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Medical Ethics

Edited by Ruchika Mishra (Program in Medicine and Human Values, California Pacific Medical Center)
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  1. Francine Wynn (2002). The Early Relationship of Mother and Pre-Infant: Merleau-Ponty and Pregnancy. Nursing Philosophy 3 (1):4–14.
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  2. Epilogue 241 (2002). Josef Seifert and Paulina Taboada. In Paulina Taboada, Kateryna Fedoryka Cuddeback & Patricia Donohue-White (eds.), Person, Society, and Value: Towards a Personalist Concept of Health. Kluwer Academic Pub..
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  3. Health: Two Idolatries 55 (2002). Pascal Ide. In Paulina Taboada, Kateryna Fedoryka Cuddeback & Patricia Donohue-White (eds.), Person, Society, and Value: Towards a Personalist Concept of Health. Kluwer Academic Pub..
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  4. The Concept of Mental Health 87 (2002). Armando Roa. In Paulina Taboada, Kateryna Fedoryka Cuddeback & Patricia Donohue-White (eds.), Person, Society, and Value: Towards a Personalist Concept of Health. Kluwer Academic Pub..
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  5. On Relational Paradigm in Bioethics 89 (2002). Hu Xinhe. In Julia Lai Po-Wah Tao (ed.), Cross-Cultural Perspectives on the (Im) Possibility of Global Bioethics. Kluwer Academic Pub..
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  6. P. Abastado & D. Chemla (2008). A Portrait of a Female Body: Rubens and Helena's Legs. Medical Humanities 34 (2):84-87.
    For a long time the Western world was in a state of denial about the human body. There were conventions governing its representation and it could be regarded as an element of discourse. Between 1636 and 1638, Peter Paul Rubens painted a portrait of his second wife, Helena Fourment, entitled The little fur. This may be a turning-point in the perception of the body. We see in this work that the skin of this 22-year-old woman has lost its elasticity, her (...)
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  7. P. Abastado & D. Chemla (2007). Rembrandt's Doctors. Medical Humanities 33 (1):35-37.
    Medical doctors appear in numerous Rembrandt paintings and reciprocally, physicians interested in art have used their diagnostic skills in dissecting the painter’s work, especially his lifetime of self-portraits. The possible existence of skin and eye diseases, hypothyroidism and Horton’s disease, and psychiatric and psychological traits has been a matter of everlasting debate, as summarised in the present paper. Most of all, the ageing process reveals itself over time in the continuity of the self-portraits. In the quest for signs of illness, (...)
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  8. Imran N. Abbasi (2014). Protest of Doctors: A Basic Human Right or an Ethical Dilemma. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):24.
    Peaceful protests and strikes are a basic human right as stated in the United Nations’ universal declaration on human rights. But for doctors, their proximity to life and death and the social contract between a doctor and a patient are stated as the reasons why doctors are valued more than the ordinary beings. In Pakistan, strikes by doctors were carried out to protest against lack of service structure, security and low pay. This paper discusses the moral and ethical concerns pertaining (...)
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  9. H. D. C. Roscam Abbing (1993). Transplantation of Organs: A European Perspective. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 21 (1):54-58.
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  10. Ahmed M. Abdelmoktader & Khalil A. Abd Elhamed (2012). Egyptian Mothers' Preferences Regarding How Physicians Break Bad News About Their Child's Disability: A Structured Verbal Questionnaire. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):14.
    Breaking bad news to mothers whose children has disability is an important role of physicians. There has been considerable speculation about the inevitability of parental dissatisfaction with how they are informed of their child’s disability. Egyptian mothers’ preferences for how to be told the bad news about their child’s disability has not been investigated adequately. The objective of this study was to elicit Egyptian mothers’ preferences for how to be told the bad news about their child’s disability.
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  11. Sara Abiola & Inga Chernyak (2008). Recent Developments in Health Law. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):856-865.
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  12. Richard R. Abood (1985). Litigation on Third Party Prescription Programs: An Update. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 13 (2):75-81.
