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Memory

Edited by John Sutton (Macquarie University)
Assistant editors: Marina Trakas, Marina Trakas
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Summary

Remembering takes many distinctive forms. Philosophers have primarily discussed the form of memory in which I remember episodes and experiences in my own past. Such ‘personal’ (or ‘experiential’ or ‘episodic’) memories seem to represent the past events to which they refer, and to depend on certain kinds of causal connections between past and present. In ‘factual’ or ‘semantic’ memory, in contrast, I need not have personally experienced what I now remember. ‘Declarative’ memory of both these forms aims at truth, but can go wrong in minor or dramatic ways. We also remember both to do certain things (‘prospective’ memory), and how to do certain things (‘procedural’ memory). Philosophers discuss the nature, functions, and mechanisms of memory; its relations to perception, imagination, dreams, emotions, and knowledge; and its connections with personal identity, responsibility, and our moral and social lives. Memory is an active topic of interdisciplinary research between philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences.

Key works Theories of memory in the premodern history of philosophy are discussed by Draaisma 2000, Krell 1990, and Sutton 1998. Rich and wide-ranging theoretical treatments include Campbell 2003, Hacking 1995, and Middleton & Brown 2005. The causal theory of memory is developed in Martin & Deutscher 1966, while important work on personal or autobiographical memory includes Campbell 1997, Hoerl 1999, and Goldie 2012. Casey 1987 offers a phenomenological treatment of memory, while Stern 1991 develops a Wittgensteinian approach. Sheets-Johnstone 2003 discusses kinesthetic or bodily memory. Ideas about social aspects of memory are developed by Wegner et al 1985.
Introductions Warnock 1987 is a fine, wide-ranging first read on the philosophy of memory, while Engel 1999 and Schacter 1996 offer provocative introductions to the psychology of memory. Sutton 2009 surveys a range of ideas about situated and social memory, while Boyer & Wertsch 2009 is a good collection of interdisciplinary essays.
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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Memory
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  1. Tuomo Aho & Ilkka Niiniluoto (1990). On the Logic of Memory. Acta Philosophica Fennica 49:408-429.
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  2. John Aikman (1901). On Some Aspects of Memory.
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  3. Anita L. Allen (1997). Forgetting Yourself. In Diana T. Meyers (ed.), Feminists Rethink the Self. Westview Press 104.
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  4. James Thomas Allen (1975). An Analysis of Personal Memory. Dissertation, University of Georgia
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  5. Max M. Allen (1969). Cueing and Retrieval in Free Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):29.
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  6. François Amanecer (2011). A Therapeutics of Memory: Paule du Bouchet, Emportée. Arles: Actes Sud, 2011. Diogenes 58 (4):119-123.
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  7. Ronald Arthur Amundson (1975). Memory Images and Forms of Memory. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
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  8. Myrdene Anderson (1994). Trashing and Hoarding in Words, Deeds, and Memory: A Sampler From the Fourth World Saami. American Journal of Semiotics 11 (1/2):277-289.
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  9. Nancy S. Anderson (1960). Poststimulus Cuing in Immediate Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (4):216.
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  10. Nancy S. Anderson & V. David Burns (1973). A Comparison of Presentation Rates Using a Missing Item Probe Test of Immediate Memory. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 2 (4):200-202.
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  11. Norman H. Anderson (1996). Functional Memory Requires a Quite Different Value Metaphor. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):190.
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  12. D. Andriopoulos (1983). In Memory of E. Papanoutsos: A Contemporary Case of Utilization of the Aristotelian Catharsis. Philosophical Inquiry 5 (4):174-188.
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  13. F. Appleby (1886). Phonetical Memory Book.
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  14. Barbara U. Archer & Robert R. Margolin (1970). Arousal Effects in Intentional Recall and Forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):8.
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  15. M. H. Ashcraft & G. A. Radvansky (forthcoming). Learning and Remembering. Cognition.
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  16. Aleida Assmann (2006). Memory, Individual and Collective. In Robert E. Goodin & Charles Tilly (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Oxford University Press 210--24.
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  17. Doreen Asso, Safia Magdi & Maria A. Wyke (1975). Perception and Memory of Orientation of Forms by Young Readers. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5 (5):365-368.
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  18. Avi Astor (2012). Memory, Community, and Opposition to Mosques: The Case of Badalona. Theory and Society 41 (4):325-349.
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  19. Asturel (1904). Memory Without Mnemonics, Asturel's Memory System.
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  20. Paul Atkinson, Time, Memory and Movement in Gaspar Noe's Irreversible.
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  21. William Walker Atkinson (1909). Memory, How to Develop, Train and Use It.
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  22. William Walker Atkinson (1904). Memory Culture.
