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Metaphilosophy

Edited by Jonathan Ichikawa (University of British Columbia)
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  1. added 2016-06-25
    Anthony Vincent Fernandez (forthcoming). The Subject Matter of Phenomenological Research: Existentials, Modes, and Prejudices. Synthese:1-20.
    In this essay I address the question, “What is the subject matter of phenomenological research?” I argue that in spite of the increasing popularity of phenomenology, the answers to this question have been brief and cursory. As a result, contemporary phenomenologists lack a clear framework within which to articulate the aims and results of their research, and cannot easily engage each other in constructive and critical discourse. Examining the literature on phenomenology’s identity, I show how the question of phenomenology’s subject (...)
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  2. added 2016-06-25
    Juliano Santos do Carmo & Eduardo Ferreira das Neves Filho (2015). Wittgenstein: Uma Solução Fundacionista ao Problema do Regresso Epistêmico. Revista Dissertatio de Filosofia:109-127.
    As notas que compõem a obra Da Certeza (Über Gewissheit) expressam nitidamente a preocupação de Ludwig Wittgenstein com os problemas clássicos da epistemologia, em especial o uso dos termos epistêmicos tradicionais e os erros costumeiros dos filósofos que negligenciam suas profundas estruturas gramaticais. Em diversas passagens é fácil observar a tentativa de esclarecer os erros de realistas, idealistas e céticos no que diz respeito às nossas alegações ordinárias de conhecimento em contextos céticos moderados. A questão do ceticismo sobre a justificação (...)
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  3. added 2016-06-25
    Juliano Santos do Carmo, Eduardo Ferreira das Neves Filho, Alexandre Noronha Machado, Darlei Dall'Agnol, Janyne Satler, João Vergílio Gallerani Cuter, Jonadas Techio, Rogério Saucedo & Victor Krebs (2014). Wittgenstein: Notas Sobre Lógica, Pensamento e Certeza. NEPFIL Online | Dissertatio's Series of Philosophy.
    O objetivo desta publicação é incentivar a produção filosófica de excelência por parte de pesquisadores notadamente influenciados pela filosofia de Wittgenstein e cujos temas possam suscitar um debate aprofundado. Além de desafiar o empreendimento filosófico contemporâneo, os temas aqui apresentados abordam questões que muitas vezes estão além daquelas consideradas por Wittgenstein em seu tempo. O leitor encontrará neste volume questões relacionadas ao ceticismo semântico e epistêmico, ao relativismo ético, às leituras literárias de Wittgenstein, ao problema das outras mentes e percepção (...)
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  4. added 2016-06-24
    David Papineau, David Macarthur, Mario De Caro, Juliano Santos do Carmo, Ruth Garret Millikan, Clademir Araldi, Flávia Carvalho, Evandro Barbosa, Fabrício Pontin, Thomas Sukopp, José Eduardo Porcher, João Hobuss, Susana Nuccetelli, Jack Ritchie, Nythamar Oliveira, Felipe Karasek, Adriano Naves de Brito, Sofia Stein & Luis Rosa (eds.) (2015). A Companion to Naturalism. NEPFIL Online | Dissertatio's Series of Philosophy.
    Offering a engaging and accessible portrait of the current state of the field, A Companion to Naturaslim shows students how to think about the relation between Philosophy and Science, and why is both essencial and fascinating to do so. All the authors in this collection reconsider the core questions in Philosophical Naturalism in light of the challenges raised in Contemporary Philosophy. They explore how philosophical questions are connected to vigorous current debates - including complex questions about metaphysics, semantics, religion, intentionality, (...)
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  5. added 2016-06-22
    Marcus McGahhey & Neil Van Leeuwen (forthcoming). Interpreting Intuitions. In Julie Kirsch Patrizia Pedrini (ed.), Third-Person Self-Knowledge, Self-Interpretation, and Narrative. Springer
    We argue that many intuitions do not have conscious propositional contents. In particular, many of the intuitions had in response to philosophical thought experiments, like Gettier cases, do not have such contents. They are more like hunches, urgings, murky feelings, and twinges. Our view thus goes against the received view of intuitions in philosophy, which we call Mainstream Propositionalism. Our positive view is that many thought-experimental intuitions are conscious, spontaneous, non-theoretical, non-propositional psychological states that often motivate belief revision, but they (...)
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  6. added 2016-06-22
    Daniel Cohnitz (2006). Gedankenexperimente in der Philosophie. Mentis.
