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  1. Catharine Abell & Gregory Currie (1999). Internal and External Pictures. Philosophical Psychology 12 (4):429-445.
    What do pictures and mental images have in common? The contemporary tendency to reject mental picture theories of imagery suggests that the answer is: not much. We show that pictures and visual imagery have something important in common. They both contribute to mental simulations: pictures as inputs and mental images as outputs. But we reject the idea that mental images involve mental pictures, and we use simulation theory to strengthen the anti-pictorialist's case. Along the way we try to account for (...)
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  2. Ralph R. Acampora (2001). Representation Cubed: Reviewing Reflections on Animal Imagery. Society and Animals 9 (3):299-307.
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  3. Kathleen A. Akins (1994). The Imagery Debate. By Michael Tye. Philosophical Review 103:107-137.
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  4. Liliana Albertazzi (2009). Images, Spaces, Representations. Axiomathes 19 (1):103-111.
    The contribution deals with some key problems of cognitive science, whose plurality transcends the boundaries of the disciplines drawn by classical epistemology. In particular, it addresses the issues of mental images, spaces of representation, and the architecture of cognitive processes in vision theory. The thesis presented is that a proper treatment of vision within psychophysics entails an analysis of a series of interconnected spaces, objects and methodologies, from psychophysics to the many virtual realities of representation.
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  5. Virgil C. Aldrich (1973). Alastair Hannay's "Mental Images - A Defense". [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 34 (1):128.
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  6. R. F. Alfred Hoernle (1907). Image, Idea and Meaning. Mind 16 (61):70-100.
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  7. Steven C. Amstrup, Geoff York, Trent L. Mcdonald, Ryan Nielson & Kristin Simac (2004). Detecting Denning Polar Bears with Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) Imagery. BioScience 54 (4):337.
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  8. John R. Anderson (1978). Arguments Concerning Representations for Mental Imagery. Psychological Review.
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  9. M. Andrewes (1948). An Aspect of Horatian Imagery. The Classical Review 62 (3-4):111-112.
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  10. James R. Angell (1913). Professor Watson and the Image. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 10 (22):609.
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  11. Martha E. Arterberry, Catherine Craver-Lemley & Adam Reeves (2002). Visual Imagery is Not Always Like Visual Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):183-184.
    The “Perky effect” is the interference of visual imagery with vision. Studies of this effect show that visual imagery has more than symbolic properties, but these properties differ both spatially (including “pictorially”) and temporally from those of vision. We therefore reject both the literal picture-in-the-head view and the entirely symbolic view.
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  12. Robert N. Audi (1978). The Ontological Status of Mental Images. Inquiry 21 (1-4):348-61.
    This paper explores the question whether an adequate account of the facts about imagination and mental imagery must construe mental images as objects. Much of the paper is a study of Alastair Hannay's defense of an affirmative answer in his wide?ranging study, Mental Images ? A Defence. The paper first sets out and evaluates Hannay's case. The second part develops an alternative account of mental images, including non?visual images, which Hannay does not treat in detail. The alternative account is analogous (...)
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  13. Edward W. Averill (1978). Explaining the Privacy of Afterimages and Pains. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 38 (March):299-314.
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  14. Alexander Bain (1880). Mr. Galton's Statistics of Mental Imagery. Mind 5 (20):564-573.
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  15. M. J. Baker (1954). Perceiving, Imagining, and Being Mistaken. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 14 (June):520-535.
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  16. Gianfranco Dalla Barba, Victor Rosenthal & Yves-Marie Visetti (2002). The Nature of Mental Imagery: How Null is the “Null Hypothesis”? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):187-188.
    Is mental imagery pictorial? In Pylyshyn's view no empirical data provides convincing support to the “pictorial” hypothesis of mental imagery. Phenomenology, Pylyshyn says, is deeply deceiving and offers no explanation of why and how mental imagery occurs. We suggest that Pylyshyn mistakes phenomenology for what it never pretended to be. Phenomenological evidence, if properly considered, shows that mental imagery may indeed be pictorial, though not in the way that mimics visual perception. Moreover, Pylyshyn claims that the “pictorial hypothesis” is flawed (...)
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  17. Alain Beaulieu (1999). Philosophie des Images. Dialogue 38 (1):206-207.
