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Metaphilosophy

Edited by Jonathan Ichikawa (University of British Columbia)
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  1. added 2016-05-26
    Gordon Pennycook, Robert M. Ross, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2016). Atheists and Agnostics Are More Reflective Than Religious Believers: Four Empirical Studies and a Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 11 (4):e0153039.
    Individual differences in the mere willingness to think analytically has been shown to predict religious disbelief. Recently, however, it has been argued that analytic thinkers are not actually less religious; rather, the putative association may be a result of religiosity typically being measured after analytic thinking (an order effect). In light of this possibility, we report four studies in which a negative correlation between religious belief and performance on analytic thinking measures is found when religious belief is measured in a (...)
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  2. added 2016-05-26
    Pietro Gori (2016). Il pragmatismo di Nietzsche. Saggi sul pensiero prospettivistico. Mimesis.
    Il pensiero prospettivistico del Nietzsche maturo sorge come reazione alla «fede in un valore metafisico e in sé della verità» che, a partire da Platone, ha animato la cultura occidentale. Agli occhi di Nietzsche, tale fede si trova all’origine del processo di degenerazione antropologica che ha caratterizzato la morale europea, ed è pertanto su di essa che occorre operare criticamente se si vuole avviare un contromovimento in grado di permettere all’umanità di orientarsi nei meandri labirintici del nichilismo. Attraverso una contestualizzazione (...)
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  3. added 2016-05-23
    Alberto G. Urquidez (forthcoming). Jorge L. A. Garcia and the Ordinary Use of 'Racist Belief'. Social Theory and Practice.
    This paper argues that philosophical explanations of the ordinary use of 'racist' and 'racism' should not proceed on the presupposition that there is one privileged use of the target term (e.g., 'racist belief,' 'racist intention,' and so forth). Philosophers should instead 'look and see' how the target term is used across contexts of use. I develop this objection in respect to Jorge L. A. Garcia's highly influential account of racism as racial disregard. His volitional theory is rejected on the grounds (...)
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  4. added 2016-05-20
    James Tartaglia (2016). Philosophy in a Meaningless Life. Bloomsbury.
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  5. added 2016-05-17
    Tabea Hirzel (2015). Principles of Liberty: A Design-Based Research on Liberty as A Priori Constitutive Principle of the Social in the Swiss Nation Story. Dissertation, SCM University, Zug, Switzerland
    One of the still unsolved problems in liberal anarchism is a definition of social constituency in positive terms. Partially, this had been solved by the advancements of liberal discourse ethics. These approaches, built on praxeology as a universal framework for social formation, are detached from the need of any previous or external authority or rule for the discursive partners. However, the relationship between action, personal identity, and liberty within the process of a community becoming solely generated from the praxeological a (...)
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  6. added 2016-05-15
    Jack Reynolds, Leesa Davis & Matthew Sharpe (2016). Philosophy, Violence, Metaphor. Sophia 55 (1):1-4.
  7. added 2016-05-10
    Lascelles James, Make Me a Sanctuary.
    A philosophy of language that incorporates the manifestation of divinity shed liberally upon the psyche of humanity without violence or chaos as in that which is common to the powers and sovereignties of human beings is critical to the understanding of Holy Writ. The discourse presented here is primarily intended to foster a better general understanding of the divine directive given to Moses by Yahweh to build the wilderness sanctuary in order to objectify his majestic presence among them and draw (...)
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  8. added 2016-05-06
    Georgi Gardiner (2015). Teleologies and the Methodology of Epistemology. In David Henderson & John Greco (eds.), Epistemic Evaluation: Purposeful Epistemology. Oxford University Press 31-45.
    The teleological approach to an epistemic concept investigates it by asking questions such as ‘what is the purpose of the concept?’, ‘What role has it played in the past?’, or ‘If we imagine a society without the concept, why would they feel the need to invent it?’ The idea behind the teleological approach is that examining the function of the concept illuminates the contours of the concept itself. This approach is a relatively new development in epistemology, and as yet there (...)
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  9. added 2016-05-03
    Jonathan M. Weinberg (forthcoming). Knowledge, Noise, and Curve-Fitting: A Methodological Argument for JTB? In R. Borges, C. de Almeida & P. Klein (eds.), Explaining knowledge: new essays on the Gettier problem. Oxford
    The developing body of empirical work on the "Gettier effect" indicates that, in general, the presence of a Gettier-type structure in a case makes participants less likely to attribute knowledge in that case. But is that a sufficient reason to diverge from a JTB theory of knowledge? I argue that considerations of good model selection, and worries about noise and overfitting, should lead us to consider that a live, open question. The Gettier effect is perhaps so transient, and (...)
