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  1. Matthew C. Altman (2004). What's the Use of Philosophy? Democratic Citizenship and the Direction of Higher Education. Educational Theory 54 (2):143-155.
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  2. James Andow (2016). Thin, Fine and with Sensitivity: A Metamethodology of Intuitions. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):105-125.
    Do philosophers use intuitions? Should philosophers use intuitions? Can philosophical methods be improved upon? In order to answer these questions we need to have some idea of how we should go about answering them. I defend a way of going about methodology of intuitions: a metamethodology. I claim the following: we should approach methodological questions about intuitions with a thin conception of intuitions in mind; we should carve intuitions finely; and, we should carve to a grain to which we are (...)
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  3. James Andow (2015). How “Intuition” Exploded. Metaphilosophy 46 (2):189-212.
    Recent decades have seen a surge in interest in metaphilosophy. In particular there has been an interest in philosophical methodology. Various questions have been asked about philosophical methods. Are our methods any good? Can we improve upon them? Prior to such evaluative and ameliorative concerns, however, is the matter of what methods philosophers actually use. Worryingly, our understanding of philosophical methodology is impoverished in various respects. This article considers one particular respect in which we seem to be missing an important (...)
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  4. Nathan Ballantyne (2014). Knockdown Arguments. Erkenntnis 79 (3):525-543.
    David Lewis and Peter van Inwagen have claimed that there are no “knockdown” arguments in philosophy. Their claim appears to be at odds with common philosophical practice: philosophers often write as though their conclusions are established or proven and that the considerations offered for these conclusions are decisive. In this paper, I examine some questions raised by Lewis’s and van Inwagen’s contention. What are knockdown arguments? Are there any in philosophy? If not, why not? These questions concern the nature of (...)
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  5. Konrad Banicki (2014). Philosophy as Therapy: Towards a Conceptual Model. Philosophical Papers 43 (1):7-31.
    The idea of philosophy as a kind of therapy, though by no means standard, has been present in metaphilosophical reflection since antiquity. Diverse versions of it were also discussed and applied by more recent authors such as Wittgenstein, Hadot and Foucault. In order to develop an explicit, general and systematic model of therapeutic philosophy a relatively broad and well-structured account provided by Martha Nussbaum is subjected to analysis. The results obtained, subsequently, form a basis for a new model constructed around (...)
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  6. Konrad Banicki (2012). Connective Conceptual Analysis and Psychology. Theory and Psychology 22 (3):310-323.
    Conceptual analysis, like any exclusively theoretical activity, is far from overrated in current psychology. Such a situation can be related both to the contingent influences of contextual and historical character and to the more essential metatheoretical reasons. After a short discussion of the latter it is argued that even within a strictly empirical psychology there are non-trivial tasks that can be attached to well-defined and methodologically reliable, conceptual work. This kind of method, inspired by the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Peter (...)
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  7. Konrad Banicki (2012). Review of Jonardon Ganeri & Clare Carlisle (Eds.), Philosophy as Therapeia. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 32 (1):4.
  8. Peter Baumann (2013). Philosophy Upside Down? Metaphilosophy 44 (5):579-588.
    Philip Kitcher recently argued for a reconstruction in philosophy. According to him, the contemporary mainstream of philosophy has deteriorated into something that is of relevance only to a few specialists who communicate with each other in a language nobody else understands. Kitcher proposes to reconstruct philosophy along two axes: a knowledge axis and a value axis. The present article discusses Kitcher's diagnosis as well as his proposal of a therapy. It argues that there are problems with both, and it ends (...)
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  9. Brandon Beasley (2015). Expressivism, Pragmatism and Representationalism. [REVIEW] Dialogue 54 (3):573-576.
  10. Simon Beck (2000). Points of Concern. Theoria 47 (96):121-130.
    This is a critical review of Raymond Martin's 'Self-Concern'(1998).
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  11. Jiri Benovsky (2013). From Experience to Metaphysics: On Experience‐Based Intuitions and Their Role in Metaphysics. Noûs 49 (3):684-697.
    Metaphysical theories are often counter-intuitive. But they also often are strongly supported and motivated by intuitions. One way or another, the link between intuitions and metaphysics is a strong and important one, and there is hardly any metaphysical discussion where intuitions do not play a crucial role. In this article, I will be interested in a particular kind of such intuitions, namely those that come, at least partly, from experience. There seems to be a route from experience to metaphysics, and (...)
