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Memory

Edited by John Sutton (Macquarie University)
Assistant editors: Marina Trakas, Marina Trakas
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Summary

Remembering takes many distinctive forms. Philosophers have primarily discussed the form of memory in which I remember episodes and experiences in my own past. Such ‘personal’ (or ‘experiential’ or ‘episodic’) memories seem to represent the past events to which they refer, and to depend on certain kinds of causal connections between past and present. In ‘factual’ or ‘semantic’ memory, in contrast, I need not have personally experienced what I now remember. ‘Declarative’ memory of both these forms aims at truth, but can go wrong in minor or dramatic ways. We also remember both to do certain things (‘prospective’ memory), and how to do certain things (‘procedural’ memory). Philosophers discuss the nature, functions, and mechanisms of memory; its relations to perception, imagination, dreams, emotions, and knowledge; and its connections with personal identity, responsibility, and our moral and social lives. Memory is an active topic of interdisciplinary research between philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences.

Key works Theories of memory in the premodern history of philosophy are discussed by Draaisma 2000, Krell 1990, and Sutton 1998. Rich and wide-ranging theoretical treatments include Campbell 2003, Hacking 1995, and Middleton & Brown 2005. The causal theory of memory is developed in Martin & Deutscher 1966, while important work on personal or autobiographical memory includes Campbell 1997, Hoerl 1999, and Goldie 2012. Casey 1987 offers a phenomenological treatment of memory, while Stern 1991 develops a Wittgensteinian approach. Sheets-Johnstone 2003 discusses kinesthetic or bodily memory. Ideas about social aspects of memory are developed by Wegner et al 1985.
Introductions Warnock 1987 is a fine, wide-ranging first read on the philosophy of memory, while Engel 1999 and Schacter 1996 offer provocative introductions to the psychology of memory. Sutton 2009 surveys a range of ideas about situated and social memory, while Boyer & Wertsch 2009 is a good collection of interdisciplinary essays.
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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Memory
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  1. Tuomo Aho & Ilkka Niiniluoto (1990). On the Logic of Memory. Acta Philosophica Fennica 49:408-429.
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  2. John Aikman (1901). On Some Aspects of Memory.
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  3. Tamara Albertini (2008). Remembering Professor Yegane Shayegan. Philosophy East and West 58 (1):1-1.
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  4. Silvio Aldrovandi, Marie Poirier, Daniel Heussen & Peter Ayton (2009). Memory Strategies Mediate the Relationships Between Memory and Judgment. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  5. Sally Alexander (2010). Memory-Talk: London Childhoods. In Susannah Radstone & Bill Schwarz (eds.), Memory: Histories, Theories, Debates. Fordham University Press 236.
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  6. Anita L. Allen (1997). Forgetting Yourself. In Diana T. Meyers (ed.), Feminists Rethink the Self. Westview Press 104.
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  7. James Thomas Allen (1975). An Analysis of Personal Memory. Dissertation, University of Georgia
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  8. Max M. Allen (1969). Cueing and Retrieval in Free Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):29.
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  9. Klaus Allerbeck (2009). Discussions: 3. Remembering Dahrendorf. Appraisal 7 (4).
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  10. François Amanecer (2011). A Therapeutics of Memory: Paule du Bouchet, Emportée. Arles: Actes Sud, 2011. Diogenes 58 (4):119-123.
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  11. Ronald Arthur Amundson (1975). Memory Images and Forms of Memory. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
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  12. K. Anders Ericsson (2003). Exceptional Memorizers: Made, Not Born. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (6):233-235.
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  13. Myrdene Anderson (1994). Trashing and Hoarding in Words, Deeds, and Memory: A Sampler From the Fourth World Saami. American Journal of Semiotics 11 (1/2):277-289.
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  14. Myrdene Anderson & Devika Chawla (2010). Stories at the Memory-Imagination Interface. Semiotics:233-241.
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  15. Nancy S. Anderson (1960). Poststimulus Cuing in Immediate Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (4):216.
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  16. Nancy S. Anderson & V. David Burns (1973). A Comparison of Presentation Rates Using a Missing Item Probe Test of Immediate Memory. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 2 (4):200-202.
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  17. Norman H. Anderson (1996). Functional Memory Requires a Quite Different Value Metaphor. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):190.
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  18. D. Andriopoulos (1983). In Memory of E. Papanoutsos: A Contemporary Case of Utilization of the Aristotelian Catharsis. Philosophical Inquiry 5 (4):174-188.
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  19. Julia Annas (1992). Aristotle on Memory and the Self. In Martha Craven Nussbaum & Amélie Rorty (eds.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press 297--311.
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  20. Yuichiro Anzai, Henny Pa Boshuizen, John A. Campbell, Jean Paul Caverni, Richard L. Cruess, M. D. Rudolf de Chatel, David A. Evans, Paul J. Feltovich, Claude Frasson & David M. Gaba (1992). List of Author Participants. In D. A. Evans & V. L. Patel (eds.), Advanced Models of Cognition for Medical Training and Practice. Springer 369.
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  21. Erika Apfelbaum (2010). Halbwachs and the Social Properties of Memory. In Susannah Radstone & Bill Schwarz (eds.), Memory: Histories, Theories, Debates. Fordham University Press 77--92.