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  18. Ian Begg (1983). Imagery and Language. In Anees A. Sheikh (ed.), Imagery: Current Theory, Research, and Application. Wiley. 288--310.
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  19. Marta Olivetti Belardinelli & Rosalia Di Matteo (2002). Is Mental Imagery Prominently Visual? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):204-205.
    Neuroimaging and psychophysiological techniques have proved to be useful in comprehending the extent to which the visual modality is pervasive in mental imagery, and in comprehending the specificity of images generated through other sensory modalities. Although further research is needed to understand the nature of mental images, data attained by means of these techniques suggest that mental imagery requires at least two distinct processing components.
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  20. Bettina Berendt (1996). Explaining Preferred Mental Models in Allen Inferences with a Metrical Model of Imagery. In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum. 489--494.
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  21. David Berman & W. Lyons (2007). The First Modern Battle for Consciousness: J.B. Watson's Rejection of Mental Images. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (11):4-26.
    This essay investigates the influences that led J.B. Watson to change from being a student in an introspectionist laboratory at Chicago to being the founder of systematic (or radical) behaviourism. Our focus is the crucial period, 1913-1914, when Watson struggled to give a convincing behaviourist account of mental imaging, which he considered to be the greatest obstacle to his behaviourist programme. We discuss in detail the evidence for and against the view that, at least eventually, Watson rejected outright the very (...)
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  22. Paolo Bernardis & Nicoletta Caramelli (2009). Meaning in Words, Gestures, and Mental Images. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 1693--1697.
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  23. M. Bianca & L. Foglia (2006). Non-Perceptive Mental Image Generation: A Non-Linear Dynamic Framework. Anthropology and Philosophy 7 (1-2):28-63.
    Mental imagery is an important topic in classical and modern philosophy, as it is central to the study of knowledge; since subjects can recall features of perceptual experiences in different ways and times, even modifying their structure, in this brief essay we will focus on non-perceptive mental images and to this purpose we will analyse, on the one hand, the nature of perceptive mental images ; on the other hand, NPMI generation according to different strategic conditions and retrieval modalities and, (...)
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  24. James A. Blachowicz (1997). Analog Representation Beyond Mental Imagery. Journal of Philosophy 94 (2):55-84.
  25. Ned Block (1983). Mental Pictures and Cognitive Science. Philosophical Review 93 (October):499-542.
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  26. Ned Block (1983). The Photographic Fallacy in the Debate About Mental Imagery. Noûs 17 (November):651-62.
    There has been considerable debate among philosophers and psychol- ogists about whether the internal representations of imagery represent in the manner of pictures or in the manner of language. One side, pictorialism,holds that an internal imagery representation of Reagan is like a picture of Reagan. The other side, descriptionalism,holds that an internal imagery representation of Reagan is more like a string of words denoting or describing Reagan. My aim here is to expose a widespread fallacy on the part of the (...)
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  27. Ned Block (ed.) (1981). Imagery. MIT Press.
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  28. Ned Block (ed.) (1981). Readings In Philosophy Of Psychology, V. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and ... V. Influence of imaged pictures and sounds on detection of visual and auditory signals. ...
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  29. Ben Blumson (2012). Mental Maps. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (2):413-434.
    It's often hypothesized that the structure of mental representation is map-like rather than language-like. The possibility arises as a counterexample to the argument from the best explanation of productivity and systematicity to the language of thought hypothesis—the hypothesis that mental structure is compositional and recursive. In this paper, I argue that the analogy with maps does not undermine the argument, because maps and language have the same kind of compositional and recursive structure.
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  30. Anna Borghi & Claudia Scorolli (2006). Object Concepts and Mental Images. Anthropology and Philosophy 7 (1/2):64-74.
    The paper focuses on mental imagery and concepts. First we discuss the possible reasons why the propositional view of representation was so successful among cognitive scientists interested in concepts. Then a novel perspective, the embodied view, is presented. Differently from the classic cognitivist view, this perspective acknowledges the importance of perceptual and motor imagery for concepts. According to the embodied perspective concepts are not given by propositional, abstract and amodal symbols but are grounded in sensorimotor processes. Neural and behavioral evidence (...)
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  31. Kenneth J. Bower (1984). Imagery: From Hume to Cognitive Science. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14 (June):217-234.
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  32. Selmer Bringsjord (1988). Tracing Superman Again: A Reply to Clark's Superman, the Image. Analysis 48 (January):52-54.
