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Metaphilosophy

Edited by Jonathan Ichikawa (University of British Columbia)
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  1. added 2016-08-29
    Peter Olen (2016). From Formalism to Psychology: Metaphilosophical Studies in Wilfrid Sellars's Early Works. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (1):24-63.
    When discussing Wilfrid Sellars’s philosophy, very little work has been done to offer a developmental account of his systematic views. More often than not, Sellars’s complex views are presented in a systematic and holistic fashion that ignores any periodization of his work. I argue that there is a metaphilosophical shift in Sellars’s early philosophy that results in substantive changes to his conception of language, linguistic rules, and normativity. Specifically, I claim that Sellars’s shift from a formalist metaphilosophy to one more (...)
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  2. added 2016-08-22
    Christopher A. Vogel (2016). Lexical Flexibility, Natural Language and Ontology. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 16 (1).
    The Realist that investigates questions of ontology by appeal to the quantificational structure of language assumes that the semantics for the privileged language of ontology is externalist. I argue that such a language cannot be (some variant of) a natural language, as some Realists propose. The flexibility exhibited by natural language expressions noted by Chomsky and others cannot obviously be characterized by the rigid models available to the externalist. If natural languages are hostile to externalist treatments, then the meanings of (...)
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  3. added 2016-08-19
    Dominic Gregory (forthcoming). Counterfactual Reasoning and Knowledge of Possibilities. Philosophical Studies:1-15.
    Williamson has argued against scepticism concerning our metaphysically modal knowledge, by arguing that standard patterns of suppositional reasoning to counterfactual conclusions provide reliable sources of correct ascriptions of possibility and necessity. The paper argues that, while Williamson’s claims relating to necessity may well be right, he has not provided adequate reasons for thinking that the familiar modes of counterfactual reasoning to which he points generalise to provide a decent route to ascriptions of possibility. The paper also explores another path to (...)
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  4. added 2016-08-18
    Yrsa Neuman (2015). Standing Before a Sentence: Moore's Paradox and a Perspective From Within Language. Dissertation, Åbo Akademi University
    Ludwig Wittgenstein once wrote to G.E. Moore that he had stirred up a philosophical wasps’ nest with his paradox, associated with the sentence “I believe it’s raining and it’s not raining”. The problem is that it would be odd for a speaker to assert this thought about herself, although it could be true about her, and although the sentence is well-formed and not contradictory. -/- Making use of the notion of a sentence having sense in a context of significant use (...)
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  5. added 2016-08-17
    David Rose (forthcoming). Folk Intuitions of Actual Causation: A Two-Pronged Debunking Explanation. Philosophical Studies:1-39.
    How do we determine whether some candidate causal factor is an actual cause of some particular outcome? Many philosophers have wanted a view of actual causation which fits with folk intuitions of actual causation and those who wish to depart from folk intuitions of actual causation are often charged with the task of providing a plausible account of just how and where the folk have gone wrong. In this paper, I provide a range of empirical evidence aimed at showing just (...)
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  6. added 2016-08-17
    Yuri Cath (2016). Reflective Equilibrium. In H. Cappelen, T. Gendler & J. Hawthorne (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology. Oxford University Press 213-230.
    This article examines the method of reflective equilibrium (RE) and its role in philosophical inquiry. It begins with an overview of RE before discussing some of the subtleties involved in its interpretation, including challenges to the standard assumption that RE is a form of coherentism. It then evaluates some of the main objections to RE, in particular, the criticism that this method generates unreasonable beliefs. It concludes by considering how RE relates to recent debates about the role of intuitions in (...)
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  7. added 2016-08-17
    Neri Marsili (2016). Lying by Promising. International Review of Pragmatics 8 (2):271-313.
    This paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, I extend the traditional definition of lying to illocutionary acts executed by means of explicit performatives, focusing on promising. This is achieved in two steps. First, I discuss how the utterance of a sentence containing an explicit performative such as “I promise that Φ ” can count as an assertion of its content Φ . Second, I develop a general account of insincerity meant to explain under which conditions a (...)
