This category needs an editor. We encourage you to help if you are qualified.
Volunteer, or read more about what this involves.
Related categories
Siblings:
69 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Order:
1 — 50 / 69
  1. Matthias Adam (2005). Integrating Research and Development: The Emergence of Rational Drug Design in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (3):513-537.
    Rational drug design is a method for developing new pharmaceuticals that typically involves the elucidation of fundamental physiological mechanisms. It thus combines the quest for a scientific understanding of natural phenomena with the design of useful technology and hence integrates epistemic and practical aims of research and development. Case studies of the rational design of the cardiovascular drugs propranolol, captopril and losartan provide insights into characteristics and conditions of this integration. Rational drug design became possible in the 1950s when theoretical (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  2. Demissie Alemayehu & Joseph C. Cappelleri (2013). Revisiting Issues, Drawbacks and Opportunities with Observational Studies in Comparative Effectiveness Research. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):579-583.
    Rationale Despite their inherently pervasive limitations, data from observational studies are increasingly relied upon by health car.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3. Peter Allmark (2005). Bayes and Health Care Research. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (3):321-332.
    Bayes’ rule shows how one might rationally change one’s beliefs in the light of evidence. It is the foundation of a statistical method called Bayesianism. In health care research, Bayesianism has its advocates but the dominant statistical method is frequentism. There are at least two important philosophical differences between these methods. First, Bayesianism takes a subjectivist view of probability (i.e. that probability scores are statements of subjective belief, not objective fact) whilst frequentism takes an objectivist view. Second, Bayesianism is explicitly (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4. Holly Andersen (forthcoming). Reduction in the Biomedical Sciences. In Miriam Solomon, Jeremy Simon & Harold Kincaid (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine. Routledge
    This chapter discusses several kinds of reduction that are often found in the biomedical sciences, in contrast to reduction in fields such as physics. This includes reduction as a methodological assumption for how to investigate phenomena like complex diseases, and reduction as a conceptual tool for relating distinct models of the same phenomenon. The case of Parkinson’s disease illustrates a wide variety of ways in which reductionism is an important tool in medicine.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5. James A. Anderson (2006). The Ethics and Science of Placebo-Controlled Trials: Assay Sensitivity and the Duhem-Quine Thesis. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (1):65 – 81.
    The principle of clinical equipoise requires that, aside from certain exceptional cases, second generation treatments ought to be tested against standard therapy. In violation of this principle, placebo-controlled trials (PCTs) continue to be used extensively in the development and licensure of second-generation treatments. This practice is typically justified by appeal to methodological arguments that purport to demonstrate that active-controlled trials (ACTs) are methodologically flawed. Foremost among these arguments is the so called assay sensitivity argument. In this paper, I take a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  6. P. Andras & B. G. Charlton (2002). Commentary on Sweeney & Kernick (2002), Clinical Evaluation: Constructing a New Model for Post-Normal Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):143-144.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  7. D. R. Appleton (1995). Detecting Poor Design, Erroneous Analysis and Misinterpretation of Studies. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 1 (2):113-117.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8. William J. Appleyard (2011). A Personal Approach to Person‐Centred Paediatric Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (2):376-378.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9. Gerry Armitage (2008). Double Checking Medicines: Defence Against Error or Contributory Factor? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (4):513-519.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  10. Jeffrey K. Aronson (2005). Unity From Diversity: The Evidential Use of Anecdotal Reports of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (2):195-208.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  11. Holly Arrow & Kelly B. Henry (2010). Using Complexity to Promote Group Learning in Health Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (4):861-866.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  12. Deborah Ashby (2006). Bayesian Statistics in Medicine: A 25 Year Review. Statistics in Medicine 25:3589-3631.
