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  1. Marco Aiello (2001). Roberto Casati and Achille Varzi, Parts and Places, the Structures of Spatial Representation. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):269-272.
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  2. Lewis E. Akeley (1927). Wholes and Prehensive Unities for Physics and Philosophy. Journal of Philosophy 24 (22):589-608.
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  3. Robert Allen, The Mereology of Events.
    Two cars are moving towards an intersection, one traveling east the other going north. The driver of the eastbound car runs the red light; his car and the northbound one collide at precisely noon. Call the ensuing accident High Noon. Had the driver of one of the cars braked a second earlier, their collision would have occurred later than it did (if it occurred at all). Would that slightly postdated collision, however, have been the start of High Noon?
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  4. Andras Angyal (1939). The Structure of Wholes. Philosophy of Science 6 (1):25-37.
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  5. Andrew Arlig, Medieval Mereology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  6. Anthony P. Atkinson, Wholes and Their Parts in Cognitive Psychology: Systems, Subsystems and Persons.
    Decompositional analysis is the process of constructing explanations of the characteristics of whole systems in terms of characteristics of parts of those whole systems. Cognitive psychology is an endeavour that develops explanations of the capacities of the human organism in terms of descriptions of the brain's functionally defined information-processing components. This paper details the nature of this explanatory strategy, known as functional analysis. Functional analysis is contrasted with two other varieties of decompositional analysis, namely, structural analysis and capacity analysis. After (...)
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  7. John Bacon (1995). Universals and Property Instances: The Alphabet of Being. Blackwell.
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  8. Ralf M. Bader (forthcoming). Multiple-Domain Supervenience for Non-Classical Mereologies. In Ontological Dependence and Supervenience. Philosophia.
    This paper develops co-ordinated multiple-domain supervenience relations to model determination and dependence relations between complex entities and their constituents by appealing to R-related pairs and by making use of associated isomorphisms. Supervenience relations are devised for order-sensitive and repetition-sensitive mereologies, for mereological systems that make room for many-many composition relations, as well as for hierarchical mereologies that incorporate compositional and hylomorphic structure. Finally, mappings are provided for theories that consider wholes to be prior to their parts.
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  9. Archie J. Bahm (1972). Wholes and Parts. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):17-22.
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  10. Lynne Rudder Baker (2013). Constitution and Composition. The Monist 96:37-53.
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  11. Lynne Rudder Baker (2013). Ganeri, Jonardon., The Self: Naturalism, Consciousness and the First-Person Stance. Review of Metaphysics 67 (1):160-162.
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  12. Horacio Banega (2012). Formal Ontology as an Operative Tool in the Theories of Objecs of the Life-World: Stumpf, Husserl and Ingarden. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 16 (2):64-88.
    Formal ontology as it is presented in Husserl`s Third Logical Investigation can be interpreted as a fundamental tool to describe objects in a formal sense. It is presented one of the main sources: chapter five of Carl Stumpf`s Ûber den psycholoogischen Ursprung der Raumovorstellung (1873), and then it is described how Husserlian Formal Ontology is applied in Fifth Logical Investigation. Finally, it is applied to dramatic structures, in the spirit of Roman Ingarden.
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  13. David Barnett (2010). You Are Simple. In Robert C. Koons & George Bealer (eds.), The Waning of Materialism. Oxford University Press. 161--174.
    I argue that, unlike your brain, you are not composed of other things: you are simple. My argument centers on what I take to be an uncontroversial datum: for any pair of conscious beings, it is impossible for the pair itself to be conscious. Consider, for instance, the pair comprising you and me. You might pinch your arm and feel a pain. I might simultaneously pinch my arm and feel a qualitatively identical pain. But the pair we form would not (...)
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  14. E. I͡A Basin (2011). Polnota Kak Ėsteticheskai͡a Kategorii͡a.
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  15. Wilhelm Baumgartner & Peter Simons (1994). Brentano's Mereology. Axiomathes 1 (1):55-76.