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  8. added 2016-08-16
    Nolan Daniel, Canberra Plan. A Companion to Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand.
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  9. added 2016-08-14
    Kevin Lynch (forthcoming). The Myth of the Intuitive: Experimental Philosophy and Philosophical Method, by Max Deutsch (MIT Press, 2015). [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology:1-3.
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  10. added 2016-08-11
    Tuomas E. Tahko (2016). The Scientific Inquisition. The Philosophers' Magazine 74:86-89.
    Nobody expects the Scientific Inquisition!
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  11. added 2016-08-10
    Michael R. Starks, The Logical Structure of Philosophy, Psychology, Mind and Language as Revealed in the Writings of Ludwig Wittgenstein and John Searle.
    I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality (mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic (...)
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  12. added 2016-08-04
    Chris Ranalli, Metaepistemological Skepticism. Oxford Bibliographies.
  13. added 2016-08-03
    Nevin Climenhaga (forthcoming). Intuitions Are Used as Evidence in Philosophy. Mind.
    In recent years a growing number of philosophers writing about the methodology of philosophy have defended the surprising claim that philosophers do not use intuitions as evidence. In this paper I defend the contrary view that philosophers do use intuitions as evidence. I argue that this thesis is the best explanation of several salient facts about philosophical practice. First, philosophers tend to believe propositions which they find intuitive. Second, philosophers offer error theories for intuitions that conflict with their theories. Finally, (...)
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  14. added 2016-08-03
    Nina Strohminger & Shaun Nichols (2015). Neurodegeneration and Identity. Psychological Science 26 (9):1469– 1479.
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  15. added 2016-07-26
    Frederique Janssen-Lauret (forthcoming). Susan Stebbing, Incomplete Symbols, and Foundherentist Meta-Ontology. Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy.
    Susan Stebbing's work on incomplete symbols and analysis was instrumental in clarifying, sharpening, and improving the project of logical constructions which was pivotal to early analytic philosophy. She dispelled use-mention confusions by restricting the term `incomplete symbol' to expressions eliminable through analysis, rather than those expressions' purported referents, and distinguished linguistic analysis from directional analysis of facts. In this paper I explore Stebbing's role in analytic philosophy's development from anti-holism, presupposing that analysis terminates in simples, to the more holist or (...)
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  16. added 2016-07-26
    Héctor Arévalo Benito (2015). "Estudio sobre el pensamiento hispanoamericano en José Gaos". UT.
    En este estudio se plantea con cierto detalle el planteamiento de José Gaos acerca de qué alcance, sentido e implicaciones posee el "pensamiento hispanoamericano" para el autor asturiano, visto desde su obra publicada en México a mediados de los años 40.
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  17. added 2016-07-23
    Fabio Sterpetti (2016). Models, Brains, and Scientific Realism. In L. Magnani & C. Casadio (eds.), Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Logical, Epistemological, and Cognitive Issues. Springer 639-661.
    Prediction Error Minimization theory (PEM) is one of the most promising attempts to model perception in current science of mind, and it has recently been advocated by some prominent philosophers as Andy Clark and Jakob Hohwy. Briefly, PEM maintains that “the brain is an organ that on aver-age and over time continually minimizes the error between the sensory input it predicts on the basis of its model of the world and the actual sensory input” (Hohwy 2014, p. 2). An interesting (...)
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  18. added 2016-07-19
    Christian Quast (2016). Expertise: A Practical Explication. Topoi:1-17.
    In this paper I will introduce a practical explication for the notion of expertise. At first, I motivate this attempt by taking a look on recent debates which display great disagreement about whether and how to define expertise in the first place. After that I will introduce the methodology of practical explications in the spirit of Edward Craig’s Knowledge and the state of nature along with some conditions of adequacy taken from ordinary and scientific language. This eventually culminates in the (...)
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  19. added 2016-07-12
    Marko Jurjako (forthcoming). Do Philosophical Intuitions Need Calibration? Anthropology and Philosophy.