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  13. Richard R. Abood (1982). Pharmacists Challenge Third Party Prescription Programs: A Legal Analysis. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 10 (4):257-261.
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  14. Richard R. Abood (1982). The Legal Status of Unapproved Generic Drugs. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 10 (1):24-28.
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  15. Alaa Abou-Zeid, Mohammad Afzal & Henry J. Silverman (2009). Capacity Mapping of National Ethics Committees in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):8.
    Ethics issues in the areas of science, technology and medicine have emerged during the last few decades. Many countries have responded by establishing ethics committees at the national level. Identification of National Ethics Committees (NECs) in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region and the extent of their functions and capacity would be helpful in developing capacity building programs that address the needs of these committees. Accordingly, we conducted a survey to determine the characteristics of existing NECs in the EM region.
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  16. Fredrick R. Abrams (2006). Doctors on the Edge: Will Your Doctor Break the Rules for You? Sentient Publications.
    A collection of dramatic accounts about doctors who have faced the moral dilemma of choosing between obeying rules and doing what is best for a patient offers insight into the essential principles of medical ethics and their impact on ...
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  17. Natalie Abrams (1977). Teaching Medical Ethics. Teaching Philosophy 2 (3/4):309-318.
    How one goes about teaching medical ethics greatly depends upon one's interpretation of the discipline itself. Before discussing pedagogical isslIes, the primary focus ofthe paper, I will address the question of what "philosophical" medical ethics is and is not. I will then suggest some alternative approac:hes forincluding such material in a variety of different contexts, including courses geared toward philosophy students, those focusing on undergraduate students preparing for careers in one of the health care professions, and those actually within professional (...)
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  18. R. C. Abrams (2010). Never Let Me Go. Medical Humanities 36 (1):61-61.
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  19. Bearbeitet von Peter Achilles (1986). Allgemeine Medizin ; Grundfragen Medizinischer Anthropologie. In Viktor von Weizsäcker (ed.), Gesammelte Schriften. Suhrkamp.
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  20. Bearbeitet von Peter Achilles (1986). Der Arzt Und der Kranke ; Stücke Einer Medizinischen Anthropologie. In Viktor von Weizsäcker (ed.), Gesammelte Schriften. Suhrkamp.
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  21. Bearbeitet von Peter Achilles & Walter Schindler (1986). Empirie Und Philosophie ; Herzarbeit/Naturbegrill. In Viktor von Weizsäcker (ed.), Gesammelte Schriften. Suhrkamp.
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  22. Bearbeitet von Peter Achilles & Martin Schrenk (1986). Fälle Und Probleme ; Klinische Vorstellungen. In Viktor von Weizsäcker (ed.), Gesammelte Schriften. Suhrkamp.
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  23. L. E. Acuna (2000). Don't Cry for Us Argentinians: Two Decades of Teaching Medical Humanities. Medical Humanities 26 (2):66-70.
    Medical humanities—history, literature, anthropology, ethics and fine arts applied to medicine—play an important role in medical education. For more than 20 years an effort has been made to obtain an academic identity for such a multidisciplinary approach. A distinction between humanitarianism and humanism is attempted here, the former being associated with medical care and the latter with medical education. In order more precisely to define the relationship between the arts and medicine, an alternative term “medical kalology”, as-yet-unsanctioned, coined after the (...)
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  24. Gyorgy Adam (1989). Gratuity for Doctors and Medical Ethics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (3):315-322.
    The habit of giving a gratuity became so frequent at the end of the 1950's that counter-measures were enacted. These have been completely ineffective. Although granting and accepting gratuities is forbidden by law, the wages of doctors have been fixed since 1954, for so long that accepting gratuities has come to be considered part of the wages, even in semi-official comments and in the media. The author is of the opinion that, in view of this anomaly, a fundamental transformation of (...)
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  25. Harry Adams (2004). A Human Germline Modification Scale. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (1):164-173.
