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Metaphilosophy

Edited by Jonathan Ichikawa (University of British Columbia)
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  1. added 2015-07-27
    Alexander Dinges (forthcoming). Epistemic Invariantism and Contextualist Intuitions. Episteme.
    Epistemic invariantism, or invariantism for short, is the position that the proposition expressed by knowledge sentences does not vary with the epistemic standard of the context in which these sentences can be used. At least one of the major challenges for invariantism is to explain our intuitions about scenarios such as the so-called bank cases. These cases elicit intuitions to the effect that the truth-value of knowledge sentences varies with the epistemic standard of the context in which these sentences can (...)
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  2. added 2015-07-25
    Geert Keil & Herbert Schnädelbach (2000). Naturalismus. In Geert Keil & Herbert Schnädelbach (eds.), Naturalismus. Suhrkamp 7-45.
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  3. added 2015-07-14
    Michele Palmira (forthcoming). How to Condorcet a Goldman. Episteme.
    In his 2010 paper “Philosophical Naturalism and Intuitional Methodology”, Alvin I. Goldman invokes the Condorcet Jury Theorem in order to defend the reliability of intuitions. The present note argues that the original conditions of the theorem are all unrealistic when analysed in connection to the case of intuitions. Alternative conditions are discussed.
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  4. added 2015-07-13
    Jack Reynolds (forthcoming). Merleau-Ponty's Gordian Knot: Transcendental Phenomenology, Empirical Science, and Naturalism. Continental Philosophy Review.
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  5. added 2015-07-09
    Eugen Fischer & John Collins (2015). Rationalism and Naturalism in the Age of Experimental Philosophy. In Eugen Fischer & John Collins (eds.), Experimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and Naturalism. Rethinking Philosophical Method. Routledge 3-33.
    The paper outlines the evolution of on-going meta-philosophical debates about intuitions, explains different notions of 'intuition' employed in these debates, and argues for the philosophical relevance of intuitions in an aetiological sense taken from cognitive psychology. On this basis, it advocates a new kind of methodological naturalism which it finds implicit, for instance, in the warrant project in experimental philosophy: a meta-philosophical naturalism that promotes the use of scientific methods in meta-philosophical investigations. This 'higher-order' naturalism is consistent with both methodological (...)
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  6. added 2015-07-01
    Porto André (2015). Semantical Mutation, Algorithms and Programs. Dissertatio:44-76.
    This article offers an explanation of perhaps Wittgenstein’s strangest and least intuitive thesis – the semantical mutation thesis – according to which one can never answer a mathematical conjecture because the new proof alters the very meanings of the terms involved in the original question. Instead of basing our justification on the distinction between mere calculation and proofs of isolated propositions, characteristic of Wittgenstein’s intermediary period, we generalize it to include conjectures involving effective procedures as well.
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  7. added 2015-07-01
    Taylor Murphy (2015). Experimental Philosophy: 1935-1965. In Tania Lombrozo, Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy. Oxford University Press 325-368.
    In the heyday of linguistic philosophy an experimental philosophy movement was born, and this chapter tells its story, both in its historical and philosophical context and as it is connected to controversies about experimental philosophy today. From its humble beginnings at the Vienna Circle, the movement matured into a vibrant research program at Oslo, and sought adventure at Berkeley thereafter. The harsh and uncharitable reaction it met is surprising but understandable in light of disciplinary tensions and the legacy of antipsychologism—sentiments (...)
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  8. added 2015-06-27
    Raji C. Steineck (2014). Kritik der symbolischen Formen I: Symbolische Form und Funktion. Frommann-Holzboog.
    Philosophy now finds itself in a multipolar world, defined by global commercial, scientific and cultural exchange. At any given point in this world, a multitude of norms, traditions, and habits come together in many ways. ›The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms‹ developed by E. Cassirer offers many insights that help to understand the fabric of such a world, but it needs to be revised and critically developed. This book seeks to extract the essential insights of Cassirer concerning the key function of (...)
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  9. added 2015-06-25
    Lajos L. Brons (2015). Anarchism as Metaphilosophy. The Science of Mind 53:139-158.
    Philosophy once started as the critical reflection on relatively ordinary human concerns. Increasing specialization has moved the discipline farther and farther away from these concerns, however, undermining its relevance outside the academy, but has also resulting in an ever increasing fragmentation. This fragmentation has further divided the field into a large number of esoteric communities that hardly understand each other. "Further divided", because philosophy was already divided into schools and traditions that seem to speak mutually unintelligible languages. In addition to (...)