    In his seminal paper ‘Reflection on Reflective Equilibrium’ Robert Cummins argued that if intuitions are to serve as reliable guides to philosophical truths then we should be able to check their reliability in particular cases. However, if we can check the reliability of intuitions then that means that we have an independent non-intuitive access to the domain that intuitions are supposed to disclose, which in effect makes intuitions obsolete. Overgaard, Gilbert and Burwood in their book ‘An Introduction to Metaphilosophy’ respond (...)
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  20. added 2016-07-12
    Marko Jurjako & Luca Malatesti (forthcoming). Metaphilosophy in Practice: The Responsibility of Psychopathic Offenders as a Case Study. Anthropology and Philosophy.
    We argue that philosophy has an important role to play in bridging certain social practices with certain scientific advancements. Specifically, we describe such a role by focusing on the issue of how and whether neuropsychological data concerning psychopathic offenders reflect on their criminal culpability. We offer some methodological requirements for this type of philosophical application. In addition, we show how it might help in addressing the problem of determining the criminal responsibility of psychopathic offenders.
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  21. added 2016-07-12
    N. Maxwell, A Priori Conjectural Knowledge in Physics.
    The history of western philosophy is split to its core by a long-standing, fundamental dispute. On the one hand there are the so-called empiricists, like Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Mill, Russell, the logical positivists, A. J. Ayer, Karl Popper and most scientists, who hold empirical considerations alone can be appealed to in justifying, or providing a rationale for, claims to factual knowledge, there being no such thing as a priori knowledge – items of factual knowledge that are accepted on grounds other (...)
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  22. added 2016-07-11
    Arber Tasimi, Susan Gelman, Andrei Cimpian & Joshua Knobe (forthcoming). Differences in the Evaluation of Generic Statements About Human and Non-Human Categories. Cognitive Science.
    Generic statements (e.g., “Birds lay eggs”) express generalizations about categories. Current theories suggest that people should be especially inclined to accept generics that involve threatening information. However, previous tests of this claim have focused on generics about non-human categories, which raises the question of whether this effect applies as readily to human categories. In Experiment 1, adults were more likely to accept generics involving a threatening (vs. a non-threatening) property for artifacts, but this negativity bias did not also apply to (...)
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  23. added 2016-07-09
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Outline of a Theory of Knowledge. JOHN-MICHAEL KUCZYNSKI.
    It is made clear what discursive knowledge is and how we acquire it, and some age-old skeptical views are shown to be incoherent. It is shown that all knowledge is to some degree inferential. At the same time, it is shown that there are three quite distinct senses in which empirical knowledge can be inferential. It is proved that we have a priori knowledge, and also that knowledge of non-empirical truths is needed to acquire empirical knowledge. Finally, it is clearly (...)
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  24. added 2016-07-08
    Insa Lawler (2016). Dirk Koppelberg and Stefan Tolksdorf (Eds) : Erkenntnistheorie - Wie Und Wozu? [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (2):411-415.
    To what end should or do we pursue philosophy and how? Meta-philosophical questions along these lines have gained more and more interest recently. The collected volume "Erkenntnistheorie — Wie und wozu?" (Engl.: "Epistemology — How and to what end?") aspires to raise and tackle issues addressing the meta-epistemological questions "How is epistemology practiced and to what end?". Although this aim sounds like a descriptive meta-epistemological endeavor, it is not surprising that many authors rather argue for normative claims surrounding the questions (...)
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  25. added 2016-07-07
    Ray Scott Percival (1999). Review of Unweaving The Rainbow (by Richard Dawkins). [REVIEW] Science Spectra.
  26. added 2016-07-05
    Kiyoung Kim (ed.) (2015). AN ATTEMPT ON THE METHODOLOGICAL COMPOSURE: BETWEEN THE NUMBER AND UNDERSTANDING, NATURE AND CONSTRUCTION. ResearchGate.