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  26. Pornpimon Adams, Waranya Wongwit, Krisana Pengsaa, Srisin Khusmith, Wijitr Fungladda, Warissara Chaiyaphan, Chanthima Limphattharacharoen, Sukanya Prakobtham & Jaranit Kaewkungwal (2013). Ethical Issues in Research Involving Minority Populations: The Process and Outcomes of Protocol Review by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):33.
    Recruiting minorities into research studies requires special attention, particularly when studies involve “extra-vulnerable” participants with multiple vulnerabilities, e.g., pregnant women, the fetuses/neonates of ethnic minorities, children in refugee camps, or cross-border migrants. This study retrospectively analyzed submissions to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine (FTM-EC) in Thailand. Issues related to the process and outcomes of proposal review, and the main issues for which clarification/revision were requested on studies, are discussed extensively.
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  27. Adamu Addissie, Gail Davey, Melanie J. Newport, Thomas Addissie, Hayley MacGregor, Yeweyenhareg Feleke & Bobbie Farsides (2014). A Mixed-Methods Study on Perceptions Towards Use of Rapid Ethical Assessment to Improve Informed Consent Processes for Health Research in a Low-Income Setting. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):35.
    Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) is a form of rapid ethnographic assessment conducted at the beginning of research project to guide the consent process with the objective of reconciling universal ethical guidance with specific research contexts. The current study is conducted to assess the perceived relevance of introducing REA as a mainstream tool in Ethiopia.
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  28. Clement A. Adebamowo (2010). Medical Ethics Education: A Survey of Opinion of Medical Students in a Nigerian University. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (2):85-93.
    In Nigeria, medical education remains focused on the traditional clinical and basic medical science components, leaving students to develop moral attitudes passively through observation and intuition. In order to ascertain the adequacy of this method of moral formations, we studied the opinions of medical students in a Nigerian university towards medical ethics training. Self administered semi-structured questionnaires were completed by final year medical students of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. There were 82 (64.1%) male and 44 (34.4%) (...)
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  29. The General Systems Theory: An Adequate (2002). Paulina Taboada. In Paulina Taboada, Kateryna Fedoryka Cuddeback & Patricia Donohue-White (eds.), Person, Society, and Value: Towards a Personalist Concept of Health. Kluwer Academic Pub..
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  30. Dickens S. Omondi Aduda & Nhlanhla Mkhize (2014). Ethical Issues Evolving From Patients' Perspectives on Compulsory Screening for Syphilis and Voluntary Screening for Cervical Cancer in Kenya. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):27.
    Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in (...)
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  31. G. Agamben (2008). La tirannia della privacy. Medical Humanities 8 (2).
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  32. Ajay Aggarwal, Joanna Davies & Richard Sullivan (2014). “Nudge” in the Clinical Consultation – an Acceptable Form of Medical Paternalism? BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):31.
    Libertarian paternalism is a concept derived from cognitive psychology and behavioural science. It is behind policies that frame information in such a way as to encourage individuals to make choices which are in their best interests, while maintaining their freedom of choice. Clinicians may view their clinical consultations as far removed from the realms of cognitive psychology but on closer examination there are a number of striking similarities.
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  33. Neil Krishan Aggarwal (2010). Diagnostic Reasoning in Nizāmī 'Arūzī's Four Discourses. Medical Humanities 36 (2):88-92.
    Background Most studies on medical reasoning focus on contemporary allopathic practitioners. Here, the significance of diagnostic sense in Nizāmī ‘Arūzī’s Four Discourses (Chahār Maqāle), an influential text that circulated widely throughout the Islamic world, is explored. Methods After a brief introduction, key passages are translated on how doctors should cultivate analytical skills. Results Nizāmī ‘Arūzī cites three sources of diagnostic authority: (1) education in the texts of medical experts, (2) formal logic and (3) belief in the power of God. Conclusions (...)
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  34. Selidji Agnandji, Valerie Tsassa, Cornelia Conzelmann, Carsten Kohler & Hans-Jorg Ehni (2012). Patterns of Biomedical Science Production in a Sub-Saharan Research Center. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):3-.