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  10. added 2016-05-03
    Jonathan M. Weinberg (2016). Experimental Philosophy, Noisy Intuitions, and Messy Inferences. In Jennifer Nado (ed.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy & Philosophical Methodology. Bloomsbury
    Much discussion about experimental philosophy and philosophical methodology has been framed in terms of the reliability of intuitions, and even when it has not been about reliability per se, it has been focused on whether intuitions meet whatever conditions they need to meet to be trustworthy as evidence. But really that question cannot be answered independently from the questions, evidence for what theories arrived at by what sorts of inferences? I will contend here that not just philosophy's sources of evidence, (...)
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  11. added 2016-05-03
    Jonathan M. Weinberg (2015). The Methodological Necessity of Experimental Philosophy. Discipline Filosofiche 25:23-42.
    Must philosophers incorporate tools of experimental science into their methodological toolbox? I argue here that they must. Tallying up all the resources that are now part of standard practice in analytic philosophy, we see the problem that they do not include adequate resources for detecting and correcting for their own biases and proclivities towards error. Methodologically sufficient resources for error- detection and error-correction can only come, in part, from the deployment of specific methods from the sciences. However, we need not (...)
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  12. added 2016-04-27
    Roland Bluhm (forthcoming). A Plea for Corpus Analysis. In Martin Hinton (ed.), Evidence, Experiment and Argument in Linguistics and Philosophy of Language.
    The experimental philosophy movement advocates the use of empirical methods in philosophy. The methods most often discussed and in fact employed in experimental philosophy are appropriated from the experimental paradigm in psychology. But there is a variety of other (at least partly) empirical methods from various disciplines that are and others that could be used in philosophy. The paper explores the application of corpus analysis to philosophical issues. Although the method is well established in linguistics, there are only a few (...)
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  13. added 2016-04-27
    Felipe Leon (forthcoming). From Modal Skepticism to Modal Empiricism. In Robert William Fischer Felipe Leon (ed.), Modal Epistemology After Rationalism.
  14. added 2016-04-27
    Robert William Fischer & Felipe Leon (2016). The Modal-Knowno Problem. Southwest Philosophy Review 32 (1):225-232.
  15. added 2016-04-26
    Max Deutsch (2015). The Myth of the Intuitive. The MIT Press.
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  16. added 2016-04-25
    Brooke Alan Trisel (2016). Human Extinction, Narrative Ending, and Meaning of Life. Journal of Philosophy of Life 6 (1):1-22.
    Some people think that the inevitability of human extinction renders life meaningless. Joshua Seachris has argued that naturalism can be conceptualized as a meta-narrative and that it narrates across important questions of human life, including what is the meaning of life and how life will end. How a narrative ends is important, Seachris argues. In the absence of God, and with knowledge that human extinction is a certainty, is there any way that humanity could be meaningful and have a good (...)
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  17. added 2016-04-22
    Desh Raj Sirswal, Relevance of Substance Theory of Charvaka in Present Times.
    भारतीय चिन्तन परम्परा में पंच-महाभूत का बहुत महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है. भारतीय प्राचीन ग्रन्थों से लेकर अब तक विश्व की सरंचना सम्बन्धी सिद्धांतों में पंच-महाभूत सबसे स्वीकार्य सिद्धांत माना जाता रहा है. ये पांच तत्व हैं: पृथ्वी, जल, वायु, अग्नि और आकाश. परन्तु चार्वाक जैसे दार्शनिक और आर्यभट्ट (पांचवीं शताब्दी) जैसे विज्ञानी यह कहते आ रहे हैं की तत्व पांच नहीं, चार हैं. इन लोगों ने आकाश को स्वतंत्र तत्व के रूप में स्वीकर नहीं किया. चार्वाक का यह भी विचार रहा (...)
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  18. added 2016-04-14
    James Andow (2016). Thin, Fine and with Sensitivity: A Metamethodology of Intuitions. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):105-125.
    Do philosophers use intuitions? Should philosophers use intuitions? Can philosophical methods be improved upon? In order to answer these questions we need to have some idea of how we should go about answering them. I defend a way of going about methodology of intuitions: a metamethodology. I claim the following: we should approach methodological questions about intuitions with a thin conception of intuitions in mind; we should carve intuitions finely; and, we should carve to a grain to which we are (...)