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  23. Bryan C. Auday, Elizabeth Kelminson & Henry A. Cross (1991). Improving Memory for Temporal Order Through Extended Practice. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):549-552.
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  24. Marc Augé (1998). Les Formes de L'Oubli. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  25. Nadia Auriat (1992). Autobiographical Memory and Survey Methodology: Furthering the Bridge Between Two Disciplines. In Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory. Kluwer 295--312.
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  26. Edward Wilson Averill (1978). Norman Malcolm's "Memory and Mind". [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (1):140.
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  27. D. N. F. Awang, J. Pehcevski, J. A. Thom & S. M. M. Tahaghoghi (2006). Combining Image and Structured Text Retrieval. Advances in XML Information Retrieval and Evaluation. In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag 525-539.
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  28. Nina P. Azari, Bryan C. Auday & Henry A. Cross (1989). Effect of Instructions on Memory for Temporal Order. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (3):203-205.
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  29. Brent J. Small & Backman & Lars (2006). Episodic Memory Impairment in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease. In Hubert Zimmer, Axel Mecklinger & Ulman Lindenberger (eds.), Handbook of Binding and Memory: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. OUP Oxford
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  30. James Henry Bacon (1889). A Complete Guide to the Improvement of the Memory; or, the Science of Memory Simplified.
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  31. James Henry Bacon (1862). The Science of Memory Simplified and Explained; or, a Rational System for Improving the Memory and Rapidly Acquiring Knowledge.
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  32. Harry P. Bahrick (1971). Accessibility and Availability of Retrieval Cues in the Retention of a Categorized List. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (1):117.
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  33. Harry P. Bahrick (1969). Measurement of Memory by Prompted Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (2p1):213.
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  34. Harry P. Bahrick, Sandra Clark & Phyllis Bahrick (1967). Generalization Gradients as Indicants of Learning and Retention of a Recognition Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):464.
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  35. Tijana Bajović (2012). Flooded with Memories: Emergence and Development of The'memory Boom'. Filozofija I Društvo 23 (3):91-105.
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  36. Tijana Bajović (2012). Poplava sećanja: nastanak i razvoj memory booma. Filozofija I Društvo 3:91-105.
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  37. Michael Baker (1991). Note in Memory of Edmund Anthony O'Halloran. The Chesterton Review 17 (1):91-93.
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  38. Jean-Paul Baldacchino (2009). In Memory of Claude-'Le Triste Anthropologue'. Analysis 15:185.
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  39. Enid Balint (1987). Memory and Consciousness. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 68:475-483.
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  40. Donald Bamber & Victor Manifold (1978). Evaluation of a Method for Studying Forgetting: Is Data From Split-Half Recognition Tests Contaminated by Test Interference? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 11 (2):126-128.
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  41. Jacques Barbizet (1969). Psychophysiological Mechanisms of Memory. In P. Vinken & G. Bruyn (eds.), Handbook of Clinical Neurology. North Holland 3--258.
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  42. G. F. Barbour (1939). Time, Memory and the Wholeness of Life. Hibbert Journal 38:95.
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  43. Leonard Barkan, Frances Dolan, Heather Dubrow, Edwin M. Duval, Margaret Ferguson, Barbara Fuchs, Patricia Fumerton, Andrew Hadfield, Patricia Clare Ingham, Andrew McRae, Shannon Miller, James Nohrnberg & Michael O'Connell (2011). Essays in Memory of Richard Helgerson: Laureations. University of Delaware Press.
    Essays in Memory of Richard Helgerson: Laureations brings together new essays by leading literary scholars of the British and European middle ages and early modern period who have been influenced by the groundbreaking scholarship of Richard Helgerson. The contributors evince the ongoing impact of Helgerson's work in critical debates including those of nationalism, formal analysis, and literary careerism.
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  44. Henry Barker, G. F. Stout & R. F. Alfred Hoernlé (1912). Symposium: Can There Be Anything Obscure or Implicit in a Mental State? Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 13:257 - 312.
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  45. J. Barnouw (1979). Language, Counter-Memory, Practice. Selected Essays and Interviews. Review of Metaphysics 32 (4):750-752.
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  46. John Barter (1890). A Wonderful Memory, and How to Acquire It.
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  47. F. C. Bartlett (1925). Review of Theories of Memory. [REVIEW] Hibbert Journal 23 (4):757-759.
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  48. A. Keith Barton (1973). An Empirical Analysis of Free-Recall to Paired-Associate Transfer. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):79.
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  49. A. Keith Barton & Robert K. Young (1972). Transfer From Free-Recall to Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (1):240.
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  50. S. D. Barton & L. R. Warren (1988). Effects of an Emotionally Arousing Incident on Memory for Adjacent Events. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (6):485-485.
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