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  7. added 2016-06-21
    Stephen Biggs & Jessica Wilson (2016). The a Priority of Abduction. Philosophical Studies:1-24.
    Here we challenge the orthodoxy according to which abduction is an a posteriori mode of inference. We start by providing a case study illustrating how abduction can justify a philosophical claim not justifiable by empirical evidence alone. While many grant abduction's epistemic value, nearly all assume that abductive justification is a posteriori, on grounds that our belief in abduction's epistemic value depends on empirical evidence about how the world contingently is. Contra this assumption, we argue, first, that our belief in (...)
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  8. added 2016-06-15
    Fabian Dorsch (2011). The Aesthetic Relevance of Empirical Findings. Kongress-Akten der Deutschen Gesellschaft Für Ästhetik 2:1-21.
    Empirical findings may be relevant for aesthetic evaluation in at least two ways. First — within criticism — they may help us to identify the aesthetic value of objects. Second— whithin philosophy — they may help us to decide which theory of aesthetic value and evaluation to prefer. In this paper, I address both kinds of relevance. My focus is thereby on empirical evidence gathered, not by means of first-personal experiences, but by means of third-personal scientific investigations of individual artworks (...)
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  9. added 2016-06-14
    Fabian Dorsch (2014). The Limits of Aesthetic Empiricism. In Gregory Currie, Matthew Kieran, Aaron Meskin & Jon Robson (eds.), Aesthetics and the Sciences of Mind. Oxford University Press 75-100.
    Empirical findings may be relevant for aesthetic evaluation in at least two ways. First ‒‒ within criticism ‒ they may help us to identify the aesthetic value of objects. Second ‒ whithin philosophy ‒ they may help us to decide which theory of aesthetic value and evaluation to prefer. In this paper, I address both kinds of relevance. My focus is thereby on empirical evidence gathered, not by means of first-personal experiences, but by means of third-personal scientific investigations of individual (...)
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  10. added 2016-06-13
    Michael Starks, A Master Wittgensteinian Surveys Human Nature--A Review of Peter Hacker 'Human Nature-the Categorial Framework' (2012).
    Materialism, reductionism, behaviorism, functionalism, dynamic systems theory and computationalism are popular views, but they were shown by Wittgenstein to be incoherent. The study of behavior encompasses all of human life but behavior is largely automatic and unconscious and even the conscious part, mostly expressed in language (which Wittgenstein equates with the mind), is not perspicuous, so it is critical to have a framework which Searle calls the Logical Structure of Rationality (LSR) and I call the Descriptive Psychology of Higher Order (...)
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  11. added 2016-06-13
    Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). The Folk Psychological Roots of Free Will. In David Rose (ed.), Experimental Metaphysics. Bloomsbury
    First, what are the psychological roots of our concept of free will? Second, how might progress on the first question contribute to progress regarding normative debates about the proper concept of free will? In sections two and three I address the first question. Section two discusses recent work in the experimental philosophy of free will, and motivates the study I report in section three. Section four reflects on the second question in light of the reported results. To preview, the results (...)
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  12. added 2016-06-10
    Matthew Fisher, Joshua Knobe, Brent Strickland & Frank C. Keil (2016). The Influence of Social Interaction on Intuitions of Objectivity and Subjectivity. Cognitive Science 40 (4):n/a-n/a.
    We present experimental evidence that people's modes of social interaction influence their construal of truth. Participants who engaged in cooperative interactions were less inclined to agree that there was an objective truth about that topic than were those who engaged in a competitive interaction. Follow-up experiments ruled out alternative explanations and indicated that the changes in objectivity are explained by argumentative mindsets: When people are in cooperative arguments, they see the truth as more subjective. These findings can help inform research (...)
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  13. added 2016-06-09
    Michael J. Shaffer (forthcoming). “Filling In”, Thought Experiments and Intuitions. Episteme.
    Recently Timothy Williamson (2007) has argued that characterizations of the standard (i.e. intuition-based) philosophical practice of philosophical analysis are misguided because of the erroneous manner in which this practice has been understood. In doing so he implies that experimental critiques of the reliability of intuition are based on this misunderstanding of philosophical methodology and so have little or no bearing on actual philosophical practice or results. His main point is that the orthodox understanding of philosophical methodology is incorrect in that (...)
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  14. added 2016-06-05
    Vladimir Zeman (1997). Hermann Cohen's Concept of the Transcendental Method. In Tom Rockmore & Vladimir Zeman (eds.), Transcendental Philosophy and Everyday Experience. Humanities Press 111-124.