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  19. added 2016-04-11
    Gregory Wheeler (forthcoming). Machine Epistemology and Big Data. In Lee McIntyre & Alex Rosenburg (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science. Routledge
  20. added 2016-04-07
    Joseph P. Li Vecchi (2014). Logical Objectivity and Second Intentions. Angelicum 91 (4).
    The Fregean tradition promotes a conception of logic as being independent from all psychological acts of the knowing subject. Without questioning logic's status as a paradigm of objectivity the present essay rejects this conception, both on logical grounds and in light of the scholastic theory of intentionality. Finding fault with two key doctrines of the analytic movement, the linguistic turn and anti-psychologism, it reinterprets them to exclude only psychological acts that engender subjective interpretive variability. It then describes logic's dependence on (...)
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  21. added 2016-04-04
    Starks Michael, The Logical Structure of Philosophy, Psychology, Mind and Language as Revealed in the Writings of Wittgenstein and Searle.
    I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality (mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic (...)
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  22. added 2016-04-04
    Taraneh Javanbakht (2016). Logique floue et arborescence comme outils de modélisation des catégories en tant que prototypes. Dissertation, Master's Thesis - University of Quebec in Montreal
    La présente recherche porte sur la notion de fluctuation de la catégorisation. Pour l’essentiel, ce travail présente la modélisation des catégories, comme outils cognitifs, selon les paramètres de la logique floue. Au premier chapitre, j’analyserai le problème de la catégorisation dans les sciences cognitives. Ma présentation portera, dans un premier temps, sur les notions de concept et de catégorisation. Ensuite, je présenterai la théorie des prototypes de Rosch. Le deuxième chapitre est consacré à traiter des débats autour de la théorie (...)
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  23. added 2016-04-03
    H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Daniel M. T. Fessler, Simon Fitzpatrick, Michael Gurven, Joseph Henrich, Martin Kanovsky, Geoff Kushnick, Anne Pisor, Brooke A. Scelza, Stephen Stich, Chris von Rueden, Wanying Zhao & Stephen Laurence (forthcoming). Small-Scale Societies Exhibit Fundamental Variation in the Role of Intentions in Moral Judgment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Al- though these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence (...)
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  24. added 2016-04-01
    Simon Beck (2016). Technological Fictions and Personal Identity: On Ricoeur, Schechtman and Analytic Thought Experiments. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 47 (2):117-132.
    Paul Ricoeur and Marya Schechtman express grave doubts about the acceptability and informativeness of the thought-experiments employed by analytic philosophers (notably Derek Parfit) in the debate about personal identity, and for what appear to be related reasons. I consider their reasoning and argue that their reasons fail to justify their doubts. I go on to argue that, from this discussion of possible problems concerning select thought-experiments, something positive can be learned about personal identity.
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  25. added 2016-03-25
    Vitor Manuel Dinis Pereira (2015). Occipital and Left Temporal EEG Correlates of Phenomenal Consciousness. In Quoc Nam Tran & Hamid Arabnia (eds.), Emerging Trends in Computational Biology, Bioinformatics, and Systems Biology. Elsevier 335–354.
    Phenomenal consciousness is “what is it like to be” a mental state: the stinging sharpness of a pin prick, the taste of chocolate or the vibrant red of a fire truck. “Access consciousness” refers to the possibility of a mental state to be available to the rest of the cognitive system (to be available, for example, to our production system language like when we try to describe the stinging sharpness of a pin prick, the taste of chocolate or the vibrant (...)
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  26. added 2016-03-24
    Patrick R. Pasha, Got a Problem?; The Philosophy of Problem Solving.
    Drawing on philosophers from Aristotle to Kuhn, this book builds a modern account of human purpose and explores the role of problem solving in life. This is what the critical armchair philosopher has been waiting for! -/- The author dissects the relationship between problem solving and a wide array of topics from technology to sexuality with a myriad of clever thought experiments and hard facts. Analytic philosophy is seen written in an exciting new style. You will never think of problems (...)
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  27. added 2016-03-22
    Nicholas Maxwell (2014). How Universities Can Help Create a Wiser World. Times Higher Education , No. 21 P. 30 (2136):30.