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  10. added 2015-06-19
    Bence Nanay (2015). Experimental Philosophy and Naturalism. In E. Fischer & J. Collins (eds.), Experimental Philosophy, Rationalism and Naturalism. Rethinking Philosophical Method. Routledge 222-239.
    The aim of this paper is to argue that there has been some mismatch between the naturalist rhetoric of experimental philosophy and its actual practice: experimental philosophy is not necessarily, and not even paradigmatically, a naturalistic enterprise. To substantiate this claim, a case study is given for what genuinely naturalist experimental philosophy would look like.
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  11. added 2015-06-18
    Jana Samland & Michael Waldmann (forthcoming). Highlighting the Causal Meaning of Causal Test Questions in Contexts of Norm Violations. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.
    Experiments have shown that prescriptive norms often influence causal inferences. The reason for this effect is still not clear. One problem of the studies is that the term ‘cause’ in the test questions is ambiguous and can refer to both the causal mechanism and the agent’s accountability. Possibly subjects interpreted the causal test question as a request to assess accountability rather than causality. Scenarios that put more stress on the causal mechanism should therefore yield no norm effect. Consequently, Experiment 1 (...)
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  12. added 2015-06-17
    Joachim Horvath (forthcoming). Conceptual Analysis and Natural Kinds: The Case of Knowledge. Synthese:1-18.
    There is a line of reasoning in metaepistemology that is congenial to naturalism and hard to resist, yet ultimately misguided: that knowledge might be a natural kind, and that this would undermine the use of conceptual analysis in the theory of knowledge. In this paper, I first bring out various problems with Hilary Kornblith’s argument from the causal–explanatory indispensability of knowledge to the natural kindhood of knowledge. I then criticize the argument from the natural kindhood of knowledge against the method (...)
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  13. added 2015-06-10
    Robert M. Ellis (2015). Middle Way Philosophy 4: The Integration of Belief. Lulu.
    This fourth volume of the Middle Way Philosophy series uses cognitive psychology and balanced sceptical philosophy to explain both how we get stuck in dogmas, and how provisionality is possible. It is argued that we can make progress both in avoiding delusions and developing wisdom not by finding ‘truth’ or employing ‘rationality’, but rather through awareness of our assumptions. We need not ultimately true beliefs (as is often assumed), but judgements that are more adequate to each new set of conditions. (...)
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  14. added 2015-06-09
    Brian Fiala, Adam Arico & Shaun Nichols (2014). You, Robot. In Edouard Machery (ed.), Current Controversies in Experimental Philosophy. Routledge 31-47.
    How do people think about the mental states of robots? Experimental philosophers have developed various models aiming to specify the factors that drive people's attributions of mental states to robots. Here we report on a new experiment involving robots, the results of which tell against competing models. We advocate a view on which attributions of mental states to robots are driven by the same dual-process architecture that subserves attributions of mental states more generally. In support of this view, we leverage (...)
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  15. added 2015-06-07
    Knut Vuong Nguyen, GNOSEOLOGY: In Relation to Truth, Knowledge and Metaphysics.
    A short introduction on the problem of knowledge, and the problems treated by modern philosophy, in relation to truth and metaphysics.
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  16. added 2015-05-22
    John Corcoran (2009). Sentence, Proposition, Judgment, Statement, and Fact: Speaking About the Written English Used in Logic. In W. A. Carnielli (ed.), The Many Sides of Logic. College Publications 71-103.
    The five English words—sentence, proposition, judgment, statement, and fact—are central to coherent discussion in logic. However, each is ambiguous in that logicians use each with multiple normal meanings. Several of their meanings are vague in the sense of admitting borderline cases. In the course of displaying and describing the phenomena discussed using these words, this paper juxtaposes, distinguishes, and analyzes several senses of these and related words, focusing on a constellation of recommended senses. One of the purposes of this paper (...)
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  17. added 2015-05-19
    Viatcheslav Vetrov (2015). Instrument Metapher: Das Guanzhuibian Im Licht der Manuskriptforschung (English Summary). LIT.
  18. added 2015-05-19
    Anton Ford (2015). The Arithmetic of Intention. American Philosophical Quarterly 52 (2):129-143.