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  15. added 2016-06-04
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Some Thoughts on How to Do Comparative Philosophy: Comments on David Kim (Tentative Title). Confluence: Online Journal of World Philosophies 7.
    Part of a symposium on the question, 'Are certain epistemological frameworks more congenial to comparative philosophy?'. The symposium is anchored by a contribution from Professor David Haekwon Kim, with me providing some critical reflections on it.
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  16. added 2016-06-03
    James Andow (forthcoming). Abduction by Philosophers: Reorienting Philosophical Methodology. Metaphilosophy.
    A reorientation is needed in methodological debate about the role of intuitions in philosophy. Methodological debate has lost sight of the reason why it makes sense to focus on questions about intuitions when thinking about the methods or epistemology of philosophy. The problem is an approach to methodology which gives a near exclusive focus to questions about some evidential role that intuitions may or may not play in philosophers' arguments. A new approach is needed. Approaching methodological questions about the role (...)
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  17. added 2016-06-01
    John McGuire (forthcoming). Can One Decide to Do Something Without Forming an Intention to Do It? Analysis:anw036.
    According to the received view of practical decisions, ‘deciding to X’ is synonymous with ‘forming an intention to X’. In this article, I argue against the received view on the basis of both experimental evidence and theoretical considerations. The evidence concerns a case involving a side-effect action in which people tend to agree that an agent decided to X yet disagree that the agent had a corresponding intention to X. Additionally, I explain why one should expect decisions and intentions to (...)
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  18. added 2016-05-31
    Justin Khoo (forthcoming). The Disagreement Challenge to Contextualism. In Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Contextualism.
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  19. added 2016-05-27
    Sem de Maagt (forthcoming). Reflective Equilibrium and Moral Objectivity. Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Ever since the introduction of reflective equilibrium in ethics, it has been argued that reflective equilibrium either leads to moral relativism, or that it turns out to be a form of intuitionism in disguise. Despite these criticisms, reflective equilibrium remains the most dominant method of moral justification in ethics. In this paper, I therefore critically examine the most recent attempts to defend the method of reflective equilibrium against these objections. Defenders of reflective equilibrium typically respond to the objections by saying (...)
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  20. added 2016-05-26
    Pietro Gori (2016). Il pragmatismo di Nietzsche. Saggi sul pensiero prospettivistico. Mimesis.
    Il pensiero prospettivistico del Nietzsche maturo sorge come reazione alla «fede in un valore metafisico e in sé della verità» che, a partire da Platone, ha animato la cultura occidentale. Agli occhi di Nietzsche, tale fede si trova all’origine del processo di degenerazione antropologica che ha caratterizzato la morale europea, ed è pertanto su di essa che occorre operare criticamente se si vuole avviare un contromovimento in grado di permettere all’umanità di orientarsi nei meandri labirintici del nichilismo. Attraverso una contestualizzazione (...)
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  21. added 2016-05-26
    Gordon Pennycook, Robert M. Ross, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2016). Atheists and Agnostics Are More Reflective Than Religious Believers: Four Empirical Studies and a Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 11 (4):e0153039.
    Individual differences in the mere willingness to think analytically has been shown to predict religious disbelief. Recently, however, it has been argued that analytic thinkers are not actually less religious; rather, the putative association may be a result of religiosity typically being measured after analytic thinking (an order effect). In light of this possibility, we report four studies in which a negative correlation between religious belief and performance on analytic thinking measures is found when religious belief is measured in a (...)
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  22. added 2016-05-23
    Alberto G. Urquidez (forthcoming). Jorge L. A. Garcia and the Ordinary Use of 'Racist Belief'. Social Theory and Practice.
    This paper argues that philosophical explanations of the ordinary use of 'racist' and 'racism' should not proceed on the presupposition that there is one privileged use of the target term (e.g., 'racist belief,' 'racist intention,' and so forth). Philosophers should instead 'look and see' how the target term is used across contexts of use. I develop this objection in respect to Jorge L. A. Garcia's highly influential account of racism as racial disregard. His volitional theory is rejected on the grounds (...)
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  23. added 2016-05-20
    James Tartaglia (2016). Philosophy in a Meaningless Life. Bloomsbury.
