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  1. Robert E. Allinson (1998). The Debate Between Mencius and Hsün-Tzu: Contemporary Applications. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25 (1):31-49.
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  2. Robert E. Allinson (1992). A Hermeneutic Reconstruction of the Child in the Well Example. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 19 (3):297-308.
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  3. Yanming An (2008). Family Love in Confucius and Mencius. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (1):51-55.
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  4. Stephen C. Angle (2010). Translating (and Interpreting) the Mengzi: Virtue, Obligation, and Discretion. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (4):676-683.
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  5. Tongdong Bai (2009). The Price of Serving Meat—on Confucius's and Mencius's Views of Human and Animal Rights. Asian Philosophy 19 (1):85 – 99.
    The apparent conflict between some fundamental ideas of Confucianism and of rights seems to render Confucianism incompatible with rights. I will illustrate the general strategies, based upon an insight of the later Rawls, to solve the incompatibility problem. I will then show how these strategies can help us to develop a Confucian account of animal rights, which, by way of example, demonstrates how Confucianism can endorse and develop unique and constructive accounts of most rights that are commonly recognized today.
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  6. Tongdong Bai (2008). A Mencian Version of Limited Democracy. Res Publica 14 (1):19-34.
    The compatibility between Western democracy and other cultures, and the desirability of democracy, are two important problems in democratic theory. Following an insight from John Rawls’s later philosophy, and using some key passages in Mencius, I will show the compatibility between a ‘thin’ version of liberal democracy and Confucianism. Moreover, elaborating on Mencius’s ideas of the responsibility of government for the physical and moral well-being of the people, the respectability of the government and the ruling elite, and the competence-based limited (...)
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  7. James Behuniak Jr (2011). Naturalizing Mencius. Philosophy East and West 61 (3):492-515.
    In a recent paper titled “Mencius and an Ethics of the New Century,” Donald J. Munro argues that recent theories in the evolutionary sciences regarding the biological basis of altruism and infant bonding might lend credence to Mencius’ philosophy of human nature.1 Such theories, says Munro, support Mencius’ contention that certain moral concepts derive from something that is inborn. What such naturalistic theories do not address, however, is whether or not these moral concepts are also “founded on something transcendental,” and (...)
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  8. James Behuniak (2002). Mencius on Becoming Human. Dissertation, University of Hawaii at Manoa
    This dissertation reinterprets the notion commonly translated as "human nature" (renxing in the Mencius by appealing to philosophical assumptions common to Warring States thought. Taking advantage of recently unearthed archeological finds from the Mencian school, the argument is made that renxing in the Mencius is most adequately understood as a dynamic disposition shaped by cultural and historical conditions, not as an a-historical "nature" common to all humans at all times. The notion of "becoming human" in the Mencius that results from (...)
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  9. Susan Blake (2010). Mengzi and its Philosophical Commitments: Comments on Van Norden's Mengzi. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (4):668-675.
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  10. Donald N. Blakeley (2008). Hearts in Agreement: Zhuangzi on Dao Adept Friendship. Philosophy East and West 58 (3):pp. 318-336.
    This essay examines two stories in Zhuangzi chapter 6 that provide detailsabout the formal, substantive, and applied features of friendship between daoadepts. Using a template of seven characteristics, dao adept friendship is thencompared with ren adept friendship, described in the Analects and theMencius. It is argued that dao living contains features of friendship that arecomparably robust. As unconventional as dao adept living may be, friendshipis not lacking but integral to such a life.
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  11. Irene Bloom (1997). Human Nature and Biological Nature in Mencius. Philosophy East and West 47 (1):21-32.
    Ren-xing can be aptly translated as "human nature," representing as it does the Mencian conviction of and sympathy for a common humanity. The enterprise of comparative philosophy is furthered by drawing attention to the large and important conceptual sphere within which Mencius was working, to his concern for the most fundamental realities of human life, and to his translatability across time and cultures.
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  12. Mary I. Bockover (2010). Confucianism and Ethics in the Western Philosophical Tradition I: Foundational Concepts. Philosophy Compass 5 (4):307-316.
    Confucianism conceives of persons as being necessarily interdependent, defining personhood in terms of the various roles one embodies and that are established by the relationships basic to one's life. By way of contrast, the Western philosophical tradition has predominantly defined persons in terms of intrinsic characteristics not thought to depend on others. This more strictly and explicitly individualistic concept of personhood contrasts with the Confucian idea that one becomes a person because of others; where one is never a person independently (...)