    Once I had explored the research issue of North and South unification with a focus on the legal integration for uniform constitution and various statutes. It pushed me to deal with a big question, and looked like a semi-textbook with an inchoate idea and baby theory upon the completion of research project. The literature review thankfully had allowed the space of creativity and originality of my work product, and can also be a typical way of foreign graduate legal researchers in (...)
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  27. added 2016-06-29
    Nikil Mukerji (forthcoming). Einführung in die experimentelle Philosophie. Wilhelm Fink.
    Wie kann ein Experiment zur Beantwortung philosophischer Fragestellungen beitragen? Etwa: Was ist Wissen? Was bedeuten sprachliche Ausdrücke? Haben wir einen freien Willen? Kann man etwas absichtlich tun, ohne es zu beabsichtigen? Vertreter einer jungen philosophischen Bewegung wollen den Fragen ihres Fachs mithilfe empirisch-psychologischer Methoden auf den Grund gehen. Anstatt den Lehnstuhl (»armchair«) aufzusuchen, um sich philosophischen Problemen zu widmen, begeben sich experimentelle Philosophen ins Labor, um mithilfe empirischer Informationen aus Psychologie, Neurowissenschaft und Kognitionswissenschaft philosophische Schlussfolgerungen zu stützen. Die Einführung gibt (...)
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  28. added 2016-06-29
    Nahuel Sznajderhaus (forthcoming). On the Received Realist View of Quantum Mechanics. Cadernos de História E Filosofia da Ciência.
    In this article I defend that an underlying framework exists among those interpretations of quantum mechanics which crucially consider the measurement problem as a central obstacle. I characterise that framework as the Received View on the realist interpretation of quantum mechanics. In particular, I analyse the extent to which two of the most relevant attempts at quantum mechanics, namely, many worlds interpretations and Bohmian mechanics, belong within the Received View. However, I claim that scientific realism in itself does not entail (...)
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  29. added 2016-06-25
    Juliano Santos do Carmo & Eduardo Ferreira das Neves Filho (2015). Wittgenstein: Uma Solução Fundacionista ao Problema do Regresso Epistêmico. Revista Dissertatio de Filosofia:109-127.
    As notas que compõem a obra Da Certeza (Über Gewissheit) expressam nitidamente a preocupação de Ludwig Wittgenstein com os problemas clássicos da epistemologia, em especial o uso dos termos epistêmicos tradicionais e os erros costumeiros dos filósofos que negligenciam suas profundas estruturas gramaticais. Em diversas passagens é fácil observar a tentativa de esclarecer os erros de realistas, idealistas e céticos no que diz respeito às nossas alegações ordinárias de conhecimento em contextos céticos moderados. A questão do ceticismo sobre a justificação (...)
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  30. added 2016-06-25
    Juliano Santos do Carmo, Eduardo Ferreira das Neves Filho, Alexandre Noronha Machado, Darlei Dall'Agnol, Janyne Satler, João Vergílio Gallerani Cuter, Jonadas Techio, Rogério Saucedo & Victor Krebs (2014). Wittgenstein: Notas Sobre Lógica, Pensamento e Certeza. NEPFIL Online | Dissertatio's Series of Philosophy.
    O objetivo desta publicação é incentivar a produção filosófica de excelência por parte de pesquisadores notadamente influenciados pela filosofia de Wittgenstein e cujos temas possam suscitar um debate aprofundado. Além de desafiar o empreendimento filosófico contemporâneo, os temas aqui apresentados abordam questões que muitas vezes estão além daquelas consideradas por Wittgenstein em seu tempo. O leitor encontrará neste volume questões relacionadas ao ceticismo semântico e epistêmico, ao relativismo ético, às leituras literárias de Wittgenstein, ao problema das outras mentes e percepção (...)