    The crisis of our times is that we have science without wisdom. Modern science and technology lead to modern industry and agriculture which in turn lead to all the great benefits of the modern world and to the global crises we face, from population growth to climate change. The fault lies, not with science, but with science dissociated from a more fundamental concern with problems of living. We urgently need to bring about a revolution in academia so that the fundamental (...)
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  28. added 2016-03-21
    Tracy Llanera (forthcoming). Coming to Grips with Realism. [REVIEW] Critical Horizons: A Journal of Philosophy and Social Theory.
    Retrieving Realism renders the joint philosophical goals of Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Taylor into what is probably their final and most concise form. It has two main objectives: first, it aims to deconstruct the mediationalism that undergirds Western philosophy, and second, it endorses contact theory, or embodied/embedded coping, as an alternative. In this essay, I present the book’s most salient themes and reveal areas that are ripe for further philosophical consideration. I also direct the reader to the work’s genuine ontological (...)
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  29. added 2016-03-19
    Michael Starks, The Foundation Stone of Psychology and Philosophy--A Critical Review of 'On Certainty' by Ludwig Wittgenstein.
    A critical review of Wittgenstein's 'On Certainty' which he wrote in 1950-51 and was first published in 1969. Most of the review is spent presenting a modern framework for philosophy(the descriptive psychology of higher order thought) and positioning the work of Wittgenstein and John Searle in this framework and relative to the work of others. It is suggested that this book can be regarded as the foundation stone of psychology and philosophy as it was the first to describe the two (...)
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  30. added 2016-03-18
    Paul Katsafanas (2016). Naturalism, Minimalism, and the Scope of Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology. In Kristin Gjesdal (ed.), Debates in Nineteenth-Century European Philosophy. Routledge 326-338.
    Bernard Williams’ “Nietzsche’s Minimalist Moral Psychology”, replete with provocative and insightful claims, has been extremely influential in Nietzsche scholarship. In the two decades since its publication, much of the most interesting and philosophically sophisticated work on Nietzsche has focused on exactly the topics that Williams addresses: Nietzsche’s moral psychology, his account of action, his naturalistic commitments, and the way in which these topics interact with his critique of traditional morality. While Williams’ pronouncements on these topics are brief and (...)
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  31. added 2016-03-18
    Duško Prelević (2014). Misaoni eksperimenti i argumenti na osnovu zamislivosti. Treći Program 161:71–81.
    U radu se istražuju sličnosti i razlike između misaoni eksperimenata i argumenata na osnovu zamislivosti. Brani se teza da intuicije igraju ključnu ulogu u opravdavanju misaonih eksperimenata, dok sa argumentima na osnovu zamislivosti to nije slučaj, zato što je zamislivost, na kojoj su ovi argumenti zasnovani, različita od intuicija i od njih nezavisna. Na bazi ovog uvida ukratko se prikazuju i različite vrste izazova s kojima se suočavaju misaoni ekspeimenti i argumenti na osnovu zamislivosti.
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  32. added 2016-03-17
    Thomas Schramme (2016). What a Naturalist Theory of Illness Should Be. In Elodie Giroux (ed.), Naturalism in Philosophy of Health: Issues and Implications. Springer
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  33. added 2016-03-17
    Thomas Schramme (2015). Die Formung des Menschlichen Lebens: Nachdenken Über Mills Idee der Lebensexperimente. PoLAR 18:51-55.
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  34. added 2016-03-16
    James Andow (forthcoming). Do Non-Philosophers Think Epistemic Consequentialism is Counterintuitive? Synthese:1-13.
    Direct epistemic consequentialism is the idea that X is epistemically permissible iff X maximizes epistemic value. It has received lots of attention in recent years and is widely accepted by philosophers to have counterintuitive implications. There are various reasons one might suspect that the relevant intuitions will not be widely shared among non-philosophers. This paper presents an initial empirical study of ordinary intuitions. The results of two experiments demonstrate that the counterintuitiveness of epistemic consequentialism is more than a philosophers' worry---the (...)
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  35. added 2016-03-14
    Jo-Jo Koo (2007). The Possibility of Philosophical Anthropology. In Georg W. Bertram, Robin Celikates, Christophe Laudou & David Lauer (eds.), Socialité et reconnaissance: Grammaires de l’humain. L'Harmattan 105-121.