    Background: Research activities in sub-Saharan Africa may be limited to delegated tasks due to the strong control from Western collaborators, which could lead to scientific production of little value in terms of its impact on social and economic innovation in less developed areas. However, the current contexts of international biomedical research including the development of public-private partnerships and research institutions in Africa suggest that scientific activities are growing in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to describe the patterns of clinical research (...)
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  35. R. Ahlzen (2001). Poetry, Interpretation and Unpredictability: A Reply to Neil Pickering. Medical Humanities 27 (1):47-49.
    In his article on poetry in health care education, Neil Pickering puts forward an argument of radical unpredictability: as we can never know in advance how a poem will be interpreted, it can be of no external use.1 It is, however, exactly this potential to give rise to multiple interpretations that makes the poem valuable. We hold that the poem should be read and discussed with no other intention than to discover and reflect on its possible meanings. Exactly this process, (...)
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  36. Ning Ai (2009). Wen Zhong Yi Ji du Qiu Liang: Yi Ge Zhong Yi Shi Jia "Pan Ni Zhe" de Zi Shu. Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yao Chu Ban She.
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  37. V. A. Aita, W. M. Lydiatt & M. A. Gilbert (2010). Portraits of Care: Medical Research Through Portraiture. Medical Humanities 36 (1):5-13.
    The Portraits of Care study used portraiture to investigate ideas about care and care giving at the intersection of art and medicine. The study employed mixed methods involving both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. All aspects of the study were approved by the Institutional Review Board. The study included 26 patient and 20 caregiver subjects. Patient subjects were drawn from across the lifespan and included healthy and ill patients. Caregiver subjects included professional and familial caregivers. All subjects gave their informed (...)
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  38. Kuniko Aizawa, Atsushi Asai & Seiji Bito (2013). Defining Futile Life-Prolonging Treatments Through Neo-Socratic Dialogue. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):51.
    In Japan, people are negative towards life-prolonging treatments. Laws that regulate withholding or discontinuing life-prolonging treatments and advance directives do not exist. Physicians, however, view discontinuing life-prolonging treatments negatively due to fears of police investigations. Although ministerial guidelines were announced regarding the decision process for end-of-life care in 2007, a consensus could not be reached on the definition of end-of-life and conditions for withholding treatment. We established a forum for extended discussions and consensus building on this topic.
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  39. Ademola J. Ajuwon & Nancy Kass (2008). Outcome of a Research Ethics Training Workshop Among Clinicians and Scientists in a Nigerian University. BMC Medical Ethics 9 (1):1.
    In Nigeria, as in other developing countries, access to training in research ethics is limited, due to weak social, economic, and health infrastructure. The project described in this article was designed to develop the capacity of academic staff of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to conduct ethically acceptable research involving human participants.
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  40. Akira Akabayashi, Brian T. Slingsby, Ichiro Kai, Tadashi Nishimura & Akiko Yamagishi (2004). The Development of a Brief and Objective Method for Evaluating Moral Sensitivity and Reasoning in Medical Students. BMC Medical Ethics 5 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundMost medical schools in Japan have incorporated mandatory courses on medical ethics. To this date, however, there is no established means of evaluating medical ethics education in Japan. This study looks 1) To develop a brief, objective method of evaluation for moral sensitivity and reasoning; 2) To conduct a test battery for the PIT and the DIT on medical students who are either currently in school or who have recently graduated (residents); 3) To investigate changes in moral sensitivity and reasoning (...)
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  41. Akira Akabayashi, Brian T. Slingsby, Noriko Nagao, Ichiro Kai & Hajime Sato (2007). An Eight-Year Follow-Up National Study of Medical School and General Hospital Ethics Committees in Japan. BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):1-8.
    Background Ethics committees and their system of research protocol peer-review are currently used worldwide. To ensure an international standard for research ethics and safety, however, data is needed on the quality and function of each nation's ethics committees. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and developments of ethics committees established at medical schools and general hospitals in Japan. Methods This study consisted of four national surveys sent twice over a period of eight years to two separate (...)
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  42. Aslihan Akpinar & Nermin Ersoy (2014). Attitudes of Physicians and Patients Towards Disclosure of Genetic Information to Spouse and First-Degree Relatives: A Case Study From Turkey. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):39.
