Bookmark and Share

Memory

Edited by John Sutton (Macquarie University)
Assistant editors: Marina Trakas, Marina Trakas
About this topic
Summary

Remembering takes many distinctive forms. Philosophers have primarily discussed the form of memory in which I remember episodes and experiences in my own past. Such ‘personal’ (or ‘experiential’ or ‘episodic’) memories seem to represent the past events to which they refer, and to depend on certain kinds of causal connections between past and present. In ‘factual’ or ‘semantic’ memory, in contrast, I need not have personally experienced what I now remember. ‘Declarative’ memory of both these forms aims at truth, but can go wrong in minor or dramatic ways. We also remember both to do certain things (‘prospective’ memory), and how to do certain things (‘procedural’ memory). Philosophers discuss the nature, functions, and mechanisms of memory; its relations to perception, imagination, dreams, emotions, and knowledge; and its connections with personal identity, responsibility, and our moral and social lives. Memory is an active topic of interdisciplinary research between philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences.

Key works Theories of memory in the premodern history of philosophy are discussed by Draaisma 2000, Krell 1990, and Sutton 1998. Rich and wide-ranging theoretical treatments include Campbell 2003, Hacking 1995, and Middleton & Brown 2005. The causal theory of memory is developed in Martin & Deutscher 1966, while important work on personal or autobiographical memory includes Campbell 1997, Hoerl 1999, and Goldie 2012. Casey 1987 offers a phenomenological treatment of memory, while Stern 1991 develops a Wittgensteinian approach. Sheets-Johnstone 2003 discusses kinesthetic or bodily memory. Ideas about social aspects of memory are developed by Wegner et al 1985.
Introductions Warnock 1987 is a fine, wide-ranging first read on the philosophy of memory, while Engel 1999 and Schacter 1996 offer provocative introductions to the psychology of memory. Sutton 2009 surveys a range of ideas about situated and social memory, while Boyer & Wertsch 2009 is a good collection of interdisciplinary essays.
  Show all references
Related categories
Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Memory
1325 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
1 — 50 / 1325
Material to categorize
  1. Kurt F. Anschuetz (2005). Landscapes as Memory : Archaeological History to Learn From and to Live By. In Michelle Hegmon, B. Sunday Eiselt & Richard I. Ford (eds.), Engaged Anthropology: Research Essays on North American Archaeology, Ethnobotany, and Museology. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. A. B. (1982). Memory and Mind. Review of Metaphysics 35 (3):615-616.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Lucas M. Bietti (2012). Towards a Cognitive Pragmatics of Collective Remembering. Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (1):32-61.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. David Cockburn (2001). Memories, Traces and the Significance of the Past. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. William E. Connolly (2010). The Presence of the Past: Negotiating the Politics of Collective Memory. Contemporary Political Theory 9 (1):59-76.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Jérôme Dokic (2014). Feeling the Past: A Two-Tiered Account of Episodic Memory. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (3):413-426.
    Episodic memory involves the sense that it is “first-hand”, i.e., originates directly from one’s own past experience. An account of this phenomenological dimension is offered in terms of an affective experience or feeling specific to episodic memory. On the basis of recent empirical research in the domain of metamemory, it is claimed that a recollective experience involves two separate mental components: a first-order memory about the past along with a metacognitive, episodic feeling of knowing. The proposed two-tiered account is contrasted (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. John Donohoe (2010). Man as Machine: A Review of Memory and the Computational Brain: Why Cognitive Science Will Transform Neuroscience, by CR Gallistel and AP King. [REVIEW] Behavior and Philosophy 38:83-101.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Yadin Dudai (2004). Memory From A to Z: Keywords, Concepts, and Beyond. OUP Oxford.
