidence-based policy, where advice is thin—and misleading—about how to tell what counts as evidence for policy effectiveness. This paper argues that good efficacy results (as in randomized controlled trials), which are all the rage now, are only a very (...)
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  35. Monika Clark-Grill (2007). Questionable Gate-Keeping: Scientific Evidence for Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM): Response to Malcolm Parker. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):21-28.
    The more popular complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become, the more often it is demanded that the integration of CAM should be limited to those approaches that are scientifically proven to be effective. This paper argues that this demand is ethically and philosophically questionable. The clinical legitimacy being gained by CAM and its increasing informal integration should instead caution against upholding the biomedical framework and evidence-based medicine as conditions of acceptance. Patients’ positive experiences with CAM deserve a truly scientific (...)
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  36. Brendan Clarke (2012). Causation in Medicine. In Wenceslao J. Gonzalez (ed.), Conceptual Revolutions: from Cognitive Science to Medicine. Netbiblo
    In this paper, I offer one example of conceptual change. Specifically, I contend that the discovery that viruses could cause cancer represents an excellent example of branch jumping, one of Thagard’s nine forms of conceptual change. Prior to about 1960, cancer was generally regarded as a degenerative, chronic, non-infectious disease. Cancer causation was therefore usually held to be a gradual process of accumulating cellular damage, caused by relatively non-specific component causes, acting over long periods of time. Viral infections, on the (...)
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  37. Brendan Clarke (2011). Causality in Medicine with Particular Reference to the Viral Causation of Cancers. Dissertation, University College London
    In this thesis, I give a metascientific account of causality in medicine. I begin with two historical cases of causal discovery. These are the discovery of the causation of Burkitt’s lymphoma by the Epstein-Barr virus, and of the various viral causes suggested for cervical cancer. These historical cases then support a philosophical discussion of causality in medicine. This begins with an introduction to the Russo- Williamson thesis (RWT), and discussion of a range of counter-arguments against it. Despite these, I argue (...)
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  38. Sharyn Clough (2013). Feminist Theories of Evidence and Research Communities: A Reply to Goldenberg. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (12):xx-yy.
    In a recent essay — “How Can Feminist Theories of Evidence Assist Clinical Reasoning and Decision-making?” — Maya Goldenberg discusses criticisms of evidence-based medicine (or EBM) (Goldenberg 2013). She is particularly interested in those criticisms that make use of an epistemic appeal to the underdetermination of theory by evidence...
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  39. Mark Colyvan, Evidence-Based Policy: Promises and Challenges.
    Evidence-based policy is gaining support in many areas of government and in public affairs more generally. In this paper we outline what evidence—based policy is then discuss its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, we argue that it faces a serious challenge to provide a plausible account of evidence. This account needs to be at least in the spirit of the hierarchy of evidence subscribed to by evidence-based medicine (from which evidence—based policy derives its name and inspiration). Yet evidence-based policy’s hierarchy (...)
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  40. M. Wayne Cooper (1992). Should Physicians Be Bayesian Agents? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (4).
    Because physicians use scientific inference for the generalizations of individual observations and the application of general knowledge to particular situations, the Bayesian probability solution to the problem of induction has been proposed and frequently utilized. Several problems with the Bayesian approach are introduced and discussed. These include: subjectivity, the favoring of a weak hypothesis, the problem of the false hypothesis, the old evidence/new theory problem and the observation that physicians are not currently Bayesians. To the complaint that the prior probability (...)
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  41. Thomas V. Cunningham (2015). Objectivity, Scientificity, and the Dualist Epistemology of Medicine. In P. Huneman (ed.), Classification, Disease, and Evidence. Springer Science + Business 01-17.
    This paper considers the view that medicine is both “science” and “art.” It is argued that on this view certain clinical knowledge – of patients’ histories, values, and preferences, and how to integrate them in decision-making – cannot be scientific knowledge. However, by drawing on recent work in philosophy of science it is argued that progress in gaining such knowledge has been achieved by the accumulation of what should be understood as “scientific” knowledge. I claim there are varying degrees of (...)
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  42. Marie Darrason (2013). Unifying Diseases From a Genetic Point of View: The Example of the Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):327-344.
    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), (...)
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  43. Keith Denny (1999). Evidence-Based Medicine and Medical Authority. Journal of Medical Humanities 20 (4):247-263.
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  44. Colleen Derkatch (2008). Method as Argument: Boundary Work in Evidence-Based Medicine. Social Epistemology 22 (4):371 – 388.
    In evidence-based medicine (EBM), methodology has become the central means of determining the quality of the evidence base. The “gold standard” method, the randomised, controlled trial (RCT), imbues medical research with an ethos of disinterestedness; yet, as this essay argues, the RCT is itself a rhetorically interested construct essential to medical-professional boundary work. Using the example of debates about methodology in EBM-oriented research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), practices not easily tested by RCTs, I frame the problem of method (...)
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  45. Donna L. Dickenson (1999). Can Medical Criteria Settle Priority-Setting Debates? The Need for Ethical Analysis. Health Care Analysis 7 (2):131-137.
    Medical criteria rooted in evidence-based medicine are often seen as a value-neutral ‘trump card’ which puts paid to any further debate about setting priorities for treatment. On this argument, doctors should stop providing treatment at the point when it becomes medically futile, and that is also the threshold at which the health purchaser should stop purchasing. This paper offers three kinds of ethical criteria as a counterweight to analysis based solely on medical criteria. The first set of arguments concerns futility, (...)
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  46. Donna Dickenson & Paolo Vineis (2002). Evidence-Based Medicine and Quality of Care. Health Care Analysis 10 (3):243-259.
    In this paper we set out to examine thearguments for and against the claim thatEvidence-Based Medicine (EBM) will improve thequality of care. In particular, we examine thefollowing issues.
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  47. Benjamin Djulbegovic, Iztok Hozo & Sander Greenland (2011). Uncertainly in Clinical Medicine. In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier 16--299.
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  48. David L. Dowe (2008). Minimum Message Length and Statistically Consistent Invariant (Objective?) Bayesian Probabilistic Inference—From (Medical) “Evidence”. Social Epistemology 22 (4):433 – 460.
    “Evidence” in the form of data collected and analysis thereof is fundamental to medicine, health and science. In this paper, we discuss the “evidence-based” aspect of evidence-based medicine in terms of statistical inference, acknowledging that this latter field of statistical inference often also goes by various near-synonymous names—such as inductive inference (amongst philosophers), econometrics (amongst economists), machine learning (amongst computer scientists) and, in more recent times, data mining (in some circles). Three central issues to this discussion of “evidence-based” are (i) (...)
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  49. Christopher Dowrick & Lucy Frith (eds.) (1999). General Practice and Ethics: Uncertainty and Responsibility. Routledge.
    Explores the ethical issues faced by GPs in their everyday practice, addressing two central themes; the uncertainty of outcomes and effectiveness in general practice and the changing pattern of general practitioners' responsibilities.
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  50. E. Ernst (2004). Ethical Problems Arising in Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):156-159.
    Complementary and alternative medicine has become an important section of healthcare. Its high level of acceptance among the general population represents a challenge to healthcare professionals of all disciplines and raises a host of ethical issues. This article is an attempt to explore some of the more obvious or practical ethical aspects of complementary and alternative medicine.
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