    When considering the principle of medical confidentiality, disclosure of genetic information constitutes a special case because of the impact that this information can have on the health and the lives of relatives. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes of Turkish physicians and patients about sharing information obtained from genetic tests.
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  43. Sahin Aksoy (2001). Antenatal Screening and its Possible Meaning From Unborn Baby's Perspective. BMC Medical Ethics 2 (1):1-11.
    In recent decades antenatal screening has become one of the most routine procedure of pregnancy-follow up and the subject of hot debate in bioethics circles. In this paper the rationale behind doing antenatal screening and the actual and potential problems that it may cause will be discussed. The paper will examine the issue from the point of wiew of parents, health care professionals and, most importantly, the child-to-be. It will show how unthoughtfully antenatal screening is performed and how pregnancy is (...)
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  44. Sahin Aksoy & Ali Tenik (2002). The 'Four Principles of Bioethics' as Found in 13 Th Century Muslim Scholar Mawlana's Teachings. BMC Medical Ethics 3 (1):1-7.
    Background There have been different ethical approaches to the issues in the history of philosophy. Two American philosophers Beachump and Childress formulated some ethical principles namely 'respect to autonomy', 'justice', 'beneficence' and 'non-maleficence'. These 'Four Principles' were presented by the authors as universal and applicable to any culture and society. Mawlana, a great figure in Sufi tradition, had written many books which not only guide people how to worship God to be close to Him, but also advise people how to (...)
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  45. Sameer Y. Al-Abdi, Eman A. Al-Ali, Matar H. Daheer, Yaseen M. Al-Saleh, Khalid H. Al-Qurashi & Maryam A. Al-Aamri (2011). Saudi Mothers' Preferences About Breaking Bad News Concerning Newborns: A Structured Verbal Questionnaire. BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):15.
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  46. Muna Al-Jawad (2013). Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Comics and Medicine: Artist and Organiser's Note. Medical Humanities 39 (2):145-146.
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  47. Ahmed S. Al-Mandhari, Mohammed A. Al-Shafaee, Mohammed AlAzri, Ibrahim S. Al-Zakwani, Mushtaq Khan, Ahmed M. Al-Waily & Syed Rizvi (2008). A Survey of Community Members' Perceptions of Medical Errors in Oman. BMC Medical Ethics 9 (1):13.
    Errors have been the concern of providers and consumers of health care services. However, consumers' perception of medical errors in developing countries is rarely explored. The aim of this study is to assess community members' perceptions about medical errors and to analyse the factors affecting this perception in one Middle East country, Oman.
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  48. Mohammad M. Al-Qadire, Muhammad M. Hammami, Hunida M. Abdulhameed & Eman A. Al Gaai (2010). Saudi Views on Consenting for Research on Medical Records and Leftover Tissue Samples. BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):18.
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  49. Mohammad M. Al-Qadire, Muhammad M. Hammami, Hunida M. Abdulhameed & Eman A. Al Gaai (2010). Saudi Views on Consenting for Research on Medical Records and Leftover Tissue Samples. BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundConsenting for retrospective medical records-based research (MR) and leftover tissue-based research (TR) continues to be controversial. Our objective was to survey Saudis attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital on their personal preference and perceptions of norm and current practice in relation to consenting for MR and TR.MethodsWe surveyed 528 Saudis attending clinics at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia to explore their preferences and perceptions of norm and current practice. The respondents selected one of 7 options from (...)
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  50. Ghiath Alahmad, Mohammad Al-Jumah & Kris Dierickx (2012). Review of National Research Ethics Regulations and Guidelines in Middle Eastern Arab Countries. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):34-.
    Background Research ethics guidelines are essential for conducting medical research. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to establish national clinical research documents in the countries of the Middle East. This article analyzes these documents. Methods Thirteen Arab countries in the Middle East were explored for available national codes, regulations, and guidelines concerning research ethics, and 10 documents from eight countries were found. We studied these documents, considering the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki, the Council for International Organizations (...)
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