    This review examines the state of Bayesian thinking as Statistics in Medicine was launched in 1982, reflecting particularly on its applicability and uses in medical research. It then looks at each subsequent five-year epoch, with a focus on papers appearing in Statistics in Medicine , putting these in the context of major developments in Bayesian thinking and computation with reference to important books, landmark meetings and seminal papers. It charts the growth of Bayesian statistics as it is applied to medicine (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13. Omid Azizi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie & Fereshteh Shahcherghi (2016). PhD. Reports of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 5 (1):1-8.
    Acinetobacter baumannii is commonly resistant to nearly all antibiotics due to presence of antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. In this study we determined the presence of certain antibiotic-resistance genes associated with biofilm production and the influence of low iron concentration on expression of the biofilm-associated protein gene (bap) in development of biofilm among multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB). Sixty-five MDRAB isolates from clinical samples were collected. Molecular typing was carried out by random amplified polymorphism DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Biofilm (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. Sean M. Bagshaw & Rinaldo Bellomo (2008). The Need to Reform Our Assessment of Evidence From Clinical Trials: A Commentary. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3 (1):23.
    The ideology of evidence-base medicine (EBM) has dramatically altered the way we think, conceptualize, philosophize and practice medicine. One of its major pillars is the appraisal and classification of evidence. Although important and beneficial, this process currently lacks detail and is in need of reform. In particular, it largely focuses on three key dimensions (design, [type I] alpha error and beta [type II] error) to grade the quality of evidence and often omits other crucial aspects of evidence such as biological (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  15. Donald A. Berry (1993). A Case for Bayesianism in Clinical Trials (with Discussion). Statistics in Medicine 12 (15-16):1377-1393.
    This paper describes a Bayesian approach to the design and analysis of clinical trials, and compares it with the frequentist approach. Both approaches address learning under uncertainty. But they are different in a variety of ways. The Bayesian approach is more flexible. For example, accumulating data from a clinical trial can be used to update Bayesian measures, independent of the design of the trial. Frequentist measures are tied to the design, and interim analyses must be planned for frequentist measures to (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  16. Robyn Bluhm (2010). The Epistemology and Ethics of Chronic Disease Research: Further Lessons From Ecmo. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (2):107-122.
    Robert Truog describes the controversial randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in newborns. Because early results with ECMO indicated that it might be a great advance, saving many lives, Truog argues that ECMO should not have been tested using RCTs, but that a long-term, large-scale observational study of actual clinical practice should have been conducted instead. Central to Truog’s argument, however, is the idea that ECMO is an unusual case. Thus, it is an open question whether (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  17. Christopher J. Blunt (2015). Hierarchies of Evidence in Evidence-Based Medicine. Dissertation, London School of Economics
    Hierarchies of evidence are an important and influential tool for appraising evidence in medicine. In recent years, hierarchies have been formally adopted by organizations including the Cochrane Collaboration [1], NICE [2,3], the WHO [4], the US Preventive Services Task Force [5], and the Australian NHMRC [6,7]. The development of such hierarchies has been regarded as a central part of Evidence-Based Medicine, a movement within healthcare which prioritises the use of epidemiological evidence such as that provided by Randomised Controlled Trials. Philosophical (...)
    No categories
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18. Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2006). Referent Tracking for Treatment Optimisation in Schizophrenic Patients. Journal of Web Semantics 4 (3):229-236.
    The IPAP Schizophrenia Algorithm was originally designed in the form of a flow chart to help physicians optimise the treatment of schizophrenic patients. We examined the current version from the perspective of recent work on terminologies and ontologies thereby drawing on the resources of Basic Formal Ontology, and this with the objective to make the algorithm appropriate for Semantic Web applications. We found that Basic Formal Ontology is a rich enough theory to represent all the entities involved and that applying (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19. Brendan Clarke (2012). Causation in Medicine. In Wenceslao J. Gonzalez (ed.), Conceptual Revolutions: from Cognitive Science to Medicine. Netbiblo
    In this paper, I offer one example of conceptual change. Specifically, I contend that the discovery that viruses could cause cancer represents an excellent example of branch jumping, one of Thagard’s nine forms of conceptual change. Prior to about 1960, cancer was generally regarded as a degenerative, chronic, non-infectious disease. Cancer causation was therefore usually held to be a gradual process of accumulating cellular damage, caused by relatively non-specific component causes, acting over long periods of time. Viral infections, on the (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20. David Colquhoun (2011). In Praise of Randomisation : The Importance of Causality in Medicine and its Subversion by Philosophers of Science. In Philip Dawid, William Twining & Mimi Vasilaki (eds.), Evidence, Inference and Enquiry. OUP/British Academy
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. Alvan R. Feinstein (1967). Clinical Judgment. Krieger.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   32 citations  
  22. Jonathan Fuller, Alex Broadbent & Luis J. Flores (2015). Prediction in Epidemiology and Medicine. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C.