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  16. Karen Bennett, “Perfectly Understood, Unproblematic, and Certain”: Lewis on Mereology.
    David Lewis famously takes mereology “to be perfectly understood, unproblematic, and certain” (1991, 75). It is central to his thought, appearing in his discussions of set theory, modality, vagueness, structural universals, and elsewhere. He held views not only about how composition works and when it occurs, but also about the role of mereology in philosophy. In this essay, I will proceed by articulating four theses that Lewis holds about composition. (I would call them the four U’s, if only ‘unguilty’ were (...)
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  17. Karen Bennett (2013). Having a Part Twice Over. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (1):83 - 103.
    I argue that it is intuitive and useful to think about composition in the light of the familiar functionalist distinction between role and occupant. This involves factoring the standard notion of parthood into two related notions: being a parthood slot and occupying a parthood slot. One thing is part of another just in case it fills one of that thing's parthood slots. This move opens room to rethink mereology in various ways, and, in particular, to see the mereological structure of (...)
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  18. Silvia Benso (2012). Joy Beyond Boredom : Totality and Infinity as a Work of Wonder. In Scott Davidson & Diane Perpich (eds.), Totality and Infinity at 50. Duquesne University Press.
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  19. Robert Bernasconi (2012). Levinas's Ethical Critique of Levinasian Ethics. In Scott Davidson & Diane Perpich (eds.), Totality and Infinity at 50. Duquesne University Press.
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  20. Francesco Berto & Massimiliano Carrara (2009). To Exist and to Count: A Note on the Minimalist View. Dialectica 63 (3):343-356.
    Sometimes mereologists have problems with counting. We often don't want to count the parts of maximally connected objects as full-fledged objects themselves, and we don't want to count discontinuous objects as parts of further, full-fledged objects. But whatever one takes "full-fledged object" to mean, the axioms and theorems of classical, extensional mereology commit us to the existence both of parts and of wholes – all on a par, included in the domain of quantification – and this makes mereology look counterintuitive (...)
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  21. Georg W. Bertram (2012). The Fundamental Idea of Levinas's Philosophy. In Scott Davidson & Diane Perpich (eds.), Totality and Infinity at 50. Duquesne University Press.
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  22. John Bigelow (2010). Quine, Mereology, and Inference to the Best Explanation. Logique Et Analyse 53 (212):465.
    Given Quine's views on philosophical methodology, he should not have taken the axioms of classical mereology to be "self-evident", or "analytic"; but rather, he should have set out to justify them by what might be broadly called an "inference to the best explanation". He does very little to this end. In particular, he does little to examine alternative theories, to see if there might be anything they could explain better than classical mereology can. I argue that there is something important (...)
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  23. Thomas Bittner & M. Donnelly, A Temporal Mereology for Distinguishing Between Integral Objects and Portions of Stuff.
    In R. Holte and A. Howe (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-07).
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  24. Thomas Bittner, Maureen Donnelly & Barry Smith (2004). Individuals, Universals, Collections: On the Foundational Relations of Ontology. In Achille Varzi & Laure Vieu (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference, 37–48. IOS Press. 37–48..
    This paper provides an axiomatic formalization of a theory of foundational relations between three categories of entities: individuals, universals, and collections. We deal with a variety of relations between entities in these categories, including the is-a relation among universals and the part-of relation among individuals as well as cross-category relations such as instance-of, member-of, and partition-of. We show that an adequate understanding of the formal properties of such relations – in particular their behavior with respect to time – is critical (...)
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  25. Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith (2009). A Spatio-Temporal Ontology for Geographic Information Integration. International Journal for Geographical Information Science 23 (6):765-798.