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  12. Jiri Benovsky (2013). Primitiveness, Metaontology, and Explanatory Power. Dialogue 52 (2):341-358.
    Metaphysical theories heavily rely on the use of primitives to which they typically appeal. I will start by examining and evaluating some traditional well-known theories and I will discuss the role of primitives in metaphysical theories in general. I will then turn to a discussion of claims of between theories that, I think, depend on equivalences of primitives, and I will explore the nature of primitives. I will then claim that almost all explanatory power of metaphysical theories comes from their (...)
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  13. David Bourget & David J. Chalmers (2009). What Do Philosophers Believe? Philosophical Studies 170 (3):465-500.
    What are the philosophical views of contemporary professional philosophers? We surveyed many professional philosophers in order to help determine their views on 30 central philosophical issues. This article documents the results. It also reveals correlations among philosophical views and between these views and factors such as age, gender, and nationality. A factor analysis suggests that an individual's views on these issues factor into a few underlying components that predict much of the variation in those views. The results of a metasurvey (...)
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  14. Georg Brun (2015). Explication as a Method of Conceptual Re-Engineering. Erkenntnis:1-31.
    Taking Carnap’s classic exposition as a starting point, this paper develops a pragmatic account of the method of explication, defends it against a range of challenges and proposes a detailed recipe for the practice of explicating. It is then argued that confusions are involved in characterizing explications as definitions, and in advocating precising definitions as an alternative to explications. Explication is better characterized as conceptual re-engineering for theoretical purposes, in contrast to conceptual re-engineering for other purposes and improving exactness for (...)
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  15. Georg Brutian (2012). Metaphilosophy in the Systems of Metatheories. Metaphilosophy 43 (3):294-305.
    This article discusses the essence and form of various types of metatheory, paying special attention to metaphilosophy. It suggests the idea of the metatheoretical model—a completely new approach in philosophical discussion—and considers this concept with regard to the Platonic model and the Rhodian model. These models permit two different systems of metatheoretical construction. The paradigms of modern science allow the formation of metatheories that help further the development of logical, mathematical, and similar sciences. The Rhodian model allows the discovery of (...)
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  16. Yuri Cath, Metaphilosophy. Oxford Bibliographies Online.
    Often philosophers have reason to ask fundamental questions about the aims, methods, nature, or value of their own discipline. When philosophers systematically examine such questions, the resulting work is sometimes referred to as “metaphilosophy.” Metaphilosophy, it should be said, is not a well-established, or clearly demarcated, field of philosophical inquiry like epistemology or the philosophy of art. However, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries there has been a great deal of metaphilosophical work on issues concerning the methodology of (...)
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  17. Kevin Connolly, Mind and Attention in Indian Philosophy: Workshop Report, Question Five.
    This is an excerpt from a report on the workshop on mind and attention in Indian philosophy at Harvard University, on September 21st and 22nd, 2013, written by Kevin Connolly, Jennifer Corns, Nilanjan Das, Zachary Irving, and Lu Teng, and available at http://networksensoryresearch.utoronto.ca/Events_%26_Discussion.html This portion of the report explores the question: Are there cross-cultural philosophical themes?
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  18. John Corcoran (2006). Schemata: The Concept of Schema in the History of Logic. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (2):219-240.
    The syllogistic figures and moods can be taken to be argument schemata as can the rules of the Stoic propositional logic. Sentence schemata have been used in axiomatizations of logic only since the landmark 1927 von Neumann paper [31]. Modern philosophers know the role of schemata in explications of the semantic conception of truth through Tarski’s 1933 Convention T [42]. Mathematical logicians recognize the role of schemata in first-order number theory where Peano’s second-order Induction Axiom is approximated by Herbrand’s Induction-Axiom (...)
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  19. Cesare Cozzo (1999). What is Analytical Philosophy? In Rosaria Egidi (ed.), In Search of a New Humanism. Kluwer 55-63.
    Professor Von Wright is a prominent analytical philosopher who has written about the very notion of analytical philosophy. Other analytical philosophers are present here and they have their ideas on this notion. As for me, I believe that it is not at all an obvious notion. Sometimes it seemed to me that analytical philosophy does not exist, or at least that there is no single common feature shared by all so-called analytical philosophers and only by them, though there are many (...)
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  20. Olavo de Carvalho (2014). Visões de Descartes. Vide Editorial.