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  24. added 2016-05-17
    Tabea Hirzel (2015). Principles of Liberty: A Design-Based Research on Liberty as A Priori Constitutive Principle of the Social in the Swiss Nation Story. Dissertation, SCM University, Zug, Switzerland
    One of the still unsolved problems in liberal anarchism is a definition of social constituency in positive terms. Partially, this had been solved by the advancements of liberal discourse ethics. These approaches, built on praxeology as a universal framework for social formation, are detached from the need of any previous or external authority or rule for the discursive partners. However, the relationship between action, personal identity, and liberty within the process of a community becoming solely generated from the praxeological a (...)
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  25. added 2016-05-10
    Lascelles James, Make Me a Sanctuary.
    A philosophy of language that incorporates the manifestation of divinity shed liberally upon the psyche of humanity without violence or chaos as in that which is common to the powers and sovereignties of human beings is critical to the understanding of Holy Writ. The discourse presented here is primarily intended to foster a better general understanding of the divine directive given to Moses by Yahweh to build the wilderness sanctuary in order to objectify his majestic presence among them and draw (...)
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  26. added 2016-05-06
    Georgi Gardiner (2015). Teleologies and the Methodology of Epistemology. In David Henderson & John Greco (eds.), Epistemic Evaluation: Purposeful Epistemology. Oxford University Press 31-45.
    The teleological approach to an epistemic concept investigates it by asking questions such as ‘what is the purpose of the concept?’, ‘What role has it played in the past?’, or ‘If we imagine a society without the concept, why would they feel the need to invent it?’ The idea behind the teleological approach is that examining the function of the concept illuminates the contours of the concept itself. This approach is a relatively new development in epistemology, and as yet there (...)
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  27. added 2016-05-03
    Jonathan M. Weinberg (forthcoming). Knowledge, Noise, and Curve-Fitting: A Methodological Argument for JTB? In R. Borges, C. de Almeida & P. Klein (eds.), Explaining knowledge: new essays on the Gettier problem. Oxford
    The developing body of empirical work on the "Gettier effect" indicates that, in general, the presence of a Gettier-type structure in a case makes participants less likely to attribute knowledge in that case. But is that a sufficient reason to diverge from a JTB theory of knowledge? I argue that considerations of good model selection, and worries about noise and overfitting, should lead us to consider that a live, open question. The Gettier effect is perhaps so transient, and so sensitive (...)
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  28. added 2016-05-03
    Jonathan M. Weinberg (2016). Experimental Philosophy, Noisy Intuitions, and Messy Inferences. In Jennifer Nado (ed.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy & Philosophical Methodology. Bloomsbury
    Much discussion about experimental philosophy and philosophical methodology has been framed in terms of the reliability of intuitions, and even when it has not been about reliability per se, it has been focused on whether intuitions meet whatever conditions they need to meet to be trustworthy as evidence. But really that question cannot be answered independently from the questions, evidence for what theories arrived at by what sorts of inferences? I will contend here that not just philosophy's sources of evidence, (...)
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  29. added 2016-05-03
    Jonathan M. Weinberg (2015). The Methodological Necessity of Experimental Philosophy. Discipline Filosofiche 25:23-42.
    Must philosophers incorporate tools of experimental science into their methodological toolbox? I argue here that they must. Tallying up all the resources that are now part of standard practice in analytic philosophy, we see the problem that they do not include adequate resources for detecting and correcting for their own biases and proclivities towards error. Methodologically sufficient resources for error- detection and error-correction can only come, in part, from the deployment of specific methods from the sciences. However, we need not (...)
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  30. added 2016-04-27
    Roland Bluhm (2016). Corpus Analysis in Philosophy. In Martin Hinton (ed.), Evidence, Experiment and Argument in Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language. Peter Lang 91-109.
    The experimental philosophy movement advocates the use of empirical methods in philosophy. The methods most often discussed and in fact employed in experimental philosophy are appropriated from the experimental paradigm in psychology. But there is a variety of other (at least partly) empirical methods from various disciplines that are and others that could be used in philosophy. The paper explores the application of corpus analysis to philosophical issues. Although the method is well established in linguistics, there are only a few (...)
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  31. added 2016-04-27
    Robert William Fischer & Felipe Leon (2016). The Modal-Knowno Problem. Southwest Philosophy Review 32 (1):225-232.
  32. added 2016-04-25
    Brooke Alan Trisel (2016). Human Extinction, Narrative Ending, and Meaning of Life. Journal of Philosophy of Life 6 (1):1-22.