  23. Jonathan Fuller & Luis J. Flores (2016). Translating Trial Results in Clinical Practice: The Risk GP Model. Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 9:167-168.
  24. Jonathan Fuller & Luis J. Flores (2015). The Risk GP Model: The Standard Model of Prediction in Medicine. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 54:49-61.
  25. Galen (2011). Method of Medicine. Loeb Classical Library.
    Method of Medicine, a systematic and comprehensive account of the principles of treating injury and disease and one of Galen's greatest and most influential works.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26. Donald Gillies & Aidan Sudbury (2013). Should Causal Models Always Be Markovian? The Case of Multi-Causal Forks in Medicine. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):275-308.
    The development of causal modelling since the 1950s has been accompanied by a number of controversies, the most striking of which concerns the Markov condition. Reichenbach's conjunctive forks did satisfy the Markov condition, while Salmon's interactive forks did not. Subsequently some experts in the field have argued that adequate causal models should always satisfy the Markov condition, while others have claimed that non-Markovian causal models are needed in some cases. This paper argues for the second position by considering the multi-causal (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27. Yongqun He, Sirarat Sarntivijai, Yu Lin, Zuoshuang Xiang, Abra Guo, Shelley Zhang, Desikan Jagannathan, Luca Toldo, Cui Tao & Barry Smith (2014). OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events. Journal of Biomedical Semantics 5 (29).
    A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description: The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28. Spencer Phillips Hey (2015). Ethics and Epistemology of Accurate Prediction in Clinical Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (7):559-562.
    All major research ethics policies assert that the ethical review of clinical trial protocols should include a systematic assessment of risks and benefits. But despite this policy, protocols do not typically contain explicit probability statements about the likely risks or benefits involved in the proposed research. In this essay, I articulate a range of ethical and epistemic advantages that explicit forecasting would offer to the health research enterprise. I then consider how some particular confidence levels may come into conflict with (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. Spencer Phillips Hey (2015). What Theories Are Tested in Clinical Trials? Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1318-1329.
    John Worrall and Nancy Cartwright have both argued that randomized controlled trials are “testing the wrong theory.” They claim that RCTs are designed to test inferences about the causal relationships in the study population, but this does not guarantee a justified inference about the causal relationships in the more diverse population in clinical practice. In this article I argue that the epistemology of theory testing in trials is more complicated than either Worrall’s or Cartwright’s accounts suggest. I illustrate this more (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30. Spencer Phillips Hey & Jonathan Kimmelman (2014). The Risk-Escalation Model: A Principled Design Strategy for Early-Phase Trials. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (2):121-139.
    Should first-in-human trials be designed to maximize the prospect of therapeutic benefit for volunteers, prioritize avoidance of unintended harms, or aim for some happy medium between the two? Perennial controversies surrounding initiation and design of early-phase trials hinge on how this question is resolved. In this paper, we build on the premise that the task of early-phase testing is to optimize various components of a potential therapy so that later, confirmatory trials have the maximal probability of informing drug development and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31. Spencer Phillips Hey & Charles Weijer (2013). Assay Sensitivity and the Epistemic Contexts of Clinical Trials. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):1-17.