    This paper presents an axiomatic formalization of a theory of top-level relations between three categories of entities: individuals, universals, and collections. We deal with a variety of relations between entities in these categories, including the sub-universal relation among universals and the parthood relation among individuals, as well as cross-categorial relations such as instantiation and membership. We show that an adequate understanding of the formal properties of such relations – in particular their behavior with respect to time – is critical for (...)
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  26. D. J. Blyth (1994). Wholes, Parts, and Sequences in Aristotle. International Philosophical Quarterly 34 (4):453-463.
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  27. Eric Bredo (2007). Parts and Wholes: Liberal-Communitarian Tensions in Democratic States. Journal of Philosophy of Education 41 (3):445–457.
  28. Jacek Brzozowski (2008). 9. On Locating Composite Objects. In Dean W. Zimmerman (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. 4--193.
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  29. Hans Burkhardt & Wolfgang Degen (1990). Mereology in Leibniz's Logic and Philosophy. Topoi 9 (1):3-13.
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  30. Will Bynoe & Nicholas K. Jones (2013). Solitude Without Souls: Why Peter Unger Hasn't Established Substance Dualism. [REVIEW] Philosophia 41 (1):109-125.
    Unger has recently argued that if you are the only thinking and experiencing subject in your chair, then you are not a material object. This leads Unger to endorse a version of Substance Dualism according to which we are immaterial souls. This paper argues that this is an overreaction. We argue that the specifically Dualist elements of Unger’s view play no role in his response to the problem; only the view’s structure is required, and that is available to Unger’s opponents. (...)
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  31. William Bynoe, How Composites Could Have Been Indispensable.
    Mereological Nihilism is the thesis that no material object has proper parts; every material object is a simple. Recent developments in plural semantics have made it possible to develop and motivate this position. In particular, some have argued that the tools of plural reference and quantification enable us to systematically paraphrase true statements apparently about composites into statements that only concern simples. Are composites really surplus to philosophical requirements? Given the resources of plural semantics, what must the world be like (...)
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  32. Ben Caplan & Bob Bright (2005). Fusions and Ordinary Physical Objects. Philosophical Studies 125 (1):61-83.
    In “Tropes and Ordinary Physical Objects”, Kris McDaniel argues that ordinary physical objects are fusions of monadic and polyadic tropes. McDaniel calls his view “TOPO”—for “Theory of Ordinary Physical Objects”. He argues that we should accept TOPO because of the philosophical work that it allows us to do. Among other things, TOPO is supposed to allow endurantists to reply to Mark Heller’s argument for <span class='Hi'>perdurantism</span>. But, we argue in this paper, TOPO does not help endurantists do that; indeed, we (...)
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  33. Ben Caplan & Kris McDaniel, Mereological Myths.
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  34. Ben Caplan, Chris Tillman & Patrick Reeder (2010). Parts of Singletons. Journal of Philosophy 107 (10):501-533.
  35. Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino (2009). On the Ontological Commitment of Mereology. Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (1):164-174.
    In Parts of Classes (1991) and Mathematics Is Megethology (1993) David Lewis defends both the innocence of plural quantification and of mereology. However, he himself claims that the innocence of mereology is different from that of plural reference, where reference to some objects does not require the existence of a single entity picking them out as a whole. In the case of plural quantification . Instead, in the mereological case: (Lewis, 1991, p. 87). The aim of the paper is to (...)
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  36. Roberto Casati & Achille Varzi (1999). Parts and Places. The Mit Press.
    In this book Roberto Casati and Achille C. Varzi address some of the fundamental issues in the philosophy of spatial representation.
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  37. Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2006). Referent Tracking for Treatment Optimisation in Schizophrenic Patients. Journal of Web Semantics 4 (3):229-236.
    The IPAP Schizophrenia Algorithm was originally designed in the form of a flow chart to help physicians optimise the treatment of schizophrenic patients. We examined the current version from the perspective of recent work on terminologies and ontologies thereby drawing on the resources of Basic Formal Ontology, and this with the objective to make the algorithm appropriate for Semantic Web applications. We found that Basic Formal Ontology is a rich enough theory to represent all the entities involved and that applying (...)