    Olavo de Carvalho reúne neste livro o essencial do que tem ensinado sobre René Descartes em seus cursos e conferências. Convencido de que a filosofia não nasce do gosto pelo raciocínio abstrato, mas do impulso de apreender e expressar o sentido universal da experiência acessível, o autor nos conduz a um retorno das idéias de Descartes às experiências reais que as originaram. Esse método não pretende dar uma explicação psicológica de uma filosofia, mas esclarecer o sentido efetivo que as idéias (...)
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  21. Jules de Gaultier (1974). Official Philosophy and Philosophy. New York,Philosophical Library.
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  22. Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz (2015). The Epistemic Value of Speculative Fiction. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 39 (1):58-77.
    Speculative fiction, such as science fiction and fantasy, has a unique epistemic value. We examine similarities and differences between speculative fiction and philosophical thought experiments in terms of how they are cognitively processed. They are similar in their reliance on mental prospection, but dissimilar in that fiction is better able to draw in readers (transportation) and elicit emotional responses. By its use of longer, emotionally poignant narratives and seemingly irrelevant details, speculative fiction allows for a better appraisal of the consequences (...)
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  23. Juliano Santos do Carmo, Eduardo Ferreira das Neves Filho, Alexandre Noronha Machado, Darlei Dall'Agnol, Janyne Satler, João Vergílio Gallerani Cuter, Jonadas Techio, Rogério Saucedo & Victor Krebs (2014). Wittgenstein: Notas Sobre Lógica, Pensamento e Certeza. NEPFIL Online | Dissertatio's Series of Philosophy.
    O objetivo desta publicação é incentivar a produção filosófica de excelência por parte de pesquisadores notadamente influenciados pela filosofia de Wittgenstein e cujos temas possam suscitar um debate aprofundado. Além de desafiar o empreendimento filosófico contemporâneo, os temas aqui apresentados abordam questões que muitas vezes estão além daquelas consideradas por Wittgenstein em seu tempo. O leitor encontrará neste volume questões relacionadas ao ceticismo semântico e epistêmico, ao relativismo ético, às leituras literárias de Wittgenstein, ao problema das outras mentes e percepção (...)
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  24. Roger-Pol Droit (2001). Astonish Yourself: 101 Experiments in the Philosophy of Everyday Life. Penguin Books.
    Say your name aloud to yourself in a quiet room. Imagine peeling an apple in your mind. Take the subway without trying to get anywhere. The simple meditations in this book have the potential to shake us awake from our preconceived certainties: our own identity, the stability of the outside world, the meanings of words. At once entertaining and startling, irreverent and wise, this book will provoke moments of awareness for readers in any situation and in all walks of life. (...)
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  25. Robert M. Ellis (2011). A Theory of Moral Objectivity. Lulu.Com.
    An inter-disciplinary philosophical treatise (written as an accredited Ph.D. thesis) that attempts to establish a new approach to moral objectivity. Inspired by the Buddha's Middle Way, but arguing from first premises, it challenges widespread and interlinked assumptions in both analytic and continental philosophy, whilst drawing on both these traditions together with psychological, religious and historical evidence. The first section of the book provides a detailed critique of existing approaches to ethics in the Western tradition. The second half then puts forward (...)
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  26. Yiftach Fehige (2013). Poems of Productive Imagination: Thought Experiments, Christianity, and Science in Novalis. Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 55 (1):54-83.
    Thought experiments are employed for a number of reasons and in many different disciplines. This paper explores the work of Novalis in relation to the method of thought experiments in theology, with a special focus on the encounter between Christianity and the science of his day. In a first step I revisit the ongoing philosophical discussion on thought experiments in order to highlight the lack of interest in the literary features of thought experiments. Step two is dedicated to a discussion (...)
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  27. Elena Ficara (ed.) (2014). Contradictions. Logic, History, Actuality. De Gruyter.
    The papers in this volume present some of the most recent results of the work about contradictions in philosophical logic and metaphysics; examine the history of contradiction in crucial phases of philosophical thought; consider the relevance of contradictions for political and philosophical actuality. From this consideration a common question emerges: the question of the irreducibility, reality and productive force of (some) contradictions.
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  28. Pasquale Frascolla, Diego Marconi & Alberto Voltolini (eds.) (2010). Wittgenstein: Mind, Meaning and Metaphilosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.
  29. F. W. Garforth (1971). The Scope of Philosophy: An Introductory Study Book. Harlow,Longman.
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  30. W. R. Boyce Gibson (1933). What is Philosophy? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 11 (2):88 – 98.