    Now available as a low priced paperback, this is an innovative, readable and engaging companion to the language of memory research. It consists of over 130 entries, bound within a coherent conceptual framework. Each entry starts with a definition, or a set of definitions, followed by in-depth and provocative discussion of the origin, meaning, usage and applicability of ideas and problems central to the neuroscience of memory and scientific culture at large. The entries, linked by webs of associations, can be (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. John T. Dulin (1975). Memory in Aristotle and Some Neo-Aristotelians. Philosophical Studies 24:205-214.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Edwin (1989). Can There Be Apossible World In Which Memory Is Unreliable? Philosophical Inquiry 11 (3-4):46-47.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Alexander Etkind (2009). Post-Soviet Hauntology: Cultural Memory of the Soviet Terror. Constellations 16 (1):182-200.
  12. W. A. F. (1973). Aristotle on Memory. Review of Metaphysics 26 (3):546-547.
  13. William J. Friedman (2001). Memory Processes Underlying Humans' Chronological Sense of the Past. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press. 139--167.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Richard J. Golsan (2011). French Memory and the Wages of Guilt. European Journal of Political Theory 10 (4):490-500.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Francesco Guicciardini (2013). Ricordi. Carocci.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Mateja Habinc (2004). Ne le Rožmarin Za Spomin: O Spominskih Predmetih in Njihovem Shranjevanju. Oddelek Za Etnologijo in Kulturno Antropologijo, Filozofska Fakulteta, Universza V Ljubljani.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Jean G. Harrell (1986). Soundtracks: A Study of Auditory Perception, Memory, and Valuation. Prometheus Books.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Mark Jensen, Alexander P. Cox, Naveed Chaudhry, Marcus Ng, Donat Sule Ray, William Duncan, Patrick, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Barry Smith, Alan Ruttenberg, Kinga Szigeti & Alexander D. Diehl (2013). The Neurological Disease Ontology. Journal of Biomedical Semantics 4 (42).
    We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Christopher Peacocke (2001). Understanding the Past Tense. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Kenneth S. Pope & Barbara G. Tabachnick (1995). Recovered Memories of Abuse Among Therapy Patients: A National Survey. Ethics and Behavior 5 (3):237 – 248.
    A national survey sent to 450 female and 450 male licensed psychologists (return rate = 42%) found that about 73% of the participants reported encountering at least one patient who claimed to recover previously forgotten memories of childhood sex abuse. About 21% of the therapists concluded that, for at least one patient, the memory was false; about 50% of the therapists reported that at least one patient had found external validation for the abuse; about 12% of the therapists reported at (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Ted Poston (2012). Is There an 'I' in Epistemology? Dialectica 66 (4):517-541.
    Epistemic conservatism is the thesis that the mere holding of a belief confers some positive epistemic status on its content. Conservatism is widely criticized on the grounds that it conflicts with the main goal in epistemology to believe truths and disbelieve falsehoods. In this paper I argue for conservatism and defend it from objections. First, I argue that the objection to conservatism from the truth goal in epistemology fails. Second, I develop and defend an argument for conservatism from the perspectival (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. James Russell & Robert Hanna (2012). A Minimalist Approach to the Development of Episodic Memory. Mind and Language 27 (1):29-54.
    Episodic memory is usually regarded in a Conceptualist light, in the sense of its being dependent upon the grasp of concepts directly relevant to the act of episodic recollection itself, such as a concept of past times and of the self as an experiencer. Given this view, its development is typically timed as being in the early school-age years (Perner, 2001; Tulving, 2005). We present a minimalist, Non-Conceptualist approach in opposition to this view, but one that also exists in clear (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Kellie Williamson & John Sutton (forthcoming). Embodied Remembering. In L. Shapiro (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition. Routledge.
    Experiences of embodied remembering are familiar and diverse. We settle bodily into familiar chairs or find our way easily round familiar rooms. We inhabit our own kitchens or cars or workspaces effectively and comfortably, and feel disrupted when our habitual and accustomed objects or technologies change or break or are not available. Hearing a particular song can viscerally bring back either one conversation long ago, or just the urge to dance. Some people explicitly use their bodies to record, store, or (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
Theories of Memory
  1. Alia Al-Saji (2004). The Memory of Another Past: Bergson, Deleuze and a New Theory of Time. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 37 (2):203-239.