    Some people think that the inevitability of human extinction renders life meaningless. Joshua Seachris has argued that naturalism can be conceptualized as a meta-narrative and that it narrates across important questions of human life, including what is the meaning of life and how life will end. How a narrative ends is important, Seachris argues. In the absence of God, and with knowledge that human extinction is a certainty, is there any way that humanity could be meaningful and have a good (...)
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  33. added 2016-04-22
    Desh Raj Sirswal, Relevance of Substance Theory of Charvaka in Present Times.
    भारतीय चिन्तन परम्परा में पंच-महाभूत का बहुत महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है. भारतीय प्राचीन ग्रन्थों से लेकर अब तक विश्व की सरंचना सम्बन्धी सिद्धांतों में पंच-महाभूत सबसे स्वीकार्य सिद्धांत माना जाता रहा है. ये पांच तत्व हैं: पृथ्वी, जल, वायु, अग्नि और आकाश. परन्तु चार्वाक जैसे दार्शनिक और आर्यभट्ट (पांचवीं शताब्दी) जैसे विज्ञानी यह कहते आ रहे हैं की तत्व पांच नहीं, चार हैं. इन लोगों ने आकाश को स्वतंत्र तत्व के रूप में स्वीकर नहीं किया. चार्वाक का यह भी विचार रहा (...)
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  34. added 2016-04-14
    James Andow (2016). Thin, Fine and with Sensitivity: A Metamethodology of Intuitions. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):105-125.
    Do philosophers use intuitions? Should philosophers use intuitions? Can philosophical methods be improved upon? In order to answer these questions we need to have some idea of how we should go about answering them. I defend a way of going about methodology of intuitions: a metamethodology. I claim the following: we should approach methodological questions about intuitions with a thin conception of intuitions in mind; we should carve intuitions finely; and, we should carve to a grain to which we are (...)
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  35. added 2016-04-11
    Gregory Wheeler (forthcoming). Machine Epistemology and Big Data. In Lee McIntyre & Alex Rosenburg (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science. Routledge
  36. added 2016-04-07
    Joseph P. Li Vecchi (2014). Logical Objectivity and Second Intentions. Angelicum 91 (4).
    The Fregean tradition promotes a conception of logic as being independent from all psychological acts of the knowing subject. Without questioning logic's status as a paradigm of objectivity the present essay rejects this conception, both on logical grounds and in light of the scholastic theory of intentionality. Finding fault with two key doctrines of the analytic movement, the linguistic turn and anti-psychologism, it reinterprets them to exclude only psychological acts that engender subjective interpretive variability. It then describes logic's dependence on (...)
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  37. added 2016-04-04
    Starks Michael, The Logical Structure of Philosophy, Psychology, Mind and Language as Revealed in the Writings of Wittgenstein and Searle.
    I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality (mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic (...)
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  38. added 2016-04-04
    Taraneh Javanbakht (2016). Logique floue et arborescence comme outils de modélisation des catégories en tant que prototypes. Dissertation, Master's Thesis - University of Quebec in Montreal
    La présente recherche porte sur la notion de fluctuation de la catégorisation. Pour l’essentiel, ce travail présente la modélisation des catégories, comme outils cognitifs, selon les paramètres de la logique floue. Au premier chapitre, j’analyserai le problème de la catégorisation dans les sciences cognitives. Ma présentation portera, dans un premier temps, sur les notions de concept et de catégorisation. Ensuite, je présenterai la théorie des prototypes de Rosch. Le deuxième chapitre est consacré à traiter des débats autour de la théorie (...)
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  39. added 2016-04-03
    H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Daniel M. T. Fessler, Simon Fitzpatrick, Michael Gurven, Joseph Henrich, Martin Kanovsky, Geoff Kushnick, Anne Pisor, Brooke A. Scelza, Stephen Stich, Chris von Rueden, Wanying Zhao & Stephen Laurence (forthcoming). Small-Scale Societies Exhibit Fundamental Variation in the Role of Intentions in Moral Judgment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Al- though these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence (...)
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  40. added 2016-04-01
    Simon Beck (2016). Technological Fictions and Personal Identity: On Ricoeur, Schechtman and Analytic Thought Experiments. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 47 (2):117-132.
    Paul Ricoeur and Marya Schechtman express grave doubts about the acceptability and informativeness of the thought-experiments employed by analytic philosophers (notably Derek Parfit) in the debate about personal identity, and for what appear to be related reasons. I consider their reasoning and argue that their reasons fail to justify their doubts. I go on to argue that, from this discussion of possible problems concerning select thought-experiments, something positive can be learned about personal identity.
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