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  31. added 2016-06-24
    David Papineau, David Macarthur, Mario De Caro, Juliano Santos do Carmo, Ruth Garret Millikan, Clademir Araldi, Flávia Carvalho, Evandro Barbosa, Fabrício Pontin, Thomas Sukopp, José Eduardo Porcher, João Hobuss, Susana Nuccetelli, Jack Ritchie, Nythamar Oliveira, Felipe Karasek, Adriano Naves de Brito, Sofia Stein & Luis Rosa (eds.) (2015). A Companion to Naturalism. NEPFIL Online | Dissertatio's Series of Philosophy.
    Offering a engaging and accessible portrait of the current state of the field, A Companion to Naturaslim shows students how to think about the relation between Philosophy and Science, and why is both essencial and fascinating to do so. All the authors in this collection reconsider the core questions in Philosophical Naturalism in light of the challenges raised in Contemporary Philosophy. They explore how philosophical questions are connected to vigorous current debates - including complex questions about metaphysics, semantics, religion, intentionality, (...)
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  32. added 2016-06-22
    Marcus McGahhey & Neil Van Leeuwen (forthcoming). Interpreting Intuitions. In Julie Kirsch Patrizia Pedrini (ed.), Third-Person Self-Knowledge, Self-Interpretation, and Narrative. Springer
    We argue that many intuitions do not have conscious propositional contents. In particular, many of the intuitions had in response to philosophical thought experiments, like Gettier cases, do not have such contents. They are more like hunches, urgings, murky feelings, and twinges. Our view thus goes against the received view of intuitions in philosophy, which we call Mainstream Propositionalism. Our positive view is that many thought-experimental intuitions are conscious, spontaneous, non-theoretical, non-propositional psychological states that often motivate belief revision, but they (...)
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  33. added 2016-06-22
    Daniel Cohnitz (2006). Gedankenexperimente in der Philosophie. Mentis.
    Wie ist es wohl, eine Fledermaus zu sein? Wäre ein rein physikalisches Duplikat von mir nur ein empfindungsloser Zombie? Muss man sich seinem Schicksal ergeben, wenn man sich unfreiwillig als lebensnotwendige Blutwaschanlage eines weltberühmten Violinisten wieder findet? Kann man sich wünschen, der König von China zu sein? Bin ich vielleicht nur ein Gehirn in einem Tank mit Nährflüssigkeit, das die Welt von einer Computersimulation vorgegaukelt bekommt? Worauf beziehen sich die Menschen auf der Zwillingserde mit ihrem Wort 'Wasser', wenn es bei (...)
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  34. added 2016-06-21
    Stephen Biggs & Jessica Wilson (2016). The A Priority of Abduction. Philosophical Studies:1-24.
    Here we challenge the orthodoxy according to which abduction is an a posteriori mode of inference. We start by providing a case study illustrating how abduction can justify a philosophical claim not justifiable by empirical evidence alone. While many grant abduction's epistemic value, nearly all assume that abductive justification is a posteriori, on grounds that our belief in abduction's epistemic value depends on empirical evidence about how the world contingently is. Contra this assumption, we argue, first, that our belief in (...)
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  35. added 2016-06-15
    Fabian Dorsch (2011). The Aesthetic Relevance of Empirical Findings. Kongress-Akten der Deutschen Gesellschaft Für Ästhetik 2:1-21.
    Empirical findings may be relevant for aesthetic evaluation in at least two ways. First — within criticism — they may help us to identify the aesthetic value of objects. Second— whithin philosophy — they may help us to decide which theory of aesthetic value and evaluation to prefer. In this paper, I address both kinds of relevance. My focus is thereby on empirical evidence gathered, not by means of first-personal experiences, but by means of third-personal scientific investigations of individual artworks (...)
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  36. added 2016-06-14
    Fabian Dorsch (2014). The Limits of Aesthetic Empiricism. In Gregory Currie, Matthew Kieran, Aaron Meskin & Jon Robson (eds.), Aesthetics and the Sciences of Mind. Oxford University Press 75-100.