    In February 2010, the World Medical Association hosted an international symposium on the ethics of placebo controls in clinical trials (WMA 2010). Despite years of debate, ethicists, clinical trialists, and policy makers remain divided over the ethical acceptability of using placebos in research when a proven, effective treatment is available. The protracted nature of this problem is due, at least in part, to a perceived conflict between the opposing demands placed on clinical research by science and ethics. A good, scientifically (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  32. Joachim Hornung (1980). Carnap's Inductive Probabilities as a Contribution to Decision Theory. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 1 (3):325-367.
    Common probability theories only allow the deduction of probabilities by using previously known or presupposed probabilities. They do not, however, allow the derivation of probabilities from observed data alone. The question thus arises as to how probabilities in the empirical sciences, especially in medicine, may be arrived at. Carnap hoped to be able to answer this question byhis theory of inductive probabilities. In the first four sections of the present paper the above mentioned problem is discussed in general. After a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33. Jeremy Howick (2013). Placebo Use in the United Kingdom: Results From a National Survey of Primary Care Practitioners. PLoS 8 (3).
    Objectives -/- Surveys in various countries suggest 17% to 80% of doctors prescribe ‘placebos’ in routine practice, but prevalence of placebo use in UK primary care is unknown. Methods -/- We administered a web-based questionnaire to a representative sample of UK general practitioners. Following surveys conducted in other countries we divided placebos into ‘pure’ and ‘impure’. ‘Impure’ placebos are interventions with clear efficacy for certain conditions but are prescribed for ailments where their efficacy is unknown, such as antibiotics for suspected (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34. Mark Jensen, Alexander P. Cox, Naveed Chaudhry, Marcus Ng, Donat Sule Ray, William Duncan, Patrick, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Barry Smith, Alan Ruttenberg, Kinga Szigeti & Alexander D. Diehl (2013). The Neurological Disease Ontology. Journal of Biomedical Semantics 4 (42).
    We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35. Joseph B. Kadane (1986). Progress Toward a More Ethical Method for Clinical Trials. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (4):385-404.
    Methodology for conducting clinical trials of new drugs and treatments on people need not be regarded as fixed. After reviewing the currently most popular method (randomization) and its ethical problems, this paper explores the possibilities of a new method for conducting such trials. It relies on new Bayesian technology for eliciting the opinions of medical experts. These opinions are conditioned on specific predictor variables, and are held in a computer. At any stage in a trial, these opinions can be updated (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  36. Ian James Kidd (2013). A Pluralist Challenge to 'Integrative Medicine': Feyerabend and Popper on the Cognitive Value of Alternative Medicine. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):392–400.
    This paper is a critique of ‘integrative medicine’ as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of ‘integrative medicine’ defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus’ account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova’s recent criticism of ‘integrative medicine’ and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  37. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson, Vikki Entwistle & Elselijn Kingma (2012). Reason and Value: Making Reasoning Fit for Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):929-937.
    Editors' introduction to 3rd thematic issue on philosophy of medicine.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  38. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Jonathan Fuller, Stephen Buetow, Benjamin R. Lewis & Brent M. Kious (2015). Diseases, Patients and the Epistemology of Practice: Mapping the Borders of Health, Medicine and Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):357-364.
  39. Richard Moskowitz (2010). Diagnosis. Medicine Studies 2 (2):121-137.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40. Cecilia Nardini & Jan Sprenger (2013). Bias and Conditioning in Sequential Medical Trials. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):1053-1064.
    Randomized Controlled Trials are currently the gold standard within evidence-based medicine. Usually, they are conducted as sequential trials allowing for monitoring for early signs of effectiveness or harm. However, evidence from early stopped trials is often charged with being biased towards implausibly large effects. To our mind, this skeptical attitude is unfounded and caused by the failure to perform appropriate conditioning in the statistical analysis of the evidence. We contend that a shift from unconditional hypothesis tests in the style of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. Robert Northcott (2012). How Necessary Are Randomized Controlled Trials? In Ronald Munson (ed.), Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics. Thomson Wadsworth 187-191.
