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Mereology

Edited by Meg Wallace (University of Kentucky)
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  1. Marco Aiello (2001). Roberto Casati and Achille Varzi, Parts and Places, the Structures of Spatial Representation. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):269-272.
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  2. Lewis E. Akeley (1927). Wholes and Prehensive Unities for Physics and Philosophy. Journal of Philosophy 24 (22):589-608.
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  3. Meena Alexander (1984). "Fallings From Us, Vanishings...": Composition and the Structure of Loss. Analecta Husserliana 18:91.
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  4. Robert Allen (2005). The Mereology of Events. Sorites 16:23-37.
    I demonstrate here that it is possible for an event to be identical with one of its proper parts, refuting the key premise in Lawrence Lombard's argument for the essentiality of an event's time. I also propose and defend an alternative to his criterion of event identity.
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  5. Andras Angyal (1939). The Structure of Wholes. Philosophy of Science 6 (1):25-37.
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  6. Andrew Arlig (2012). Parts, Wholes and Identity. In John Marenbon (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Medieval Philosophy. Oxford University Press 445--67.
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  7. Andrew Arlig, Medieval Mereology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  8. F. Aronadio (2004). Recensione di V. HARTE, Plato on Parts and Wholes. The Metaphysics of Structure. Elenchos 25 (2):481-498.
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  9. Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia, On Composition.
    I can make no sense of a true, literal application of the notion of proper (nontemporal) components or parts to things that occupy no space. Others apparently can, and some construct elaborate theories of propositional structure… Perhaps I am blind to a possibility that other, cognitively better endowed philosophers see. From my unseeing perspective, though, it is more likely that the appearance of sight deceives.
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  10. Anthony P. Atkinson, Wholes and Their Parts in Cognitive Psychology: Systems, Subsystems and Persons.
    Decompositional analysis is the process of constructing explanations of the characteristics of whole systems in terms of characteristics of parts of those whole systems. Cognitive psychology is an endeavour that develops explanations of the capacities of the human organism in terms of descriptions of the brain's functionally defined information-processing components. This paper details the nature of this explanatory strategy, known as functional analysis. Functional analysis is contrasted with two other varieties of decompositional analysis, namely, structural analysis and capacity analysis. After (...)
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  11. Sunny Auyang, Mass Phenomena and Complexities of Composition.
    Much complexity we see around us stems from a similar source, structures generated by the interactive combination of many constituents. The constituents themselves can be rather simple, so can the relation between any two. However, because there are so many constituents in a large system, their multiple relations generate a relational network that can be highly complex, variegated, and surprising.
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  12. John Bacon (1995). Universals and Property Instances: The Alphabet of Being. Blackwell.
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  13. Ralf M. Bader (forthcoming). Multiple-Domain Supervenience for Non-Classical Mereologies. In Ontological Dependence and Supervenience. Philosophia
    This paper develops co-ordinated multiple-domain supervenience relations to model determination and dependence relations between complex entities and their constituents by appealing to R-related pairs and by making use of associated isomorphisms. Supervenience relations are devised for order-sensitive and repetition-sensitive mereologies, for mereological systems that make room for many-many composition relations, as well as for hierarchical mereologies that incorporate compositional and hylomorphic structure. Finally, mappings are provided for theories that consider wholes to be prior to their parts.
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  14. Archie J. Bahm (1972). Wholes and Parts. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):17-22.
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  15. John R. Baker, R. M. Ranson & J. Tynen (1939). The Chemical Composition of the Volpar Contraceptive Products, Part I: Phenyl Mercuric Acetate as a Spermicide. The Eugenics Review 30 (4):261.
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  16. John R. Baker, R. M. Ranson & J. Tynen (1939). The Chemical Composition of the Volpar Contraceptive Products, Part 2. The Eugenics Review 31 (1):23.
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  17. Lynne Rudder Baker (2013). Technology and the Future of Persons. The Monist 96:37-53.
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  18. Lynne Rudder Baker (2013). Ganeri, Jonardon., The Self: Naturalism, Consciousness and the First-Person Stance. Review of Metaphysics 67 (1):160-162.
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  19. Armando Bandera (1969). The Composition of the People of God. The Thomist 33 (3):405.