    Empirical findings may be relevant for aesthetic evaluation in at least two ways. First ‒‒ within criticism ‒ they may help us to identify the aesthetic value of objects. Second ‒ whithin philosophy ‒ they may help us to decide which theory of aesthetic value and evaluation to prefer. In this paper, I address both kinds of relevance. My focus is thereby on empirical evidence gathered, not by means of first-personal experiences, but by means of third-personal scientific investigations of individual (...)
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  37. added 2016-06-13
    Michael Starks, A Master Wittgensteinian Surveys Human Nature--A Review of Peter Hacker 'Human Nature-the Categorial Framework' (2012).
    Materialism, reductionism, behaviorism, functionalism, dynamic systems theory and computationalism are popular views, but they were shown by Wittgenstein to be incoherent. The study of behavior encompasses all of human life but behavior is largely automatic and unconscious and even the conscious part, mostly expressed in language (which Wittgenstein equates with the mind), is not perspicuous, so it is critical to have a framework which Searle calls the Logical Structure of Rationality (LSR) and I call the Descriptive Psychology of Higher Order (...)
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  38. added 2016-06-13
    Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). The Folk Psychological Roots of Free Will. In David Rose (ed.), Experimental Metaphysics. Bloomsbury
    First, what are the psychological roots of our concept of free will? Second, how might progress on the first question contribute to progress regarding normative debates about the proper concept of free will? In sections two and three I address the first question. Section two discusses recent work in the experimental philosophy of free will, and motivates the study I report in section three. Section four reflects on the second question in light of the reported results. To preview, the results (...)
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  39. added 2016-06-10
    Matthew Fisher, Joshua Knobe, Brent Strickland & Frank C. Keil (2016). The Influence of Social Interaction on Intuitions of Objectivity and Subjectivity. Cognitive Science 40 (6).
    We present experimental evidence that people's modes of social interaction influence their construal of truth. Participants who engaged in cooperative interactions were less inclined to agree that there was an objective truth about that topic than were those who engaged in a competitive interaction. Follow-up experiments ruled out alternative explanations and indicated that the changes in objectivity are explained by argumentative mindsets: When people are in cooperative arguments, they see the truth as more subjective. These findings can help inform research (...)
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  40. added 2016-06-09
    Michael J. Shaffer (forthcoming). “Filling In”, Thought Experiments and Intuitions. Episteme.
    Recently Timothy Williamson (2007) has argued that characterizations of the standard (i.e. intuition-based) philosophical practice of philosophical analysis are misguided because of the erroneous manner in which this practice has been understood. In doing so he implies that experimental critiques of the reliability of intuition are based on this misunderstanding of philosophical methodology and so have little or no bearing on actual philosophical practice or results. His main point is that the orthodox understanding of philosophical methodology is incorrect in that (...)
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  41. added 2016-06-05
    Vladimir Zeman (1997). Hermann Cohen's Concept of the Transcendental Method. In Tom Rockmore & Vladimir Zeman (eds.), Transcendental Philosophy and Everyday Experience. Humanities Press 111-124.
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  42. added 2016-06-04
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Some Thoughts on How to Do Comparative Philosophy: Comments on David Kim (Tentative Title). Confluence: Online Journal of World Philosophies 7.
    Part of a symposium on the question, 'Are certain epistemological frameworks more congenial to comparative philosophy?'. The symposium is anchored by a contribution from Professor David Haekwon Kim, with me providing some critical reflections on it.
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  43. added 2016-06-03
    James Andow (2016). Abduction by Philosophers: Reorienting Philosophical Methodology. Metaphilosophy 47 (3):353-370.
    A reorientation is needed in methodological debate about the role of intuitions in philosophy. Methodological debate has lost sight of the reason why it makes sense to focus on questions about intuitions when thinking about the methods or epistemology of philosophy. The problem is an approach to methodology that focuses almost exclusively on questions about some evidential role that intuitions may or may not play in philosophers’ arguments. A new approach is needed. Approaching methodological questions about the role of intuitions (...)
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  44. added 2016-05-31
    Justin Khoo (forthcoming). The Disagreement Challenge to Contextualism. In Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Contextualism.
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