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  13. Richard Bosley (1988). Do Mencius and Hume Make the Same Ethical Mistake? Philosophy East and West 38 (1):3-18.
  14. Brian Bruya (2001). Qing (情) and Emotion in Early Chinese Thought. Ming Qing Yanjiu 2001:151-176.
    In a 1967 article, A. C. Graham made the claim that 情 qing should never be translated as "emotions" in rendering early Chinese texts into English. Over time, sophisticated translators and interpreters have taken this advice to heart, and qing has come to be interpreted as "the facts" or "what is genuine in one." In these English terms all sense of interrelationality is gone, leaving us with a wooden, objective stasis. But we also know, again partly through the work of (...)
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  15. Xiqin Cai (ed.) (2006). Mengzi Shuo =. Hua Yu Jiao Xue Chu Ban She.
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  16. Zhizhong Cai (1991). The Sayings of Mencius: Wisdom in a Chaotic Era. Asiapac.
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  17. Sin Yee Chan (2000). Gender and Relationship Roles in the Analects and the Mencius. Asian Philosophy 10 (2):115 – 132.
    In this paper I argue that the conception of gender as illustrated in the Analects and the Mencius is basically a functional one that assigns women a domestic role. I show how this conception might imply the exclusion of women from the moral ideal of chun-tzu, which would result in the further subordination of women as wives to men as husbands in the context of the Confucian role system. On the other hand, I show how the Confucian role system can (...)
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  18. Marthe Chandler (2003). "Meno" and "Mencius:" Two Philosophical Dramas. Philosophy East and West 53 (3):367-398.
    The conversations between Meno and Socrates and between Mencius and King Xuan are philosophical dramas whose "plots" are intellectual arguments. Although both texts present historical characters at particular times in their lives, the texts were written some years after the events they describe by disciples of Socrates and Mencius. The authors had a number of motives: they wanted to represent what the characters thought and said, to explain the philosophical theories underlying the dramatic plots, and to justify the failure of (...)
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  19. Carsun Chang (1958). The Significance of Mencius. Philosophy East and West 8 (1/2):37-48.
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  20. Amit Chaturvedi (2012). Mencius and Dewey on Moral Perception, Deliberation, and Imagination. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (2):163-185.
    I argue against interpretations of Mencius by Liu Xiusheng and Eric Hutton that attempt to make sense of a Mencian account of moral judgment and deliberation in light of the moral particularism of John McDowell. These interpretations read Mencius’s account as relying on a faculty of moral perception, which generates moral judgments by directly perceiving moral facts that are immediately intuited with the help of rudimentary and innate moral inclinations. However, I argue that it is a mistake to identify innate (...)
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  21. Lisheng Chen (2010). Courage in the Analects : A Genealogical Survey of the Confucian Virtue of Courage. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):1-30.
    The different meanings of “courage” in The Analects were expressed in Confucius’ remark on Zilu’s bravery. The typological analysis of courage in Mencius and Xunzi focused on the shaping of the personalities of brave persons. “Great courage” and “superior courage”, as the virtues of “great men” or “ shi junzi 士君子 (intellectuals with noble characters)”, exhibit not only the uprightness of the “internal sagacity”, but also the rich implications of the “external kingship”. The prototype of these brave persons could be (...)
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  22. Ning Chen (1997). The Concept of Fate in Mencius. Philosophy East and West 47 (4):495-520.
    Mencius, who often spoke of ming in different senses among which only one can be taken as fate, upheld two doctrines of fate--moral determinism and blind, unalterable fate--but he was prone to apply the former to collective entities, and the latter to individual persons. This bi-level distinction, which is at variance with the non-distinction in both Moism and Taoism, exercised a profound influence upon the minds of later Confucians.
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  23. Xiao-Yang Chen (2007). Defensive Medicine or Economically Motivated Corruption? A Confucian Reflection on Physician Care in China Today. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (6):635 – 648.
    In contemporary China, physicians tend to require more diagnostic work-ups and prescribe more expensive medications than are clearly medically indicated. These practices have been interpreted as defensive medicine in response to a rising threat of potential medical malpractice lawsuits. After outlining recent changes in Chinese malpractice law, this essay contends that the overuse of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions cannot be attributed to malpractice concerns alone. These practice patterns are due as well, if not primarily, to the corruption of medical (...)