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  20. Horacio Banega (2012). Formal Ontology as an Operative Tool in the Theories of Objecs of the Life-World: Stumpf, Husserl and Ingarden. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 16 (2):64-88.
    Formal ontology as it is presented in Husserl`s Third Logical Investigation can be interpreted as a fundamental tool to describe objects in a formal sense. It is presented one of the main sources: chapter five of Carl Stumpf`s Ûber den psycholoogischen Ursprung der Raumovorstellung (1873), and then it is described how Husserlian Formal Ontology is applied in Fifth Logical Investigation. Finally, it is applied to dramatic structures, in the spirit of Roman Ingarden.
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  21. Viorica Barbu Iuraşcu (2009). Phrase Rhythm and Composition. Analysis and Metaphysics 8:155-159.
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  22. David Barnett (2010). You Are Simple. In Robert C. Koons & George Bealer (eds.), The Waning of Materialism. Oxford University Press 161--174.
    I argue that, unlike your brain, you are not composed of other things: you are simple. My argument centers on what I take to be an uncontroversial datum: for any pair of conscious beings, it is impossible for the pair itself to be conscious. Consider, for instance, the pair comprising you and me. You might pinch your arm and feel a pain. I might simultaneously pinch my arm and feel a qualitatively identical pain. But the pair we form would not (...)
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  23. Pierfrancesco Basile (2008). Is Mental Composition Impossible in Principle? Chromatikon: Annales de la Philosophie En Procès / Yearbook of Philosophy in Process 4:21-25.
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  24. E. I͡A Basin (2011). Polnota Kak Ėsteticheskai͡a Kategorii͡a.
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  25. Wilhelm Baumgartner & Peter Simons (1994). Brentano's Mereology. Axiomathes 1 (1):55-76.
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  26. Jose A. Benardete (1992). Parts of Classes. Review of Metaphysics 45 (3):620-622.
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  27. Karen Bennett, “Perfectly Understood, Unproblematic, and Certain”: Lewis on Mereology.
    David Lewis famously takes mereology “to be perfectly understood, unproblematic, and certain” (1991, 75). It is central to his thought, appearing in his discussions of set theory, modality, vagueness, structural universals, and elsewhere. He held views not only about how composition works and when it occurs, but also about the role of mereology in philosophy. In this essay, I will proceed by articulating four theses that Lewis holds about composition. (I would call them the four U’s, if only ‘unguilty’ were (...)
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  28. Karen Bennett (2013). Having a Part Twice Over. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (1):83 - 103.
    I argue that it is intuitive and useful to think about composition in the light of the familiar functionalist distinction between role and occupant. This involves factoring the standard notion of parthood into two related notions: being a parthood slot and occupying a parthood slot. One thing is part of another just in case it fills one of that thing's parthood slots. This move opens room to rethink mereology in various ways, and, in particular, to see the mereological structure of (...)
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  29. Silvia Benso (2012). Joy Beyond Boredom : Totality and Infinity as a Work of Wonder. In Scott Davidson & Diane Perpich (eds.), Totality and Infinity at 50. Duquesne University Press
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  30. Gustav Bergmann (1977). Some Comments on Professor Oaklander's "Particulars, Positional Qualities, and Individuation". Philosophy of Science 44 (3):491-493.
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  31. Robert Bernasconi (2012). Levinas's Ethical Critique of Levinasian Ethics. In Scott Davidson & Diane Perpich (eds.), Totality and Infinity at 50. Duquesne University Press
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  32. Francesco Berto & Massimiliano Carrara (2009). To Exist and to Count: A Note on the Minimalist View. Dialectica 63 (3):343-356.
    Sometimes mereologists have problems with counting. We often don't want to count the parts of maximally connected objects as full-fledged objects themselves, and we don't want to count discontinuous objects as parts of further, full-fledged objects. But whatever one takes "full-fledged object" to mean, the axioms and theorems of classical, extensional mereology commit us to the existence both of parts and of wholes – all on a par, included in the domain of quantification – and this makes mereology look counterintuitive (...)