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  31. Jonathan L. Gorman (1991). Some Astonishing Things. Metaphilosophy 22 (1-2):28-40.
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  32. Johannes Haag (2012). Philosophische Abstraktionsebenen. In Christian Barth & Holger Sturm (eds.), Brandoms Expressive Vernunft.Historische und Systematische Untersuchungen. Mentis 261-285.
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  33. Andrew Higgins & Alexis Dyschkant (2014). Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Philosophy. Metaphilosophy 45 (3):372-398.
    Many philosophers would, in theory, agree that the methods and tools of philosophy ought to be supplemented by those of other academic disciplines. In practice, however, the sociological data suggest that most philosophers fail to engage or collaborate with other academics, and this article argues that this is problematic for philosophy as a discipline. In relation to the value of interdisciplinary collaboration, the article highlights how experimental philosophers can benefit the field, but only insofar as they draw from the distinctive (...)
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  34. Arman Hovhannisyan, An Endeavor of New Concept of Being and Non-Being.
    The aim of this work is to show that the reality is not only the world of being, it is equally the world of non-being. Such an approach, as I think, is not nihilism, on the contrary - it helps to resolve many problems and contradictions confusing the philosophical mind. The reader will not find any citations or references in this work because I tried to bring it closer to Philosophy as it used to be in its early stages and (...)
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  35. Arman Hovhannisyan, God and Reality.
    Metaphysics has done everything to involve God in the world of being. However, in case of considering Reality as being and nothingness, naturally, the metaphysical approach toward the idea of God is losing its grounds. If Reality is being and nothingness, so the idea of God, too, should concern nothingness as well as being.
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  36. Arman Hovhannisyan, Non-Being and Nothingness.
    There is a common belief that non-being and nothingness are identical, a widespread, even general delusion the wrongness of which I will try to demonstrate in this work. And which I consider even more important, that is to define nothingness for further determination of “its” place and role in the reality and especially in human life.
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  37. Arman Hovhannisyan, Presence in Reality.
    As I tried to show in my earlier works (An Endeavor of New Concept of Being and Non-Being, Non-Being and Nothingness and Reality as Being and Nothingness), the environment in which the human being is finding itself should be characterized by being and nothingness, and any non-metaphysical philosophy must consider such an understanding of Reality as the utmost category which is above being, Universe, etc. In this article, I will try to shed light on the place and role of the (...)
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  38. Arman Hovhannisyan, Welcomed and Unwelcomed Philosophies.
    A discussion on PhilPapers.org, initiated by myself, has prompted me to write this sketch.
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  39. Arman Hovhannisyan (2012). Reality as Being and Nothingness. Amazon.
    The article below is the summary of two earlier works of mine, An Endeavor of New Concept of Being and Non-Being and Non-Being and Nothingness. Only being and nothingness in their unity characterize the environment in which the human being is finding itself, and any non-metaphysical philosophy must consider such an understanding of Reality as the utmost category which is above being, Universe, etc.
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  40. Arman Hovhannisyan (2011). Ex Nihilo Nihil Fit?, or Prolegomena to Philosophy of Reality. Amazon, Createspace.
    The work below is the resume of my forthcoming book which I hope to complete in a year or two. As a matter of fact, this is the synthesis of five previous papers of mine, An Endeavor of New Concept of Being and Non-Being, Non-Being and Nothingness, Reality as Being and Nothingness, Presence in Reality, and God and Reality, or to be more correct, the integrity of them, as only in this connection do they acquire their genuine meaning and significance. (...)
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  41. Michael Hymers (2004). Précis of Philosophy and its Epistemic Neuroses. Dialogue 43 (3):569-576.
    I outline the main arguments of my book, Philosophy and Its Epistemic Neuroses (Westview, 2000), in which I defend an anti-theoretical approach to traditional problems in epistemology, metaphysics and the philosophy of language, focusing especially on external-world scepticism, the indeterminacy of reference, relativism and first-person authority, contending that these problems arise from embracing philosophical commitments that are not quite contradictory, but which suffer from what I describe as "epistemic neuroses"--an acceptance of methodological commitments that make these problems look like problems (...)
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  42. Michael Hymers (2004). Replies to Hanson and Migotti. Dialogue 43 (3):595-606.
    I respond to criticisms of my book, Philosophy and Its Epistemic Neuroses (Westview, 2000), by Mark Migotti and Phil Hanson.