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  33. Leonard Brosgole & John S. Mallozzi (1993). Tactile Facilitation of Figure Reversal in Mental Imagery. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 31 (6):553-556.
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  34. George Brown (1991). Christian Literary Imagery: A Guide to Interpretation. [REVIEW] Speculum 66 (1):176-180.
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  35. R. Brown & R. Herrstein (1981). Icons and Images. In Ned Block (ed.), Imagery. MIT Press.
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  36. Harold E. Burtt (1918). Ashburn's Movement and Mental Imagery. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 15 (24):668.
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  37. Philip Cam (1987). Propositions About Images. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 48 (December):335-8.
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  38. John Campbell (2002). Berkeley's Puzzle. In Tamar S. Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Conceivability and Possibility. MIT Press.
    But say you,surely there is nothing easier than to imagine trees,for instance,in a park, or books existing in a closet, and nobody by to perceive them. I answer, you may so, there is no dif?culty in it:but what is all this,I beseech you,more than framing in your mind certain ideas which you call books and trees, and at the same time omitting to frame the idea of anyone that may perceive them? But do you not yourself perceive or think of (...)
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  39. M. S. Candlish (2001). Mental Imagery. In Severin Schroeder (ed.), Wittgenstein and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind. Palgrave.
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  40. Stewart Candlish (1976). The Incompatibility of Perception: A Contemporary Orthodoxy. American Philosophical Quarterly 13 (January):63-68.
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  41. Stewart Candlish (1975). Mental Images and Pictorial Properties. Mind 84 (April):260-2.
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  42. T. Carena (1999). Gian Vincenzo Gravina's Fable Transforms Science Into Imagery Useful for the People. Filosofia 50 (3):381-402.
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  43. D. Chambers & Daniel Reisberg (1992). What an Image Depicts Depends on What an Image Means. Cognitive Psychology 24:145-74.
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  44. D. Chambers & Daniel Reisberg (1985). Can Mental Images Be Ambiguous? Journal of Experimental Psychology 11:317-28.
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  45. Alon Chasid (2007). Content-Free Pictorial Realism. Philosophical Studies 135 (3):375 - 405.
    What is it for a picture to be more realistic, or more depictive, than another? Without committing to any thesis as to what depiction consists in, I show that degrees of depictiveness are grounded in a certain relation between two basic kinds of differences between pictures: configurational differences and content differences. A picture is thus more depictive just in case it is seen as having fewer nondepictive features, whereas a nondepictive feature is individuated through the susceptibility of the picture's configuration (...)
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  46. Andy Clark (1988). Superman and the Duck/Rabbit: A Reply to Gordon and Bringsjord. Analysis 48 (1):54-57.
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  47. Veda Cobb-Stevens (1986). Imagery. International Philosophical Quarterly 26 (1):87-91.
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  48. Jonathan Cohen (2010). The Imagery Debate. Journal of Philosophical Research 21:149-182.
    No one disputes that certain cognitive tasks involve the use of images. On the other hand, there has been substantial disagreement over whether the representations in which imaginal tasks are carried out are imaginal or propositional. The empirical literature on the topic which has accrued over the last twenty years suggests that there is a functional equivalence between mental imagery and perception: when peopIe imagine a scene or event, the mental processes that occur are functionally similar in important senses to (...)
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  49. Jonathan Cohen (1996). The Imagery Debate: A Critical Assessment. Journal of Philosophical Research 21 (January):149-182.
    No one disputes that certain cognitive tasks involve the use of images. On the other hand, there has been substantial disagreement over whether the representations in which imaginal tasks are carried out are imaginal or propositional. The empirical literature on the topic which has accrued over the last twenty years suggests that there is a functional equivalence between mental imagery and perception: when peopIe imagine a scene or event, the mental processes that occur are functionally similar in important senses to (...)
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  50. David Cole, Critique of Arguments Against Images as a Medium of Thought.
    The Way of Ideas died an ignoble death, committed to the flames by behaviorist empiricists. Ideas, pictures in the head, perished with the Way. By the time those empiricists were supplanted at the helm by functionalists and causal theorists, a revolution had taken place in linguistics and the last thing anyone wanted to do was revive images as the medium of thought. Currently, some but not all cognitive scientists think that there probably are mental images - experiments in cognitive psychology (...)
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