    Is a conception of human nature still possible or even desirable in light of the “postmetaphysical sensibilities” of our time? Furthermore, can philosophy make any contribution towards the articulation of a tenable conception of human nature given this current intellectual climate? I will argue in this paper that affirmative answers can be given to both of these questions. Section I rehearses briefly some of the difficulties and even dangers involved in working out any conception of human nature at all, let (...)
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  36. added 2016-03-14
    John Corcoran (1978-9). CORCORAN's THUMBNAIL REVIEWS OF OPPOSING PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC BOOKS. MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS 56:98-9.
    PUTNAM has made highly regarded contributions to mathematics, to philosophy of logic and to philosophy of science, and in this book he brings his ideas in these three areas to bear on the traditional philosophic problem of materialism versus (objective) idealism. The book assumes that contemporary science (mathematical and physical) is largely correct as far as it goes, or at least that it is rational to believe in it. The main thesis of the book is that consistent acceptance of contemporary (...)
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  37. added 2016-03-13
    Fergal McHugh (2016). Informality and Philosophy: A Response to Margolis. Contemporary Pragmatism 13 (1).
    Joseph Margolis argues that philosophy must acknowledge its radical informality. I provide a brief account of what Margolis means by informality and its consequences for the practice of a pragmatist philosophy. I discuss his criticism of Robert Brandom's analytic pragmatism on the grounds that it overemphasizes the potential gains of a formal approach. I highlight two concerns with Margolis’ insistence on informality recommending a reduced emphasis on the consequences of informality for the pragmatist philosopher.
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  38. added 2016-03-12
    Terence Rajivan Edward, When Can We Know Our Assumptions?
    The expression “The owl of Minerva flies at dusk” is used to convey that philosophers are only able to identify the assumptions that are made within a period of history, a period of which they are part, when that period is coming to an end and those assumptions will soon no longer be made. In this paper, I support a rival view according to which those involved in a historical period can know their assumptions earlier, given appropriate (...)
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  39. added 2016-03-09
    Samuel Bagg (2016). Between Critical and Normative Theory. Political Research Quarterly 69:1-12.
    Over the last decade, a call for greater “realism” in political theory has challenged the goals and methods that are implicit in much contemporary “normative” theory. However, realists have yet to produce a convincing alternative research program that is “constructive” rather than primarily “critical” in nature. I argue that given their common wariness of a devotion to abstract principles, realists should consider adopting John Dewey’s vision of theoretical expertise as an expansive kind of prediction that engages all of our historical, (...)
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  40. added 2016-03-08
    Cecilea Mun (forthcoming). Natural Kinds, Social Constructions, and Ordinary Language: Clarifying the Crisis in the Science of Emotion. Journal of Social Ontology.
    I argue for the importance of clarifying the distinction between metaphysical, semantic, and meta-semantic concerns regarding what Emotion is. This allows us to see that those involved in the Scientific Emotion Project and the Folk Emotion Project are in fact involved in the same project – the Science of Emotion. It also helps us understand why questions regarding the natural kind status of Emotion, as well as answers to questions regarding the value of ordinary language emotion terms or concepts to (...)
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  41. added 2016-03-04
    Tuomas E. Tahko & Matteo Morganti (forthcoming). Moderately Naturalistic Metaphysics. Synthese:1-24.
    The present paper discusses different approaches to metaphysics and defends a specific, non-deflationary approach that nevertheless qualifies as scientifically-grounded and, consequently, as acceptable from the naturalistic viewpoint. By critically assessing some recent work on science and metaphysics, we argue that such a sophisticated form of naturalism, which preserves the autonomy of metaphysics as an a priori enterprise yet pays due attention to the indications coming from our best science, is not only workable but recommended.
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  42. added 2016-03-02
    James Andow (forthcoming). Qualitative Tools & Experimental Philosophy. Philosophical Psychology.
    Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, freedom, etc. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide (...)
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  43. added 2016-02-28
    Hallvard Lillehammer (forthcoming). Smile When You're Winning: How to Become a Cambridge Pragmatist. In Sheryl Misak Huw Price (ed.), Pragmatism in Britain in the Long Twentieth Century: Proccedings of the 2014 Dawes Hicks Symposium. British Academy
    The aim of this paper is to trace the development of a particular current of thought known under the label ‘pragmatism’ in the last part of the Twentieth century and the beginning of the Twenty-first. I address three questions about this current of thought. First, what is its actual historical development? Second, does it constitute a single, coherent, philosophical outlook? Third, in what form, if any, does it constitute an attractive philosophical outlook. In the course of addressing these questions I (...)
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