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  22. F. Appleby (1886). Phonetical Memory Book.
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  23. Barbara U. Archer & Robert R. Margolin (1970). Arousal Effects in Intentional Recall and Forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):8.
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  24. M. H. Ashcraft & G. A. Radvansky (forthcoming). Learning and Remembering. Cognition.
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  25. Sayyid Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani, Hideichi Matsubara, Takashi Iwami & Akiro Matsumoto (eds.) (1999). Consciousness & Reality: Studies in Memory of Toshihiko Izutsu. Brill.
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  26. Aleida Assmann (2006). Memory, Individual and Collective. In Robert E. Goodin & Charles Tilly (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Oxford University Press 210--24.
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  27. Doreen Asso, Safia Magdi & Maria A. Wyke (1975). Perception and Memory of Orientation of Forms by Young Readers. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5 (5):365-368.
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  28. Avi Astor (2012). Memory, Community, and Opposition to Mosques: The Case of Badalona. Theory and Society 41 (4):325-349.
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  29. Asturel (1904). Memory Without Mnemonics, Asturel's Memory System.
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  30. Paul Atkinson, Time, Memory and Movement in Gaspar Noe's Irreversible.
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  31. William Walker Atkinson (1909). Memory, How to Develop, Train and Use It.
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  32. William Walker Atkinson (1904). Memory Culture.
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  33. Bryan C. Auday, Elizabeth Kelminson & Henry A. Cross (1991). Improving Memory for Temporal Order Through Extended Practice. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):549-552.
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  34. Marc Augé (1998). Les Formes de L'Oubli. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  35. Nadia Auriat (1992). Autobiographical Memory and Survey Methodology: Furthering the Bridge Between Two Disciplines. In Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory. Kluwer 295--312.
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  36. Denise Avard, Hilary Vallance, Cheryl Greenberg, Claude Laberge & Linda Kharaboyan (2006). Variability in the Storage and Use of Newborn Dried Bloodspots in Canada: Is It Time for National Standards? Genomics, Society and Policy 2:80-95.
    Storage and secondary use of bloodspots collected for newborn screening raises controversies because of the particularly sensitive nature of the information that can be derived from them and the lack of national standards and consistent provincial policies that can serve to guide storage facilities. This report, derived through a review of Canadian and provincial policy statements, a survey of provincial newborn screening laboratory directors and program directors, as well as through a consultative workshop, illustrates the social, ethical and legal issues (...)
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  37. Edward Wilson Averill (1978). Norman Malcolm's "Memory and Mind". [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (1):140.
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  38. D. N. F. Awang, J. Pehcevski, J. A. Thom & S. M. M. Tahaghoghi (2006). Combining Image and Structured Text Retrieval. Advances in XML Information Retrieval and Evaluation. In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag 525-539.
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  39. Nina P. Azari, Bryan C. Auday & Henry A. Cross (1989). Effect of Instructions on Memory for Temporal Order. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (3):203-205.
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  40. A. B. (1982). Memory and Mind. Review of Metaphysics 35 (3):615-616.
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  41. Brent J. Small & Backman & Lars (2006). Episodic Memory Impairment in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease. In Hubert Zimmer, Axel Mecklinger & Ulman Lindenberger (eds.), Handbook of Binding and Memory: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. OUP Oxford
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  42. James Henry Bacon (1889). A Complete Guide to the Improvement of the Memory; or, the Science of Memory Simplified.
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  43. James Henry Bacon (1862). The Science of Memory Simplified and Explained; or, a Rational System for Improving the Memory and Rapidly Acquiring Knowledge.
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  44. Alan D. Baddeley (1992). What is Autobiographical Memory. In Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory. Kluwer 65--13.
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  45. Harry P. Bahrick (1971). Accessibility and Availability of Retrieval Cues in the Retention of a Categorized List. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (1):117.
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  46. Harry P. Bahrick (1969). Measurement of Memory by Prompted Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (2p1):213.
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  47. Harry P. Bahrick, Sandra Clark & Phyllis Bahrick (1967). Generalization Gradients as Indicants of Learning and Retention of a Recognition Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):464.
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  48. Tijana Bajović (2012). Flooded with Memories: Emergence and Development of The'memory Boom'. Filozofija I Društvo 23 (3):91-105.
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  49. Tijana Bajović (2012). Poplava sećanja: nastanak i razvoj memory booma. Filozofija I Društvo 3:91-105.
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  50. Michael Baker (1991). Note in Memory of Edmund Anthony O'Halloran. The Chesterton Review 17 (1):91-93.
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