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  43. Taraneh Javanbakht (2016). Logique floue et arborescence comme outils de modélisation des catégories en tant que prototypes. Dissertation, Master's Thesis - University of Quebec in Montreal
    La présente recherche porte sur la notion de fluctuation de la catégorisation. Pour l’essentiel, ce travail présente la modélisation des catégories, comme outils cognitifs, selon les paramètres de la logique floue. Au premier chapitre, j’analyserai le problème de la catégorisation dans les sciences cognitives. Ma présentation portera, dans un premier temps, sur les notions de concept et de catégorisation. Ensuite, je présenterai la théorie des prototypes de Rosch. Le deuxième chapitre est consacré à traiter des débats autour de la théorie (...)
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  44. Sreekumar Jayadevan, Theory-Talk, Meta-Theory- Talk and Metaphysical-Talk: Intricacies and Pertinence of Three Levels of Discourse in the Scientific Realism-Debate.
  45. Nicholas Joll (2009). How Should Philosophy Be Clear? Loaded Clarity, Default Clarity, and Adorno. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2009 (146):73–95.
    [First paragraph:] Part of the point of this article is to support the following claim by Adorno: “Rarely has anyone laid out a theory of philosophical clarity; instead, the concept of clarity has been used as though it were self-evident.” In fact, and again with Adorno, I shall argue for what I call the “loadedness thesis”: the thesis that philosophical conceptions of clarity are pervasively, and perhaps inevitably, philosophically partisan (section one). Yet I shall proceed to argue for a conception (...)
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  46. Marko Jurjako (forthcoming). Do Philosophical Intuitions Need Calibration? Anthropology and Philosophy.
    In his seminal paper ‘Reflection on Reflective Equilibrium’ Robert Cummins argued that if intuitions are to serve as reliable guides to philosophical truths then we should be able to check their reliability in particular cases. However, if we can check the reliability of intuitions then that means that we have an independent non-intuitive access to the domain that intuitions are supposed to disclose, which in effect makes intuitions obsolete. Overgaard, Gilbert and Burwood in their book ‘An Introduction to Metaphilosophy’ respond (...)
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  47. Marko Jurjako & Luca Malatesti (forthcoming). Metaphilosophy in Practice: The Responsibility of Psychopathic Offenders as a Case Study. Anthropology and Philosophy.
    We argue that philosophy has an important role to play in bridging certain social practices with certain scientific advancements. Specifically, we describe such a role by focusing on the issue of how and whether neuropsychological data concerning psychopathic offenders reflect on their criminal culpability. We offer some methodological requirements for this type of philosophical application. In addition, we show how it might help in addressing the problem of determining the criminal responsibility of psychopathic offenders.
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  48. Antti Kauppinen (2007). The Rise and Fall of Experimental Philosophy. Philosophical Explorations 10 (2):95 – 118.
    In disputes about conceptual analysis, each side typically appeals to pre-theoretical 'intuitions' about particular cases. Recently, many naturalistically oriented philosophers have suggested that these appeals should be understood as empirical hypotheses about what people would say when presented with descriptions of situations, and have consequently conducted surveys on non-specialists. I argue that this philosophical research programme, a key branch of what is known as 'experimental philosophy', rests on mistaken assumptions about the relation between people's concepts and their linguistic behaviour. The (...)
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  49. Joshua Knobe (2007). Experimental Philosophy. Philosophy Compass 2 (1):81–92.
    Claims about people's intuitions have long played an important role in philosophical debates. The new field of experimental philosophy seeks to subject such claims to rigorous tests using the traditional methods of cognitive science – systematic experimentation and statistical analysis. Work in experimental philosophy thus far has investigated people's intuitions in philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, epistemology, and ethics. Although it is now generally agreed that experimental philosophers have made surprising discoveries about people's intuitions in each of these areas, (...)
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  50. Joshua Knobe (2007). Experimental Philosophy and Philosophical Significance. Philosophical Explorations 10 (2):119 – 121.
    Kauppinen argues that experimental philosophy cannot help us to address questions about the semantics of our concepts and that it therefore has little to contribute to the discipline of philosophy. This argument raises fascinating questions in the philosophy of language, but it is simply a red herring in the present context. Most researchers in experimental philosophy were not trying to resolve semantic questions in the first place. Their aim was rather to address a more traditional sort of question, the sort (...)
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