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  33. Georg W. Bertram (2012). The Fundamental Idea of Levinas's Philosophy. In Scott Davidson & Diane Perpich (eds.), Totality and Infinity at 50. Duquesne University Press
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  34. John Bigelow (2010). Quine, Mereology, and Inference to the Best Explanation. Logique Et Analyse 53 (212):465.
    Given Quine's views on philosophical methodology, he should not have taken the axioms of classical mereology to be "self-evident", or "analytic"; but rather, he should have set out to justify them by what might be broadly called an "inference to the best explanation". He does very little to this end. In particular, he does little to examine alternative theories, to see if there might be anything they could explain better than classical mereology can. I argue that there is something important (...)
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  35. Thomas Bittner & M. Donnelly, A Temporal Mereology for Distinguishing Between Integral Objects and Portions of Stuff.
    In R. Holte and A. Howe (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-07).
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  36. Thomas Bittner, Maureen Donnelly & Barry Smith (2004). Individuals, Universals, Collections: On the Foundational Relations of Ontology. In Achille Varzi & Laure Vieu (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference, 37–48. IOS Press 37–48..
    This paper provides an axiomatic formalization of a theory of foundational relations between three categories of entities: individuals, universals, and collections. We deal with a variety of relations between entities in these categories, including the is-a relation among universals and the part-of relation among individuals as well as cross-category relations such as instance-of, member-of, and partition-of. We show that an adequate understanding of the formal properties of such relations – in particular their behavior with respect to time – is critical (...)
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  37. Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith (2009). A Spatio-Temporal Ontology for Geographic Information Integration. International Journal for Geographical Information Science 23 (6):765-798.
    This paper presents an axiomatic formalization of a theory of top-level relations between three categories of entities: individuals, universals, and collections. We deal with a variety of relations between entities in these categories, including the sub-universal relation among universals and the parthood relation among individuals, as well as cross-categorial relations such as instantiation and membership. We show that an adequate understanding of the formal properties of such relations – in particular their behavior with respect to time – is critical for (...)
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  38. Lynn Bloom (2000). Advancing Composition. In Linda K. Shamoon, Rebecca Moore Howard, Sandra Jamieson & Robert Schwegler (eds.), Coming of Age: The Advanced Writing Curriculum. Boynton/Cook 3--18.
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  39. D. J. Blyth (1994). Wholes, Parts, and Sequences in Aristotle. International Philosophical Quarterly 34 (4):453-463.
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  40. Alexander Bochman (1990). Mereology as a Theory of Part-Whole. Logique Et Analyse 129 (30):75-101.
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  41. Martha Boles & Rochelle Newman (1992). The Surface Plane.
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  42. Gianmario Borio (2003). L'orizzonte Filosofico Del Comporre Nel Ventesimo Secolo = the Philosophical Horizon of Composition in the Twentieth Century. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  43. P. Borkowski (2008). Composition as Epistemology. Philosophy Pathways 138.
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  44. Émile Bourguet (1919). Sur la composition du « phèdre ». Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 26 (3):335 - 351.
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  45. Nicolas Boussoulas (1960). Étude sur l'esthétique de la composition platonicienne des mixtes. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 65 (4):422 - 448.
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  46. Nicolas-Isidore Boussoulas (1961). Étude sur l'Esthétique de la composition platonicienne des mixtes (suite et fin). Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 66 (1/2):142 - 158.
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  47. Eric Bredo (2007). Parts and Wholes: Liberal-Communitarian Tensions in Democratic States. Journal of Philosophy of Education 41 (3):445–457.
  48. Ivan W. Brooks (1936). On Abstract Art. Philosophy 11 (42):195 - 202.
    Since the death of Cézanne in 1906, there has been throughout the world of European art a general reawakening of a sense of the necessity for constructive qualities in painting. Whereas our fathers were content to speak of the “composition” of a picture, in our own day it is more usual to speak of its construction. Composition, after all, is a comparatively loose and elastic term implying a generally harmonious arrangement of the massed effect of light and dark, a juxtaposition (...)
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  49. Jacek Brzozowski (2008). 9. On Locating Composite Objects. In Dean W. Zimmerman (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics. Oxford University Press 4--193.
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  50. Hans Burkhardt & Wolfgang Degen (1990). Mereology in Leibniz's Logic and Philosophy. Topoi 9 (1):3-13.
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