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  38. Robert Clay (1975). Single Axioms for Atomistic and Atomless Mereology. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 16 (3):345-351.
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  39. Robert Clay (1973). Two Results in Lesniewski's Mereology. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 14 (4):559-564.
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  40. Robert Clay (1972). On the Inductive Finiteness in Mereology. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 13 (1):88-90.
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  41. Robert Clay (1965). The Relation of Weakly Discrete to Set and Equinumerosity in Mereology. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 6 (4):325-340.
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  42. Robert E. Clay (1975). Corrections for My Paper: ``A Model for Leśniewski's Mereology in Functions''. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 16 (2):269-270.
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  43. Robert E. Clay (1974). Relation of Leśniewski's Mereology to Boolean Algebra. Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (4):638-648.
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  44. Robert E. Clay (1971). A Model for Leśniewski's Mereology in Functions. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 12 (4):467-478.
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  45. Robert E. Clay (1968). The Consistency of Leśniewski's Mereology Relative to the Real Number System. Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):251-257.
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  46. Laurel Cooper, Ramona Walls, Justin Elser, Maria A. Gandolfo, Dennis W. Stevenson & Barry Smith (2013). The Plant Ontology as a Tool for Comparative Plant Anatomy and Genomic Analyses. Plant and Cell Physiology 54:1-23..
    The Plant Ontology (PO; http://www.plantontology.org/) is a publicly-available, collaborative effort to develop and maintain a controlled, structured vocabulary (“ontology”) of terms to describe plant anatomy, morphology and the stages of plant development. The goals of the PO are to link (annotate) gene expression and phenotype data to plant structures and stages of plant development, using the data model adopted by the Gene Ontology. From its original design covering only rice, maize and Arabidopsis, the scope of the PO has been expanded (...)
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  47. Raul Corazzon, Stanislaw Lesniewski's Logical Systems: Protothetic, Ontology, Mereology.
    "Lesniewski defined ontology, one of his three foundational systems, as 'a certain kind of modernized 'traditional logic' [On the foundations of mathematics (FM), p. 176]. In this respect it is worth bearing in mind that in the 1937-38 academic year Lesniewski taught a course called "Traditional 'formal logic' and traditional 'set theory' on the ground of ontology"; cf. Srzednicki and Stachniak, S. Lesniewski's Systems. Protothetic, 1988, p. 180. On this see Kotarbinski Gnosiology. The scientific approach to the theory of knowledge, (...)
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  48. Kevin Corcoran (ed.) (2001). Soul, Body, and Survival: Essays on the Metaphysics of Human Persons. Cornell University Press.
    This collection brings together cutting-edge research on the metaphysics of human nature and soul-body dualism.Kevin Corcoran's collection, Soul, Body, and ...
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  49. A. J. Cotnoir (2013). Beyond Atomism. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):67-72.
    Contemporary metaphysicians have been drawn to a certain attractive picture of the structure of the world. This picture consists in classical mereology, the priority of parts over wholes, and the well-foundedness of metaphysical priority. In this short note, I show that this combination of theses entails superatomism, which is a significant strengthening of mereological atomism. This commitment has been missed in the literature due to certain sorts of models of mereology being overlooked. But the entailment is an important one: we (...)
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  50. A. J. Cotnoir (2013). Strange Parts: The Metaphysics of Non‐Classical Mereologies. Philosophy Compass 8 (9):834-845.
    The dominant theory of parts and wholes – classical extensional mereology – has faced a number of challenges in the recent literature. This article gives a sampling of some of the alleged counterexamples to some of the more controversial principles involving the connections between parthood and identity. Along the way, some of the main revisionary approaches are reviewed. First, counterexamples to extensionality are reviewed. The ‘supplementation’ axioms that generate extensionality are examined more carefully, and a suggested revision is considered. Second, (...)
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