    Through the philosophies of Bergson and Deleuze, my paper explores a different theory of time. I reconstitute Deleuze’s paradoxes of the past in Difference and Repetition and Bergsonism to reveal a theory of time in which the relation between past and present is one of coexistence rather than succession. The theory of memory implied here is a non-representational one. To elaborate this theory, I ask: what is the role of the “virtual image” in Bergson’s Matter and Memory? Far from representing (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Martha Wagner Alibali & Kenneth R. Koedinger (1999). The Developmental Progression From Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: A Computational Approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):755-756.
    Dienes & Perner (D&P) argue that nondeclarative knowledge can take multiple forms. We provide empirical support for this from two related lines of research about the development of mathematical reasoning. We then describe how different forms of procedural and declarative knowledge can be effectively modeled in Anderson's ACT-R theory, contrasting this computational approach with D&P's logical approach. The computational approach suggests that the commonly observed developmental progression from more implicit to more explicit knowledge can be viewed as a consequence of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Mengistu Amberber (ed.) (2007). The Language of Memory in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. John Benjamins.
    ... volume explores the language of memory in a cross-linguistic perspective. The term memory is to be understood broadly as the "capacity to encode, store, ...
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Norman H. Anderson (1997). Functional Memory Versus Reproductive Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):19-20.
    A functional theory of memory has already been developed as part of a general functional theory of cognition. The traditional conception of memory as “reproductive” touches on only a minor function. The primary function of memory is in constructing values for goal-directedness of everyday thought and action. This functional approach to memory rests on a solid empirical foundation.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Jackie Andrade (ed.) (2001). Working Memory in Perspective. Psychology Press.
    In this book, experienced researchers in the field address the question: Will the model survive these challenges?
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Jose M. Arcaya (1991). Making Time for Memory: A Transcendental Approach. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 11 (2):75-90.
  7. Jose M. Arcaya (1989). Memory and Temporality: A Phenomenological Alternative. Philosophical Psychology 2 (1):101-110.
    The notion of memory storage, central to most contemporary theories of remembering, is challenged from a philosophical perspective as being contradictory and untenable. It criticizes this storage hypothesis as relying upon a linear explanation of time, an assumption which results in infinite regression, solipsism, and a failure to contact the real past. A model based on the phenomenological viewpoints of Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty is offered as an alternative paradigm. Finally, a research method suggested by this descriptive approach to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Aristotle, On Memory and Reminiscence.
  9. Aristotle, On Memory and Reminiscence.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Jay David Atlas, Qualia, Consciousness, and Memory: Dennett (2005), Rosenthal (2002), Ledoux (2002), and Libet (2004).
    In his recent (2005) book "Sweet Dreams: philosophical obstacles to a science of consciousness," Dennett renews his attack on a philosophical notion of qualia, the success of which attack is required if his brand of Functionalism is to survive. He also articulates once again what he takes to be essential to his notion of consciousness. I shall argue that his new, central argument against the philosophical concept of qualia fails. In passing I point out a difficulty that David (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Siyaves Azeri (2013). Hume's Social Theory of Memory. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 11 (1):53-68.
    Traditionally, Hume's account of memory is considered an individualist-atomic representational theory. However, textual evidence suggests that Hume's account is better seen as a first attempt to create a social theory of memory that considers social context, custom and habits, language, and logical structures as constitutive elements of memory.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Attention, Self, and Conscious Self-Monitoring. In A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press.