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  24. Chung-Ying Cheng (1977). Warring States Confucianism and the Thought of Mencius. Contemporary Chinese Thought 8 (3):4-66.
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  25. Francisca Cho (2004). Mencius and Early Chinese Thought. International Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):299-300.
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  26. Kim-chong Chong (2009). Behuniak Jr., James, Mencius on Becoming Human. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (3):337-340.
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  27. Kim-Chong Chong (1999). The Practice of Jen. Philosophy East and West 49 (3):298-316.
    Under Mencius' influence jen has been regarded as part of a theory of nature. As such, commentators have had difficulty resolving the apparent paradox in "Analects" 9.1 that Confucius rarely talked about jen. No paradox arises if jen is seen as a practice involving self-cultivation as a never-ending task and the immediacy of ethical commitment where a cluster of emotions, attitudes, and values are expressed. Jen is an ethical orientation from which one speaks and acts--not particular qualities that one might (...)
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  28. Huang Chun-Chieh (2004). Contemporary Chinese Study of Mencius in Taiwan. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 4 (1):151-166.
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  29. Tim Connolly (forthcoming). Ethics of Compassion: Buddhist Karuṇā and Confucian Ren. In Ithamar Theodor Zhihua Yao (ed.), Brahman and Dao: Comparative Studies of Indian and Chinese Philosophy and Religion. Lexington Books.
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  30. Tim Connolly (2013). Sagehood and Supererogation in the Analects. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (2):269-286.
    The Confucian ethical tradition emphasizes unceasing progress toward the goal of sagehood, and so it is generally opposed to the idea of supererogation, as this implies that we may be satisfied with attaining some sub-sagely level of morality. The one possible exception to this anti-supererogationist stance, however, turns out to be Confucius himself, who in the Analects appears to downplay sagehood and instead focus on the goal of junzi. Yet given that Confucius stresses ceaseless cultivation as much as anyone else (...)
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  31. A. S. Cua (2001). Xin and Moral Failure: Reflections on Mencius' Moral Psychologyand Moral Failure: Reflections on Mencius' Moral Psychology. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 1 (1):31-53.
  32. Howard J. Curzer (2012). An Aristotelian Doctrine of the Mean in the Mencius? Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (1):53-62.
    Xiahui. While Confucius’ actions are intermediate between the actions of these three sages, the sages’ character traits do not bracket Confucius’ character traits. Instead, the failings of the three sages are skew to each other. Boyi lacks righteousness; Y i Yin lacks benevolence; and L iu Xiahui lacks wisdom. The comparison of the sages centers on the question of when to resign an advisory position. According to Mencius, one should resign only if one’s advice will not be heeded, or if (...)
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  33. Weixiang Ding (2008). Mengzi's Inheritance, Criticism, and Overcoming of Moist Thought. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):403-419.
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  34. Homer H. Dubs (1956). Mencius and Sün-Dz on Human Nature. Philosophy East and West 6 (3):213-222.
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  35. Leo J. Elders (1992). Mencius and Aquinas. Review of Metaphysics 46 (1):186-187.
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  36. Owen Flanagan & Robert Anthony Williams (2010). What Does the Modularity of Morals Have to Do With Ethics? Four Moral Sprouts Plus or Minus a Few. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):430-453.
    Flanagan (1991) was the first contemporary philosopher to suggest that a modularity of morals hypothesis (MMH) was worth consideration by cognitive science. There is now a serious empirically informed proposal that moral competence is best explained in terms of moral modules-evolutionarily ancient, fast-acting, automatic reactions to particular sociomoral experiences (Haidt & Joseph, 2007). MMH fleshes out an idea nascent in Aristotle, Mencius, and Darwin. We discuss the evidence for MMH, specifically an ancient version, “Mencian Moral Modularity,” which claims four innate (...)
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  37. Chris Fraser, Táng Jūnyì on Mencian and Mohist Conceptions of Mind.
    Tang Junyi (T’ang Chun-i 唐君毅) was among the founders of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the first chair of the Department of Philosophy at CUHK, an influential scholar of Chinese philosophy, and one of the leaders of the New Confucian movement. In this article, I take issue with the line of interpretation he develops in a provocative 1955 study of Mencius and Mozi. Though I don’t make the connections explicit, Tang’s views and my critique of them are relevant to (...)