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  19. added 2015-05-15
    Thomas J. Donahue & Paulina Ochoa Espejo (forthcoming). The Analytical–Continental Divide: Styles of Dealing with Problems. European Journal of Political Theory:1474885115585324.
    What today divides analytical from Continental philosophy? This paper argues that the present divide is not what it once was. Today, the divide concerns the styles in which philosophers deal with intellectual problems: solving them, pressing them, resolving them, or dissolving them. Using ‘the boundary problem’, or ‘the democratic paradox’, as an example, we argue for two theses. First, the difference between most analytical and most Continental philosophers today is that Continental philosophers find intelligible two styles of dealing with problems (...)
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  20. added 2015-05-15
    Nat Hansen, Experimental Philosophy of Language. Oxford Handbooks Online.
    Experimental philosophy of language uses experimental methods developed in the cognitive sciences to investigate topics of interest to philosophers of language. This article describes the methodological background for the development of experimental approaches to topics in philosophy of language, distinguishes negative and positive projects in experimental philosophy of language, and evaluates experimental work on the reference of proper names and natural kind terms. The reliability of expert judgments vs. the judgments of ordinary speakers, the role that ambiguity plays in influencing (...)
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  21. added 2015-05-14
    Danny Frederick, A Regimented and Concise Exposition of Karl Popper’s Critical Rationalist Epistemology.
  22. added 2015-05-12
    Florian Cova (forthcoming). The Folk Concept of Intentional Action: Empirical Approaches. In Wesley Buckwalter & Justin Sytsma (eds.), Blackwell Companion to Experimental Philosophy.
    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the experimental philosophy of action, focusing on the various different accounts of the Knobe Effect.
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  23. added 2015-05-08
    Jonathan Andy Tapsell (2014). Models of Philosophical Thought Experimentation. Dissertation, Australian National University
    The practice of thought experimentation plays a central role in contemporary philosophical methodology. Many philosophers rely on thought experimentation as their primary and even sole procedure for testing theories about the natures of properties and relations. This test procedure involves entertaining hypothetical cases in imaginative thought and then undergoing intuitions about the distribution of properties and relations in them. A theory’s comporting with an intuition is treated as evidence in favour of it; but a clash is treated as evidence against (...)
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  24. added 2015-05-07
    Daniel A. Wilkenfeld, Dillon Plunkett & Tania Lombrozo (forthcoming). Depth and Deference: When and Why We Attribute Understanding. Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    Four experiments investigate the folk concept of “understanding,” in particular when and why it is deployed differently from the concept of knowledge. We argue for the positions that people have higher demands with respect to explanatory depth when it comes to attributing understanding, and that this is true, in part, because understanding attributions play a functional role in identifying experts who should be heeded with respect to the general field in question. These claims are supported by our findings that people (...)
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  25. added 2015-05-06
    Bryan Frances (forthcoming). Worrisome Skepticism About Philosophy. Episteme.
    A new kind of skepticism about philosophy is articulated and argued for. The key premise is the claim that many of us are well aware that in the past we failed to have good responses to substantive objections to our philosophical beliefs. The conclusion is disjunctive: either we are irrational in sticking with our philosophical beliefs, or we commit some other epistemic sin in having those beliefs.
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  26. added 2015-05-04
    Dustin Stokes (forthcoming). Imagination and Creativity. In Amy Kind (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of the Imagination. Routledge
    This paper surveys historical and recent philosophical discussions of the relations between imagination and creativity. In the first two sections, it covers two insufficiently studied analyses of the creative imagination, that of Kant and Sartre, respectively. The next section discusses imagination and its role in scientific discovery, with particular emphasis on the writings of Michael Polanyi, and on thought experiments and experimental design. The final section offers a brief discussion of some very recent work done on conceptual relations between imagination (...)
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  27. added 2015-04-29
    Joshua Rayman (2014). Crossing the Epistemological Divide: Foucault, Barthes, and Neo-Kantianism. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (2):217-40.
    The schism between ‘ordinary’ and scientific perception and knowledge implies that we lack any total or systematic means of describing the world or identifying any framework-independent reality. Philosophers as diverse as Kant, Putnam, Strawson, Barthes, and Foucault have attempted to overcome this epistemological divide by constructing a unified, continuous theory of knowledge capable of accounting simultaneously for an allegedly primitive, unreflective, unmediated view of the world and an abstract, highly technical, scientific product. Rather than identifying analytic and continental epistemologies, adverting (...)
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