    This short review piece is from a textbook on Medical Ethics.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. C. R. Palmer (1993). Ethics and Statistical Methodology in Clinical Trials. Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (4):219-222.
    Statisticians in medicine can disagree on appropriate methodology applicable to the design and analysis of clinical trials. So called Bayesians and frequentists both claim ethical superiority. This paper, by defining and then linking together various dichotomies, argues there is a place for both statistical camps. The choice between them depends on the phase of clinical trial, disease prevalence and severity, but supremely on the ethics underlying the particular trial. There is always a tension present between physicians primarily obligated to their (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  43. Rossano Pancaldi (forthcoming). Sanità, Scienza E Società a Ferrara Dal Medioevo all'Ottocento. Medicina Nei Secoli.
    MALARIA, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN FERRARA FROM THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE NINETEENTH CENTURY -/- In this paper it is outlined the history of malaria in Ferrara and its suburbs, from ancient times up to the nineteenth century. It is considered the issue of malaria in Roman times, during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the discovery of quinine, the first scientific studies made at the University of Ferrara, the first analysis about the causes and the spread of the disease. (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44. Rossano Pancaldi (forthcoming). Medicine, Science and Society in Ferrara from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century. Xxx.
  45. David Pearce, The End of Suffering.
    Before anaesthesia, surgery used to be agony. It’s hard to imagine that anyone could have been anything but pleased when painless surgery was introduced in the mid-19th century. And yet, although many welcomed anaesthesia, some did object. In Zurich, anaesthesia was even outlawed. “Pain is a natural and intended curse of the primal sin. Any attempt to do away with it must be wrong,” claimed the Zurich City Fathers. Painless delivery in childbirth was a particularly contentious issue. Some insisted that (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh (1980). Bayesian Diagnostics: A Bibliography Part. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 1 (1):107-124.
  47. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Theory Change in Immunology Part I: Extended Theories and Scientific Progress. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (2).
    This two-part article examines the competition between the clonal selection theory and the instructive theory of the immune response from 1957–1967. In Part I the concept of a temporally extended theory is introduced, which requires attention to the hitherto largely ignored issue of theory individuation. Factors which influence the acceptability of such an extended theory at different temporal points are also embedded in a Bayesian framework, which is shown to provide a rational account of belief change in science. In Part (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Theory Change in Immunology Part II: The Clonal Selection Theory. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (2).
    This two-part article examines the competition between the clonal selection theory and the instructive theory of the immune response from 1957–1967. In Part I the concept of a temporally extended theory is introduced, which requires attention to the hitherto largely ignored issue of theory individuation. Factors which influence the acceptability of such an extended theory at different temporal points are also embedded in a Bayesian framework, which is shown to provide a rational account of belief change in science. In Part (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. David Shaw (2012). The Swiss Report on Homeopathy: A Case Study of Research Misconduct. Swiss Medical Weekly 142:w13594.
    In 2011 the Swiss government published a report on homeopathy. This report was commissioned following a 2009 referendum in which Swiss people decided that homeopathy and other alternative therapies should be covered by private medical insurance; before implementing this decision, the government wanted to establish whether homeopathy actually works. In February 2012 the report was published in English and was immediately proclaimed by proponents of homeopathy to be conclusive proof that homeopathy is effective. This paper analyses the report and concludes (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  50. Barry Smith, Sivaram Arabandi, Mathias Brochhausen, Michael Calhoun, Paolo Ciccarese, Scott Doyle, Bernard Gibaud, Ilya Goldberg, Charles E. Kahn Jr, James Overton, John Tomaszewski & Metin Gurcan (2015). Biomedical Imaging Ontologies: A Survey and Proposal for Future Work. Journal of Pathology Informatics 6 (37).
    Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as “cell” or “image” or “tissue” or “microscope”) that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical defi nitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 69