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  38. Katrin Froese (2008). Organic Virtue: Reading Mencius with Rousseau. Asian Philosophy 18 (1):83 – 104.
    Both Rousseau and Mencius espouse a process-oriented morality that is attuned to nature. Rousseau maintains that human beings exit the realm of nature as soon as the process of civilization begins, necessitating the need for morality. Because he views the 'natural' human being as the pre-social and independent protohuman, the attempt to recapture the lost harmony of the state of nature will always fall short and the process of becoming moral is an endless task. Mencius, however, views nature as a (...)
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  39. Charles Wei-Hsun Fu (1983). The Mencian Theory of Mind (Hsin)a and Nature (Hsing)B: A Modern, Philosophical Approach. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10 (4):385-410.
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  40. Jane Gearney (2000). Mencius's Hermeneutics. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 27 (1):93-100.
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  41. Steven F. Geisz (2008). Mengzi, Strategic Language, and the Shaping of Behavior. Philosophy East and West 58 (2):190-222.
    : This essay introduces a way of reading the Mengzi (Mencius) that complicates how we understand what Mengzi is recorded as saying. A pragmatic-strategic reading of the Mengzi is developed here, according to which Mengzi attends to and operates under important pragmatic constraints on speech. Based on a close reading of key passages, it is argued that truth-telling and descriptive accuracy are less important to Mengzi than guiding people along the Confucian path. This reading has implications for our understanding of (...)
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  42. Qiyong Guo (2008). More Than “for the Sake of Defense”. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (3):317-324.
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  43. Yang Guorong (2004). Mengzi and Democracy: Dual Implications. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (1):83–102.
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  44. Eirik Lang Harris (2010). The Nature of the Virtues in Light of the Early Confucian Tradition&Quot;. In Julia Tao, Philip J. Ivanhoe & Kam-por Yu (eds.), Taking Confucian Ethics Seriously: Contemporary Theories and Applications. SUNY Press.
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  45. Jiaxiang Hu (2011). Mencius' Aesthetics and its Position. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (1):41-56.
    Mencius’ aesthetics unfolded around the ideal personality in his mind. Such an ideal personality belonged to a great man who was sublime, practical and honorable, and it was presented as the beauty of magnificence or the beauty of masculinity. Mencius put forward many propositions such as the completed goodness that is brightly displayed is called greatness, nourishing one’s grand qi 气 (the great morale personality), only after a man is a sage can he completely suits himself to his own form, (...)
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  46. Zhihong Hu (2008). The Obscuration and Rediscovery of the Original Confucian Thought of Moral Politics: Deciphering Work on the Guodian, Shangbo and the Transmitted Versions of Ziyi. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (4):535-557.
    By analyzing the author of Ziyi 缁衣 (Black Costumes) as well as Ziyi’s transmission and evolution by studying and analyzing the ancient text, one can see that Ziyi was a work of Zisi or the Zisi and Mencius School. Comparing the similarities and differences between the transmitted version of Ziyi and its Guodian 郭店 and Shangbo 上博 versions, one finds that the original version of Ziyi had been significantly revised by Confucian classics teachers in the unstable political and social climate (...)
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  47. Chun-Chieh Huang (2013). What's Ignored in Itō Jinsai's Interpretation of Mencius? Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 12 (1):1-10.
    This article discusses the 17 th century Japanese Confucian I tō Jinsai’s interpretation of Mencius. It is argued that I tō Jinsai grinds the Mencius with an axe of Japanese “practical learning.” In his representation of Mencius, the government of “Kindly Way” is upheld as the core value in Mencius’ thought. Although there is a clear spirituality in his own philosophy, he stressed the political aspect of Mencius’ thought at the expense of the transcendental aspect of his theory of human (...)
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  48. Chun-Chieh Huang (2001). Mencius' Hermeneutics of Classics. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 1 (1):15-29.
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  49. Eric L. Hutton (2004). Mencius, Hume and the Foundations of Ethics. Hume Studies 30 (1):201-203.
  50. Philip Ho Hwang (1983). An Examination of Mencius' Theory of Human Nature With Reference to Kant. Kant-Studien 74 (3):343-354.
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