    ?In everday language, the word ?attention? implies control of access to consciousness, and we adopt this usage here. Attention itself can be either voluntary or automatic. This can be readily modeled in the theory. Further, a contrastive analysis of spontaneously self?attributed vs. self?alien experiences suggests that ?self? can be interpreted as the more enduring, higher levels of the dominant context hierarchy, which create continuity over the changing flow of events. Since context is by definition unconscious in GW theory, self in (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Bernard J. Baars, Uma Ramamurthy & Stan Franklin (2007). How Deliberate, Spontaneous, and Unwanted Memories Emerge in a Computational Model of Consciousness. In John H. Mace (ed.), Involuntary Memory. New Perspectives in Cognitive Psychology. Blackwell Publishing. 177-207.
  14. Annette C. Baier (1976). Mixing Memory and Desire. American Philosophical Quarterly 13 (July):213-20.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. J. B. Baillie (1917). On the Nature of Memory-Knowledge. Mind 26 (103):249-272.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Thomas Baldwin (2010). Russell on Memory. Principia 5 (1-2):187-208.
    Russell famously propounded scepticism about memory in The Analysis of Mind (1921). As he there acknowledged, one way to counter this sceptical position is to hold that memory involves direct acquaintance with past, and this is in fact a thesis Russell had advanced in The Problems of Philosophy (1911). Indeed he had there used the case of memory to develop a sophisticated fallibilist, non-sceptical, epistemology. By 1921, however, Russell had rejected the early conception of memory as incompatible with the neutral (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Andrejs Balodis (2008). Revitalization of the Past. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:3-12.
    The concept of memory rests at the heart of Bersgon’s theory of consciousness. His theory of memory is the novelty in the history of philosophy. It is not an affirmation either of the metaphysical conceptions (versions à la Platonism) where “all knowledge is recollection”, nor of empiricist psychology possibly traceble back to Aristotle, where, briefly speaking, the faculty of memory depends on the general perceptual capacity. Contrary to the majority of the philosophical and psychological theories of his epoch, Bergson assigns (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. William P. Banks (1995). Implicit Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):369-370.
  19. Jeffrey Andrew Barash (2010). The Place of Remembrance: Reflections on Paul Ricoeur's Theory of Collective Memory. In Brian Treanor & Henry Isaac Venema (eds.), A Passion for the Possible: Thinking with Paul Ricoeur. Fordham University Press.
  20. Jeffrey Andrew Barash (1997). The Sources of Memory. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (4):707-717.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Amanda Barnier & John Sutton (2008). From Individual Memory to Collective Memory: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Memory 16 (3):177-182.
    Very often our memories of the past are of experiences or events we shared with others. And ‘‘in many circumstances in society, remembering is a social event’’ (Roediger, Bergman, & Meade, 2000, p. 129): parents and children reminisce about significant family events, friends discuss a movie they just saw together, students study for exams with their roommates, colleagues remind one another of information relevant to an important group decision, and complete strangers discuss a crime they happened to witness together. Psychology (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Renate Bartsch (2002). Consciousness Emerging: The Dynamics of Perception, Imagination, Action, Memory, Thought, and Language. John Benjamins.
  23. R. W. Beardsmore (1989). Autobiography and the Brain: Mary Warnock on Memory. British Journal of Aesthetics 29 (3):261-269.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Robert F. Belli (1986). Mechanist And Organicist Parallels Between Theories Of Memory And Science. Journal of Mind and Behavior 7:63-86.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Aaron Ben-Zeev (1986). Two Approaches to Memory. Philosophical Investigations 9 (October):288-301.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. B. S. Benjamin (1956). Remembering. Mind 65 (July):312-331.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Henri Bergson (1991/2004). Matter and Memory. MIT Press.
    A monumental work by an important modern philosopher, Matter and Memory (1896) represents one of the great inquiries into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Nobel Prize-winner Henri Bergson surveys these independent but related spheres, exploring the connection of mind and body to individual freedom of choice. Bergson’s efforts to reconcile the facts of biology to a theory of consciousness offered a challenge to the mechanistic view of nature, and his original and innovative views exercised a profound (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1325